الإعْـلاَمُ بِـحُـدُودِ قَـوَائِدِ الإسْـلاَمِ ([Advice Concerning the Boundaries of the Foundational Principles [Pillars] of Islam]) by Qaadī ʿIyaad

The following discussion has been taken from the book الإعْـلاَمُ  بِـحُـدُودِ  قَـوَائِدِ  الإسْـلاَمِ ([Advice Concerning the Boundaries of the Foundational Principles [Pillars] of Islam]) by Qaadī ʿIyaad.

شَرْح الْقاعِـدَةِ  الثَّانِيَةِ

(The Explanation of the Second Foundational Principle [Pillar] of Islam)

وَهِيَ  الصَّلاَة (which is prayer)  وَهِيَ  عَلَى سِتَّةِ  أَقْسَامٍ (It has six divisions):

1 -فَـرضٌ  عَـلَى الأَعْـيَانِ  (The prayers that are placed as an obligation on the individual) – وَهِيَ (are): الصًّلَوَتُ  الْـخَـمْسَةُ (the five daily prayers), وَالْـجُـمُعَةُ (and the Friday Prayer) فَـرضُ  عَـيْنٍ (which is obligatory for the individual to perform) لِأَنَّهَا بَـدَلٌ  مِـنَ  الظَّهْـرِ (because it stands in the place of the Ḍhur prayer), وَلكِنْ  لَهَا أَحْكَامٌ  تُخَالِفُهَا (but it has its own rules).

2 -فَـرضٌ  عَـلَى الْـكِفَايَـةِ  (The prayer that is placed as an obligation on the entire community) وَهِـيَ  الصًّلاَةُ  الْـجَنَازَةِ (and it is the funeral prayer);

3 –  وَسُـنَّةٌ (and Sunnah Prayers) وَهِـيَ  عَشَْـرُ  الصَّلَوَاتٍ (which are also ten):

[1] –  صًّلاَةُ  الْوِتْرِ  (Witr Prayer),

[2] and [3] –  وَالْعِيدينِ  (The Two ʿId Prayers [ʿIdu-l-Fiṭr and Idu-l-Aḍ-ḥaa]),

[4] and [5] – وَكُـسُوفِ  الشَّسِ  وَالقَمَرِ (The Prayer for the Eclipse of the Sun and the Eclipse of the  Moon),

[6] – وَالإسْـتِسقَاءِ (The prayer for Rain),

[7] –  وَرَكَْْتَى الْفَجْرِ (The Two Rakʿahs of the Fajr Prayer), وَقِـيلَ  فَـضِيلَة (and it has been said it is a Meritorious Prayer),

[8] – وَرَكْعَتَى الطَّوَاف (The Two Rakʿahs of the Circumambulation of the Kaʿbah),

[9] – وَرَكْعَتَى الإحْرَامِ (The Two Rakʿahs at the Place of Iḥraam [Mīqātu-l-Iḥraam]),

[10] – وَسُجُودِ  الْـقُرْآنِ (The Prayers in the Eleven Places of Prostration in the Qur’an);

4 – وَفَـضِيلَةٌ (and The Meritorious Prayers); وَهِـيَ  عَشَْـرُ  أَيْـضًا (which are also ten):

[1] وَرَكْـعَتَان بَـعْدَ  الْـوُضُـوءِ (two rakʿahs after performing wuduu’),

[2] وَتَـحِيَّةُ  الْـمَسْجِدِ (the prayer that is performed upon entering the masjid), وَرَكْـعَتَان (it is two rakʿahs),

[3] وَقِـيَامِ  [ شَهْـر ] رَمَـضَانَ (standing for prayer during Ramaḍaan [The Taraawih Prayer]),

[4]  وَقِـيَامُ  اللَّيلِ   (night prayers [Tahajjud]),

[5] وَأَرْبَـعُ  رَكْعَاتٍ  قَـبْلَ  الظُّهْـرِ (four rakʿahs before Ḍhur prayer),

[6] وَإِثنَانِ  بَـعْدَهَـا (two rakʿah after Ḍhur prayer),  وَرُوِيَ  أَرْبَـعُ (while some transmission mention four),

[7] وَإِثنَانِ قَـبْلَ الْـعَصْرِ (two rakʿah before ʿAsr prayer), وَرُوِيَ  أَرْبَـعُ (while some transmission mention four), وَإِثنَانِ  بَـعْدَ  الْـمَغْرِبِ

[8] (two rakʿahs after Magrib prayer, وَرُوِيَ  سِـتٌّ (while some transmission mention six) وَرُوِيَ  عِشْـرُونَ (and others mention twenty),

[9] وَالصَّلاَةُ  الضُّحَى (The Ḍuḥaa Prayer) وَهِـيَ  ثَـمَانُ  رَكْـعَاتٍ (which consist of eight rakʿahs), وَاخْـتَلاَفَـتِ  الرِّوًايَـة فِيهَا (and the transmissions differ concerning it), مِنْ  اثْنَتَيْنِ  إِلَى اثْـنَتِي  عَشْـرَةَ (from two to twelve [rakʿahs]),

[10] وَإِحْـيَاءُ  مَـا بَـيـْنَ  الْـعِشَاءَيْـنِ (Giving attention of what is between the two evening prayers [Maghrib and ʿIshaa’] – [that is to say, the performance of two rakʿahs between them has also been mentioned]).

وَقَـدْ  عَـدَّتْ  هَـاـذِهِ  [ مِـنَ ] السُّنَـنِ (All of above-mentioned can be included among the Sunnah prayers) أَيْـضًا (as well); وَتَـطَوُّعٌ (and a voluntary prayers) كُـلُّ  صَـلاَةٍ (is every prayer) تُـنُقِّلَ بِـهَا  (which has designated for it)  فِي  الأَوْقَاتِ  (times) الَّتِي  أُيِحَتِ  الصَّلاَةُ  فِيهَا (for which the [performance of the] prayer is suggested).

5 -يَـخْتَصُّ  بِـلأَسْـبَابِ  (The Prayers That Have Special Reasons for Their Performance); وَهِـيَ  عَشَْـرُ  أَيْـضًا (which are also ten):

[1] and [2] الصَّلاَةُ  عِـنْدَ  الْـخُـرُوجِ  إِلَى السَّفَرِ (the prayer performed when starting out on a journey) وَعِـنْدَ  قُـدُومِ  مِـنْهَا (and the prayer performed upon arrival),

[3] وَصَّلاَةُ  الإسْـتِخَارَةِ (the prayer for Allah’s guidance in making a decision) رَكْـعَتَانِ  (which is two rakʿaks),

[4] وَصَّلاَةُ حَاجَةِ (the prayer of the one who has a need) رَكْـعَتَانِ (which is two rakʿaks),

[5] وَصَّلاَةُ  تَسْـبِيحِ (the prayer for glorification of Allah), أَرْبَـعُ (which is four rakʿaks),

[6] وَرَكْـعَتَانِ  بَيْـنَ  الأَذَانِ  وَالإقَامَةِ (two rakʿahs performed between the adhān and the iqāmah),

[7] وَرَكْـعَتَانِ  لِـمَنْ  قُـرِّبَ  لِـلْقَتْلِ (two rakʿahs of the one who is about to be killed),

[8] وَرَكْـعَتَانِ  قَـبْلَ  الدُّعَـاءِ (two rakʿahs before the supplication [of repentance from the being on the verge of sin or unlawful action]),

[9] وَرَكْـعَتَانِ  عِـنْدَ  التَّوْبَـةِ  مِنَ  الذَّنْبِ (two rakʿaks after repenting from a sinful action) وَالاسْـتِغٌفَارِ مِـنْهُ (seeking forgiveness for it),

[10]  وَأَرْبَـعُ  رَكْـعَاتٍ (four rakʿahs) بَـعْدَ الزَّوَالِ (after the setting of the sun).

6 – مَـمْنُوعٌ (The Prohibited Prayers); وَهِـيَ  عَشَْـرُ  أَيْـضًا (which are also ten):

[1] عِـنْدَ  طُـلُوعِ  الشَّمْسِ (during the rising of the sun) وعِـنْدَ  غُـرُوبِـهَا (and the setting of it), إِلاَّ لِـمَنْ  تََذَكَّرَ  فَرْضًا (except for the one who remembers an obligatory prayer) أَوْ  نَامَ  عَنْهَا (or was asleep during the time of the prayer) أَوْ  لَـزِمَـهُ  قَـضَاؤُهُ (or he has to perform it [because the time of the prayer has passed]),

[2] وَالصَّلاَة بَـعْدَ  الصّبْحِ   (praying after Ṣubḥ Prayer) حَـتَّى تَشْرِقَ  الشَّمْسُ  (until the sun has fully risen),

[3] بَـعْدَ  الْـعَصْرِ (or after ʿAsr Prayer) حَـتَّى تُغِيبَ (until the sun has disappeared),

[4] وَبَعْدَ  طُـلُوعِ  الْفَجْرِ (after dawn has come in), إِلاَّ  رَكْـعَتَى الْفَجْـرِ   (except for the two rakʿahs of  the Fajr Prayer [Dawn Prayer]), والصّبْحِ (the two rakʿahs Ṣubḥ Prayer), أَوْ  مَـنْ  تَـرَكَ الْـوِتْـرِ (or the one who didn’t perform the Witr prayer) أَوْ  نَـامَ  (or slept) عَـنْ  حِـزْبِـهِ  (during the time he usually performs his portion) مِنَ  اللَّيْلِ (of the Night Prayer [Tahajjud]),  فَـلَهُ صَـلاَةُ  ذَلِـكَ (he [the person who missed] these prayers can perform them), مَـا لَـمْ  يُـصَلِّي الصّبْحَ (as long as he hasn’t prayed the Ṣubḥ Prayer,

[5] وَبَعْدَ  الْـجُمُعَةِ (after Jumuʿah prayer) فِـى الْـمَـسْجِـدِ (in the masjid) فِـي  مُـصَلاَّهُ (in its prayer hall); وَهِيَ  لِلإمَامِ (and for the Imām), أَشَـدُّ  كَـرَاهِـيَةً (it is strongly dislike),

[6] and [7] وَقَبْلَ  الْـعِيدَيْنِ (praying before the two ʿIds) وَبَـعْدَهُـمَا (and praying after them), إِذَا صُـلِّيَا فِـي  الصَحْرَاءِ (if they are prayed in the desert),

[8] وَقَبْلَ  الصًّلاَةِ  الْـمَـغْرِبِ (before the Maghrib Prayer),

[9] وَبَـيـْنَ  الصَّلاَتَـيْـنِ (between the two prayers) لِـمَنْ  جَـمَعَ  بِـعَرَفَـةَ  وَمُزْدَلِفَة (for the one who joins together the prayers when on Mount ʿArafat or Muzdalifah), أَوْ  لِـمَطْرِ (or because of rain); وَتَـنَقُّلُ (while going from one place to another) لِـمَنْ  عَـلَيْْهِ  فَـزْضٌ (by the person who has to perform an obligatory prayer), خَـرَجَ  وَقْـتُهُ (when time for it has gone) أَوْ  ضَـاقَ (or is about to go out) [is also prohibited],

[10] وَصَـلاَةُ  الرَّجُـلِ (the prayer of the man), وَحْـدَهُ (praying alone) أَوْ  فِـي  جَـمَاعَـةٍ (or in congregation) مُخَالِفًا لِلإمَامِ (who is opposed to the Imām).

Click here to link to The First Foundational Principle [Pillar]: Shahaadah

Published in: Uncategorized on December 4, 2020 at 01:33  Leave a Comment  

Zakah

Zakah

by Hajj Abdalhaqq Bewley

It is well known to all of us that the there are five absolutely indispensable elements which make up Islam, all of which are absolutely essential to the practice of our deen. We find them clearly delineated in the authentic hadith reported by ‘Abdallah ibn ‘Umar,  and his father, in which he said: “I heard the Messenger of Allah Salla-l-laahsay: ‘Islam is built on five: witnessing that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, establishment of the prayer, payment of Zakah, Hajj of the House, and the fast of Ramadan.’”

We know from this, and many other Qur’anic and Prophetic references, that Zakah is an absolutely indispensable element of Islam as a whole. Salah and Zakah are explicitly coupled together in the Qur’an at least twenty-nine times and many more times in an implicit way. The phrase “aqimu’s-Salah wa atu’z-Zakah” – “establish the Salah and pay the Zakah”– is a refrain which permeates Allah’s Book from beginning to end. This has been taken by some significant mufassirun to be evidence of the fact that Salah and Zakah are in effect interdependent. What they mean by this is evidence, in a legal sense, that a person’s prayer is not acceptable unless their Zakah has been properly discharged.

The first khalifah of the Muslims, Abu Bakr as-Siddiq Radia-l-laahu anhu confirmed this interpretation by saying that he would fight anyone who made a distinction between Salah and Zakah and, indeed he carried out his threat, since this was the basic cause of the Ridda Wars which took place during his caliphate. Yet, despite this, there is no doubt that the great majority of Muslims definitely consider Salah to be much more important than Zakah.There is no doubt that many of us fail to give Zakah the prime importance it is due as the third indispensable pillar of our deen.

Although it is not our aim on this occasion to go into to the fiqh of Zakah in a detailed way, it is nevertheless important to present a comprehensive overview of the key elements involved. This will help us to begin to recognise its main characteristics and see it clearly as the essential but neglected act of ibadah it is, whose purpose is to serve as a social safety net for the most needy people in every Muslim community.

Perhaps we should first of all briefly mention Zakat-al-Fitr, if only to make it clear that this is not to be confused with the pillar of Zakah that we are talking about here. Zakat-al-Fitr is a legal obligation connected to Sawm, the pillar of fasting in Ramadan. Zakat-al-Fitr is binding on every Muslim and has its own rules and conditions, which connect to the fiqh of fasting and to the Eid. However, discharging the obligation of Zakat-al-Fitr at the end of Ramadan, which every Muslim must do, has nothing whatsoever to do with the pillar of Zakah which we are talking about here.

The payment of Zakah proper, the Zakah which is the third pillar of Islam, becomes obligatory for every Muslim provided they fulfill certain conditions. The first is Islam itself: Zakah is not paid by non-Muslims. Freedom is another condition: Zakah is not paid by slaves. The third condition is possession of the nisab. The nisab is the minimum amount of wealth on which Zakah is due. If a Muslim has less than that no Zakah is owed. A further condition is actual ownership. Zakah is only paid by Muslims on property which actually belongs to them and moreover which is in their possession at the time. Finally there is hawl: a general rule that Zakah is only paid by Muslims on wealth which has been in their possession for a year or more.

Zakah is also subject to certain other factors. As with all our acts of worship, and indeed all our actions in general, a vital element in the payment of Zakah is the niyyah – the intention behind it – which must be made by the person who pays it. They must specifically intend to be fulfilling their obligation of paying Zakah to make it valid. The time of payment is another important factor. In the same way that there is a specific time for the prayer, the fast and the hajj, there is also a correct time for paying Zakah.

Another factor which was always integral to the correct payment of Zakah is its proper collection. Traditionally Zakah has always been collected by officially appointed collectors. The important point to grasp is that, legally speaking, Zakah is not the act of individual voluntary Sadaqah it has now universally become. Another vitally important aspect of Zakah which has largely been abandoned is the matter of its correct distribution, which we will look at in more detail later. There is no doubt, however, that Zakah should basically be distributed locally since its primary purpose is to look after the needs of poor Muslims in the area in which it is paid. Only in the event of there being no eligible Muslims in the local community should it be distributed further afield.

A final factor which it is vital to grasp, if the pillar of Zakah is to be restored to its rightful place at the heart of Islam, is that only the correct elements should be used to pay it. Zakah is only payable on three types of wealth – livestock, agricultural produce and monetary wealth including trade goods – and the precise means by which it may be paid, have been clearly defined from the time of the  Prophet Salla-l-laah onwards and have been confirmed by every generation of ‘ulama since. They are: animals of a precise type and age in the case of the Zakah on livestock; grain, fruit or oil of a precise quantity and quality in the case of agricultural Zakah; and, crucially, gold or silver of a precise weight in the case of the Zakah of monetary wealth and trade goods.

The proof that it was the metal itself – actual gold and silver – rather than any particular type of currency which was required in payment of Zakah on monetary wealth, is shown by the fact that the amount owed is calculated by the precise weight of gold or silver needed to pay it; it was never calculated in purely monetary terms. As we will see, despite the current situation, whereby monetary wealth is now measured in terms of paperand electronic currencies, this requirement to pay the Zakah of monetary wealth and trade goods in actual gold or silver has not changed.

We have already mentioned the importance of the correct distribution of Zakah and this has not been left to personal choice. The people who may receive Zakah are clearly delineated in the Qur’an in ayah 60 of Surat at- Tawba the meaning of which is as follows:

Sadaqah is for the poor,

the destitute,

reconciling people’s hearts,

freeing slaves,

those in debt,

spending in the way of Allah

and travellers.

It is a legal obligation from Allah, Allah is all-Knowing, All-Wise.

The word sadaqah, as used in this ayah, has always been understood by mufassirun and ‘ulama to refer specifically to Zakah. These categories of Zakah recipients which are listed in this ayah have been defined by the scholars of Islam throughout the centuries and are clearly explained in the classical commentary which the Tafsir Jalalayn gives on this ayah. It says:

The word, sadaqah, used here means Zakah so the meaning of the ayah is: Zakah is for and must be distributed to: the poor, – who are those who do not have enough to cover their normal needs; the destitute – they are those without anything at all; those who collect it – they are those whocollect the Zakah and distribute it, and the  scribes who record it; reconciling people’s hearts – this entails, amongst other things, the use of Zakah to encourage other people to become Muslim; freeing slaves – this is by giving them what they need to purchase their freedom; those in debt – that is people who ask for help to pay debts, provided those debts have not been incurred in disobedience to Allah; spending in the Way of Allah – Zakah can be used for helping those who do not have the means to undertake jihad; and travellers – those who are prevented by lack of means from completing their journey. It is a legal obligation from Allah. Allah is All-knowing of His creation, All-Wise in what He does. It is not permitted to give Zakah to people outside these categories or to deny it to any of them if the need exists. So the ruler should divide it among them but can give more to some categories if necessary…”

It can be seen from this that the use of Zakah is very specific and that it acts as a form of safety net for the most needy members of society in any Muslim community. Zakah may not be used in any other way. For instance, people often think that Zakah can be used, under the heading “spending in the way of Allah”, for projects such as building or purchasing a mosque or Islamic centre or school, when in fact, this is not a valid use of Zakah.

We made it clear earlier that officially authorised collection of Zakah was an integral factor in its correct implementation. This was the case from the time of the Prophet Salla-l-laah onwards. He is commanded in the Qur’an, in ayah 103 of Surat at-Tawbah to: “Take sadaqah from their wealth to purify and cleanse them.” As in the previously quoted ayah about the recipients of Zakah, the word “sadaqah” in this context is universally accepted as referring to Zakah. The important point to realise is the fact that this is a command from Allah. The leader of the Muslims is ordered to take  Zakah; it is not left to the choice of the individual donor. The Prophet Salla-l-laah confirmed this in his words of instruction to Mu’adh when sending him to Yemen. He said to him: “Allah has made it obligatory for Zakah to be taken from their property and given to their poor.” Again it is clear from this that Zakah is to be taken by the Muslim authorities; its payment is not to be left to the will of the individual concerned.

This obligation for the leader of the Muslims to actually take Zakah from the Muslims is further vividly illustrated by the words and actions of the first khalifah, Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, we referred to earlier. After affirming the inseparable connection between Salah and Zakah, he declared, “If they refuse me even a hobbling rope, which they used to pay to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, I will fight them for it.” And, as we know, he went on to risk the very existence of the fledgling Muslim community by carrying out his threat. This shows that he considered the collection of Zakah to be an absolute duty of the political leader of the Muslim community.

It is clear, therefore, that the collection and distribution of Zakah is an integral function of Muslim governance and history shows that all the schools of fiqh have upheld this organic connection between Zakah and political authority. It was something which was taken for granted throughout all the centuries of Muslim rule up until the present time. Centrally appointed collection and distribution of Zakah is assumed in all the traditional literature on the subject and is the clear position of the four madhabs of Islam. They are all in agreement about the integral connection of Zakah to Muslim governance. For instance, Imam as-Sarakhsi, the famous Hanafi scholar, says in his book al-Mabsut: “Zakah is a right of Allah and is to be collected and distributed by the leader of the Muslims or his appointees. If anyone pays his Zakah to anyone else it does not remove from him the obligation of Zakah.” Imam Malik says in the Muwatta:

“The distribution of Zakah is up to the individual judgment of the man in charge… There is no fixed share for the collector of Zakah except as the leader of the Muslims sees fit.” Imam ash-Shafi’i says in al-Umm about the Qur’anic category, “those who collect it,” that they are those appointed by the khalifah of the Muslims to collect and distribute Zakah.And Imam Ahmad is quoted in the book Ash-sharih ar-rabbani li musnad Ahmad as saying, “The khalifah alone has the authority and responsibility to collect and distribute Zakah whether by himself or through those he appoints and he has the authority and responsibility to fight those who refuse to pay it.”

These are merely four representative examples from literally thousands of other corroborating possibilities, so it is clear that right from the time of its original prescription, the collection and distribution of Zakah was an integral and inseparable function of Muslim governance. The fact that the collection and distribution of Zakah is no longer in the hands of the political leaders of the Muslim community, means in effect that the pillar of Zakah can no longer be said to exist in the way it was prescribed by Allah in His Book and subsequently implemented by His Messenger. The payment and distribution of Zakah by isolated individuals, which is what Zakah has at best been reduced to at the present time, does not in fact properly fulfill the legal obligation of Zakah, because, as we have seen, the active involvement of established Muslim political leadership is essential if it is to be implemented correctly. Lack of this organic connection between Zakah and Muslim leadership necessarily means that the nature of Zakah has been altered beyond any recognition from its original function and practice.

Plainly said: unless it is collected and distributed according to the Shari’ah by a recognized Muslim political authority, it is, properly speaking, not really Zakah. So a first priority for us, if we really desire to see the pillar of Zakah restored to its pivotal place at the heart of Islam, must be to ensure politically effective Muslim leadership, at least at the local level of every Muslim community. Without this it is impossible for the collection and distribution of Zakah to be correctly implemented according to the Shari’ah.

Another factor which has played a major role in undermining Zakah and which has gone hand in hand with the loss of political authority we have noted, has been the change in the nature of wealth and money over the last two centuries or so. Until the end of the eighteenth century the chief measures of wealth in human society were land, and the animals and agricultural produce produced on it, and mercantile wealth, which was exclusively measured in terms of gold and silver coinage. These natural components of human prosperity are highlighted by Allah ta’ala in the Qur’an in Sura Ali ʿImran when He mentions:

…heaped-up mounds of gold and silver, and horses with markings, and livestock and fertile farmland. 3:14.

And, as we have seen, these are the very things on which Zakah, as a tax on superfluous wealth, is levied: particular types of agricultural produce, livestock, and monetary wealth, when any of these reaches the level of the nisab, in other words a level which is over and above the legitimate immediate needs of the individual concerned.

The problem is that the urban existence of the vast majority of Muslims in the world today means that Zakah on livestock and agricultural produce has basically no relevance at all to their lives. It is also the case that gold and silver have long ceased to be used as currency and this has meant that Muslims no longer recognise the need to pay Zakah on their monetary wealth and trade goods in these two metals, in spite of the fact that, as we have seen, this is the way that the Shari’ah demands that it should be paid.

The rise of the banking industry, which brought paper money into general use and has made it, in most cases, the only legal medium of exchange, has made it very difficult to measure, or even establish the monetary wealth owned by a Muslim on which Zakah must be paid. What is at issue here, where Zakah is concerned, is the relationship between gold and silver – on which, and with which, Zakah must be paid – and the paper money, and now increasingly the  electronic currencies, which today make up most people’s monetary wealth.

Although many Muslims are not aware of it, this whole matter has been much discussed by the scholars of Islam. The use of paper money, which we now take for granted and which is the only money we know, is in many ways contrary to the Shari’ah and many ‘ulama fought a strong rearguard action against its introduction into Muslim lands. One reason for this was because of the difficulties it placed in the way of Zakah and the consequent threat it posed to Islam as a whole. Although some modernist Muslims have tried to adapt and compromise the Shari’ah to make it fit in with the present economic system, the truth is, as many ‘ulama have made indisputably plain, that the deen cannot be fudged in this way. The Shari’ah on this matter is clear: Zakah on monetary wealth and trade goods may only be paid in actual gold or silver.

A number of fatwahs about this matter have been issued by Islamic scholars, including the landmark fatwa of Shaykh ‘Illish, the great Shaykh of al- Azhar of the late 19th century. A translation of the full text of this fatwa can be found in the book Zakah – The Fallen Pillar of Islam. Paper money had just been introduced for the first time as currency within the Ottoman Empire and Shaykh ‘Illish was asked whether Zakah should be paid on it or not. In summary his answer was that Zakah should not be paid on it because, unlike gold and silver on which Zakah must be paid, the paper which was acting as currency had no intrinsic value. Zakah would only be owed on it if there was sufficient weight of it for its value as scrap paper to reach the amount of the nisab on which Zakah would be payable on it as merchandise.

This makes the principle involved extremely clear: Zakah can only be paid using those means, which are clearly defined in the Book and Sunnah, namely livestock, agricultural produce and actual gold and silver. Unlike paper money, these are all things which have value in themselves as commodities. If you deface a gold coin it is still worth its weight in gold, whereas if you deface a hundred Pula note it is worth virtually nothing at all.

 It might be said, going strictly by this understanding, that no Zakah is owed on wealth held in bank accounts and other modern forms of saving and investment because no actual gold or silver is involved. However, going by the fact that the original intention of paper money was to represent particular amounts of gold and silver, it has been argued that, for Zakah purposes, monetary wealth held in these forms should be valued in terms of the amount of gold or silver that can be bought with it. If this amount exceeds the nisab, Zakah is owed. Certainly, if Zakah is to be paid at all in the present circumstances, and this is something which must be done both to re-establish Allah’s deen in its entirety and to look after the needs of millions of Muslims who are legally entitled to it, then this is the position which needs to be adopted by Muslims everywhere. What must be emphasised, however, is that this in no way removes the obligation for Muslims to pay Zakah in the actual gold or silver categorically demanded by the Shari’ah.

Since the Zakah on monetary wealth has to be paid in gold or silver, it is essential to know exactly what amount of gold and silver constitutes the nisab, the minimum amount on which Zakah is owed. The nisab in the case of gold is 20 dinars by weight and in the case of silver it is 200 dirhams by weight, so we need to know the exact weight of both the dinar and the dirham to find out whether or not we owe Zakah and if we do, how much we have to pay.

Both dinars and dirhams are mentioned in the Qur’an and were in use during the lifetime of the Prophet Salla-l-laah. The exact weight and purity of those coins were carefully recorded at the time and have been passed down through the centuries. The dinar weighed 72 grains of pure gold whose equivalent in modern terms is 4.25 grams. The modern equivalent of the dirham is 3 grams of silver. On this basis, as far as Zakah is concerned, the nisab for gold is 4.25 x 20 which works out at 85 grams, and for silver 3 x 200 which comes to 600 grams. The exact value of these amounts of gold and silver in whatever currency is in use in the place where a person’s Zakah is being assessed, will, of course, depend on their market value at the time and will need to be calculated at the time and place that the Zakah is being assessed.

In the modern context gold dinars and silver dirhams, conforming exactly to the traditional dimensions, were minted in 1992 by Muslim communities in both Britain and Spain and since then have also been produced in considerable quantities in Indonesia, South Africa, Malaysia and Dubai. This has resulted in their availability for the payment of Zakah in various places throughout the world. However, because it is the actual weight of gold and silver which are the vital factor where Zakah is concerned, there is no reason why Krugerrands or gold sovereigns or indeed any other form of gold and silver should not also be used to pay Zakah, provided of course they are of the right weight and purity. The important points, which must again be stressed, are that firstly, according to the Shari’ah, the Zakah owed on monetary wealth may only be paid in actual gold and silver and secondly that there is in fact no difficulty in obtaining the gold and silver necessary to accomplish this.

In conclusion we have seen that a combination of factors – namely thefact that Zakah is no longer collected and distributed under Muslim political authority and the fact that there has been a total change in the nature of wealth in recent times – has meant that Zakah, the pivotal third pillar of the deen, has, to all intents and purposes, ceased to exist in anything like its original form and is certainly not being implemented in the way demanded by all sound Muslim legal authorities throughout Islamic history.At best it has now been left to individual choice and relegated to the realms of private sadaqah, which is very different from the pillar of Zakah commanded by Allah and instituted by His Messenger, and the rightly guided khalifahs who succeeded him,  ajma‘in.

This being the case it is clearly the duty of all Muslims to do everything within their power to put this right and restore the pillar of Zakah to its rightful place as one of the essential mainstays of Islam. As we have seen, to make this possible certain steps need to be taken, which can be summarised under four main headings.

POLITICAL LEADERSHIP: – As we have seen, recognised and active political leadership within each Muslim community is absolutely indispensable for the correct collection and distribution of Zakah. Therefore, we should either appoint new leaders from amongst ourselves who we then empower to organise the proper implementation of the pillar of Zakah, or we should approach and empower existing leadership to take it on.

ASSESSMENT & COLLECTION: – One of the first tasks of such leadership will be to appoint Zakah assessors and collectors. Not only will they have to be trustworthy and discrete, but they will also have to have the requisite knowledge of the fiqh of Zakah needed to calculate a person’s Zakah in the present situation and be able to deal with any special circumstances. So even if they are well versed in the traditional fiqh of Zakah they will also need to be clear on how to address the many new matters that the current financial system has thrown up.

GOLD AND SILVER COINAGE: – As we have seen access to gold and silvercoinage is essential for the correct payment of Zakah. Dinars and dirhams of the correct weight and purity of gold and silver are now available from a number of sources. As well as this other types of gold and silver coinage can also be easily obtained. It will be necessary to value cash and other assets in terms of the amount of gold or silver they can buy at that moment in that particular geographic location so that the exact weight of the metal concerned owed as Zakah can be correctly calculated. It must also be said that although Zakah must be collected and distributed in gold or silver, there is no harm in that gold or silver subsequently being exchanged for other forms of currency if that would make it easier for recipients. It is, however, hoped that within a reasonably short period of time the use of gold and silver coinage by traders and shopkeepers will become more and more commonplace so that such exchanges will cease to be necessary.

DISTRIBUTION: – The matter of the distribution of Zakah must be taken very seriously. Collected Zakah should be given as soon as possible to identified recipients within the Qur’anically defined eight categories. The leader of the community will have to liaise with the collectors and others, firstly to prioritise the categories of people entitled to receive Zakah in their particular location and secondly to decide how much each individual should be given.

I would like to finish by saying that what we have been talking about here is not just a theoretical possibility, some pie in the sky idea, some unrealisable dream about how things might be. This method of collecting and distributing Zakah in gold and silver, according to the original model first demonstrated for us by the Prophet Salla-l-laah and continued down through the centuries of Islam until comparatively recent times, has already been reactivated without difficulty in a number of Muslim communities throughout the world. It is in fact easy to do this and requires nothing more than the will to make it happen. And what greater incentive for us could there be than the words of our beloved Prophet Salla-l-laah himself, who told us: “Anyone who revives an aspect of my Sunnah that is forgotten after my death, will have a reward equivalent to that of all the people who follow him, without that diminishing their reward in any way.” (At-Tirmidhi) He also said, on the same lines: “Anyone who revives my Sunnah in the time of corruption will receive the reward of a hundred shuhada.” (al-Baihaqi) And in this case Fard and Sunnah combine together because we are talking about the re-establishment of Zakah, one of the fundamental obligations of our deen, and Allah ta’ala assures us on the tongue of His Messenger Salla-l-laah in a famous hadith qudsi: “My slave draws nearer to Me by nothing I love more than what I have made obligatory for him.” What more could we want; what greater reward could there be? Therefore we ask Allah, tabaraka wa ta’ala, to give us success in re-establishing the third pillar of His deen, Zakah, in the way He has prescribed it for us in His Book and the way it was implemented by His Messenger Salla-l-laah and those who have followed him down through the ages and that by doing that we may earn a great reward from Him and contribute significantly to the victory of Islam in our time.

Published in: Uncategorized on December 3, 2020 at 00:56  Leave a Comment  

Risālah ibn Abī Zayd al-Qayrawaanī – Chapter Three: On the Purity of Water, Clothing and the Place of Prayer and What Can be Worn When Doing Prayer

Risālah ibn Abī Zayd al-Qayrawaanī

The Risālah : A Treatise on Mālikī Fiqh by ʿAbdullah ibn Abī Zayd al-Qayrawānī (310/922 -386/996)

Translated by Alhaj Bello Mohammad Daura, MA (London) (Including commentary from ath-Thamr ad-Dani by al-Azhari)

Chapter Three: On the Purity of Water, Clothing and the Place of Prayer and What Can be Worn When Doing Prayer

3.1 Purity of Water

3.1a. Obligation of Purity

When you do the prayer you are talking to your Lord. You must therefore prepare yourself for this by doing wudu’ or ghusl if a ghusl is necessary.

[Purity in the Shari’ah is a legal state which becomes obligatory in order to make the prayer permissible. The one who prays speaks intimately with his Lord. According to the hadith which Malik relates in the Muwaṭṭa, he must prepare for the prayer. The text of the Muwaṭṭa is that the Messenger of Allah came out to his Companions while they were praying and their voices were raised in the recitation. He said, “When you pray, you are speaking confidentially to your Lord. So look to what you confide to Him, and do not say the Qur’an outloud so thatothers hear it.” He must prepare for that conversation by having an attentive heart and humility, and must stand with respect before Him, seeking His protection. When he lacks that, he does not speak to Him and the term “conversation” is not valid for him. Nonetheless, it is true that he prays and must adopt the means for that by being pure of minor and major impurities.]

3.1b. Pure Unchanged Water

This must be done using pure water which is uncontaminated by any impurity.

[Purification from impurities is achieved by pure water, i.e that which is not mixed with what changes any of its three qualities: colour, taste or smell, whether that change in its attributes is due to something either pure or impure. Thus if it is changed by rose water, it is not valid to use it for things like wudū and ghusl.]

3.1c. Change in Colour of Water by Contact with Earth

You cannot use water whose colour has been changed by something mixed in with it whether that thing is pure or impure unless the change of colour has been caused by something in the earth where the water is from such as salt deposits or mud or similar things. [It is a precondition that the water used for things like wudu’ and ghusl has not been changed in its attributes by what is usually separate from it, except for earthwith which it is in direct contact and to which it clings as when it lies in salty earth, sulphurous earth or fetid mud.]

3.1d. Rain Water

Any water coming from the sky or from springs or wells or the sea is all good, pure and purifies impurities.

[These waters which originate from the sky are all pure in themselves and good for any use whatsoever, whether drinking or such things or acts of worship, like wudū’, ghusl and removing impurities as long as the water remains in its original state and is unchanged any anything which is is normally separate from it.]

3. 1e. Change in Colour of Water

If the colour of the water has been changed by something pure which has got into it, it remains pure but cannot be used for purification either in wudu’ or ghusl or for removing impurities.

[Meaning that water whose colour has been changed with something pure, like water from pasta, is pure in itself but does not purify something else, and so it is not used for wudu’ or other things like ghusl.]

3.1f. Change of Water Through Impurity

Water that has been changed by something impure getting into it is not pure and cannot be used for purification purposes.

[Water which has been changed through impurity, whether in colour, taste or smell, and whether the water is little or a lot, it has substance or not, is no longer pure or purifying. It is not used either for normal things or for acts of worship.]

3.1.g A Small Amount of Impurity

A small amount of impurity makes a small amount of water impure even if there is no change in the water.

[If an impurity falls into small amount of water, like the water prepared for wudū’ or ghusl, even if it is something small and the impurity does not change it, it is not permitted to use it. The most famous position is that is pure, but it is disliked to use it when other water exists, provided that it has not been altered. If it has been been changed, its purity absolutely no longer exists.] [Ibn Juzayy states that if there is a lot of water and it is not changed, then it remains pure. There is no specific definition of “a lot” in the Māliki School.]

3.2 Amount of Water Used

3.2a. Using a Small Amount of Water

It is sunna to use a small amount of water when washing provided you do it thoroughly. Using an excessive amount is extremism and innovation.

[A small amount of water should be used as long as washing is done properly. Pouring while rubbing is recommended, i.e. an desirable aspect in the deen. Using a lot of it, pouring it while using it is excess, i.e. increase in the deen and innovation, i.e. something innovated which is contrary to the Sunnah and the Path of the Salaf.]

3.2b. The amount used by the Prophet

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did wudū’ with one mudd of water which is equivalent to (1 1/3 ratls) and he did ghusl with one sa’a which is four mudds measuring by his mudd, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

[He points out that it is established in the sunna that the Messenger of Allah did wudū’ using a mudd, which is 1 1/3 ratls and he did ghusl with a sa’ which is four mudds. So altogether it is 5 1/3 ratls. His aim is to inform us of the the excellence of economy and abandoning profigality and the amount which was enough for the Prophet .]

3.3 Purity of the Place and Clothing

3.3a Purity of Place

It is obligatory for the place where you are going to do the prayer to be pure.

[The purity of the place where the limbs of the one praying will touch is obligatory for the sake of the prayer, i.e. its purity for the sake of the prayer. Purity for other things, like dhikr is recommended.]

3.3b. Purity of Clothing

Your clothing must also be pure. It is said by some that the nature of the obligation referred to here is that of an absolute obligation (fard) and by others that it has the obligation of a confirmed sunnah (sunna ma’akkadah).

[The purity of the garment of the one praying is obligatory provided it is remembered and he has the ability to achieve that. If someone intentionally prays in an impure garment when he is able to remove it, he must always repeat that prayer. If he prays in such a state out of forgetfulness or is unable is remove it, he repeats it if it is still within the time of the prayer. The time of Dhuhr extends until the yellowing of the sky, and Maghrib and ‘Isha’ extend through the entire night. It is said that it is sunnah to remove the impurity, and both positions are known and acceptable. Based on the position that it is sunnah, it is repeated at the time absolutely, whether that was intentional, or he was able to remove it, or out of forgetfulness or ignorance.]

3.3c. Places where it is forbidden to pray:

You should not do the prayer in the following places:

3.3c1. Camel Places

in places where camels congregrate,

[It is disliked to pray in places where camels are kept when they come from water, even if it is safe from impurity and even if something pure is spread out and is prayed on it because the Prophet did not say that the reason was impurity so that it would be negated if it was negated.]

3.3c2. The Middle of the Road

or in the middle of the road,

[It is disliked to pray in the middle of the road where you are unsure whether the ordure of animals and urine will get on you. If you do pray there, it is recommended that you repeat it within the time. When someone prays there because the mosque is too crowded or he spreads something pure and prays on it or he is certain that it is pure, then there is no dislike.]

3.3c3. On top of the Ka’ba

or on top of the Kaʿbah,

[It is prohibited to pray on top on the Kaʿbah, based on the fact that it is necessary to face its building. The one who is above it cannot face the building. So if he prays an obligatory prayer on top of it, he must always repeat it because what is important is to face it.]

3.3c4. Public Baths

or in public baths, a place which you are not certain whether it is pure or not,

[It is disliked to pray in the baths. The reason for the dislike is the likelihood of impurity. If he is certain of its purity, then the dislike is negated and the prayer is permitted.]

3.3c5. Rubbish Dumps

or on a rubbish heap

[It is disliked to pray at a place where rubbish is thrown since one is not safe from impurity. If he is safe from impurity, then it is not disliked.]

3.3c6. Slaughterhouses

or in a slaughter house,

[It is disliked to pray in a place where animals are slaughtered if he is not safe from impurity. Otherwise, it is not disliked.]

3.3c7. Graveyards

or in the graveyards

[When the graveyard is a Muslim one, and there are no disinterred parts of the dead in the place of prayer, then it is permitted to pray there. If there are any parts of those buried in the place of prayer, then the judgement of the prayer there depends on the disagreement about and whether the human being becomes impure by death or not. If the dead person is not impure, and the person prays there deliberately, then it is disliked to pray there since there is uncertainty or certainty that there are parts of the dead person which would involve humiliation or walking on the grave. As for the prayer, it is not disliked initself. Ibn Habīb disliked praying in the graveyards of the unbelievers because they are pits of the Fire, but if someone prays in them and is safe from impurity, his prayeris not invalid, even if he is not actually safe from praying on impurity.]

3.3c8. Non-Muslim Places of Worship

and places of worship of non-Muslims.

[This designates churches, synagogues and fire temples of the Magians. Imam Mālik disliked praying in them because of impurity from their feet, i.e. that is the custom in them. The dislike is inasmuch as he prays in it by choice, not when is compelled to that. Otherwise there is no dislike. There is no difference between the ruined or inhabited place.]

3.3d. Minimum Clothing in the Prayer for a Man

The least clothing a man can do the prayer in is something which covershis ‘awra (everything between his navel and his knees) such as a long shirt or a piece of cloth he can wrap round him.

[This minimum of what does not involve sin and is adequate for what is desiredof the one who prays is a garment is that which covers the private parts, be it a long shirt, cloak or trousers. A precondition for the cloak is that it is thick and not thin or transparent, i.e the private parts should not be outlined or encompassed. If it is like that, it is disliked as long as the definition is not due to wind. Otherwise not. If it is transparent, then sometimes the private parts might appear through it without thinking about and then the prayer would be invalid. Sometimes it only appears by thinking about it, and it is judgement is like the person whose is doing something disliked and the prayer is valid.]

3.3e. Uncovered Shoulders

However, it is disliked to do the prayer wearing something that does not cover the shoulders, but if this does happen the prayer need not be repeated.

[It is disliked for a man to pray in a garment which leaves his shoulders completely uncovered when something else is available. If he prays and his shoulder-blades show when he is able to cover them, he does not have to repeat the prayer either in the time or after it.]

3.4. Women’s Dress and Prostration

3.4a. A Woman’s Minimum Dress

The least clothing a woman can do the prayer in is a thick full-length garment covering her whole body including the top of the feet and something covering her head.

[The minimum of adequate clothing for a free adult women in the prayer consists of two things: one is a thick or ample full-length garment which does not define the figure nor is transparent. This is either hasif, which means thick, or khasif, which a full complete covering which covers the top of the feet. It also means what does not define figure nor is transparent because what he means by the minimum is that the prayer is that with which the prayer does not have to repeated in the time or outside of it. The second item is a head-covering which covers her hair and her neck. Part of its precondition is that it is thick. In short, the fiqh is it is obliged for a woman to cover all her body in the prayer, even the soles of her feet based on the statement of Mālik, “It is not permitted for a woman to show anything in the prayer except her face and palms.”]

3.4b. A Woman’s Prostration

A woman should touch the ground with the palms of her hands in sujūd just as a man does.

[The woman touches the earth with her palms in prostration. It is mentioned here here because it might be imagined from his words about covering the top and soles of her feet that she covers her palms because each of them are part of the person who prays who is obliged to cover the entire body. Therefore this idea which is mentioned here must be eliminated.

Risālah ibn Abī Zayd al-Qayrawaanī – Chapter Two: What Necessitates Wudū’ and Ghusl

Risālah ibn Abī Zayd al-Qayrawaanī

The Risālah : A Treatise on Mālikī Fiqh by ʿAbdullah ibn Abī Zayd al-Qayrawānī (310/922 -386/996) 

Translated by Alhaj Bello Mohammad Daura of Nigeria, MA (London) (Including commentary from ath-Thamr ad-Dānī by al-Azharī)

Chapter Two: What Necessitates Wudu‘ and Ghusl

[This chapter deals with those things which render necessary wudū‘ and ghusl. Wudu’ designates the action and wadu’ designates the water. Linguistically, it means cleanliness and excellence, and in the Sharīʿah it means to purify certain parts of the body with water to make them clean and to remove the judgement of ‘minor impurity” (ḥadath) from them to permit acts of worship which are forbidden by lack of purity. Qadi Ibn al-ʿArabi says that there is known dispute about whether ghasl means the action and ghusl the water. However, in adh-Dhakira, ghusl designates the action and ghusl the water. This is the most common position.

The obligation of wudū‘ and ghusl [Evidence for the obligatory nature of wudū‘ and ghusl is found in the Qur’an and Sunnah and consensus. The Almighty says, “O you who believe! When you you get up intending to do the prayer, wash your faces” (5:6) and “Do not approach the prayer when you are drunk until you know what you are saying, nor in a state of major impurity – unless you are travelling – until you have washed yourselves completely.” (4:43) The Messenger of Allah said, “Allah does not accept the prayer of anyone in a state of impurity until he does wudū‘. ” There is no disagreement between the Imams that it is obligatory.]

2.1 Wudū

2.1a. Preconditions for wudū‘:

[There are certain preconditions for the validity of wudū‘:

1. Islam

2. Adulthood

3. Sanity

4. Absence of menstrual blood or bleeding after childbirth

5. The arrival of the time of the prayer,

6. That the legally responsible person is not forgetful, asleep or insensible

7. The existence of adequate water to perform it

8. The possibility of doing it with due care to achieve what is desired, which may preclude the sick and the person who is compelled.]

2.1b. What Makes Wudu‘ Necessary

[Two things oblige wudu‘: ritual impurity and certain causes. [Khalīl says three ritual impurity is what breaks wudu’ in itself, like urine, and causes are things which do not break wudu’ in themselves but leads to ritual impurity, like loss of sanity, touching someone with desire and touching the penis. [Ibn Juzayy states that apostasy also breaks wudu‘.]]

2.1c. The Nature of the Obligation

[The duty of wudū‘ is a one of an obligatory nature, not merely an obligation inasmuch as it is sunna and thus strongly recommended.]

2.1d Urination and Defecation in a Normal Manner

[Wudū‘ must be done when something emerges from one of the two normal passages, the urethra and the anus, in a normal manner. It is limited to what is normal which excludes anything which emerges abnormally, like pebbles and worms. They do not break wudū‘, even if he passes some urine and faeces. Urine and faeces must emerge in a normal manner. So if it emerges for a specific reason, like incontinence in most cases, which is when he does it constantly, most of the time or half of the time, then it does not break wudu’. In the first case, wudū‘ is neither obligatory or recommended. In the last two cases it is recommended unless that is difficult for him.

The ‘passages’ are limited to what emerges normally, which precludes what emerges other than urine and faeces, like blood as a result of leeches and cupping, vomit which is changed from food, and impurity which emerges from a split under the intestines which is not due to the passages being blocked. When the two passages are blocked and the split is located under the intestines, then it is considered as a normal orifice.]

2.2 Things Which Break Wudū

2.2a. Excreta Which Oblige Wudū’

You have to do wudū‘ after urinating or defecating or passing wind.

[This clarifies what excreta which make wudū‘ necessary: urine from the front orifice and faeces from the rear orifice and passing wind, which designates wind which emerges from the anus, whether or not with a sound. As for wind which emerges from the penis or vagina, it does not require wudū‘ since it is not considered as one of things which break wudū‘.]

2.2b Other Fluids Which Require Wudū‘: Madh-yu

You have to do wudū‘ when the liquid known as madh-yu comes out of the penis, in which case it is necessary to wash to the whole penis as well. Madh-yu is a thin, white liquid which comes out at times of sexual excitement when the penis is erect, either during sexual foreplay or when thinking about it.

[ Wudū‘ is obliged when madhy emerges from the penis. It is also obligatory towash the entire penis with an intention before doing wudū‘. Wudū‘ is specified and using stones in not enough.]

2.2c.Wad-yu

Wad-yu is a thick white liquid which comes out usually after urinating and carries the same judgement regarding cleaning the penis as urine.

[Wad-yu is dense and usually comes out after urination. It may come out on its own or during urination. It makes wudū‘ necessary and it must be completely removed. He should lightly squeeze the place and wash only its place.]

2.2d. Sperm (Maniy-yu)

Sperm – maniy-yu – is the white liquid ejaculated at orgasm during sexual intercourse which smells similar to the pollen of the date-palm.

[The emission of sperm is one of things which obliges ghusl, not wudū‘. The author mentioned it here among the things which oblige wudū‘ as a digression since it does oblige wudu’ in certain cases. It is what issues with pleasure which is not usual, although it is mentioned among the things which oblige ghusl. Here he mentioned the fluids which flow from the front orifice, and maniy is one of them. It is ejaculated in spurts and has a particular odour.]

2. 2e. Women’s Discharge and Menstruation

The liquid which comes from a woman is a thin yellow fluid and necessitates purification, that is purification of the whole body as is the case after menstruation.

[A woman’s liquid which she discharges, which is her maniy, is described as being thin and yellowish when it normally emerges and in health, not on account of illness or incontinence. Ghusl is obliged on account of it. It is not a precondition that it emerge outside. It is based on the sensation, and so the mere sensation obliges her to purify herself, as she is obliged to do when menstruation ends.]

2.2f. False Menstruation

In the case of bleeding which continues beyond the normal period of menstruation (istihādah), only wudu’ is necessary, although in such circumstances it is recommended for a woman to repeat wudū‘ for every prayer.

[The blood of false menstruation is blood which flows outside the days of menstruation and lochia, issuing from a vein which is in the lower part of the uterus. The judgement in such a case is that wudū‘ is obligatory when it stops more than it comes. When it comes more than it stops or the two are equal, then she is not obliged to do wudū‘.]

[ Menstruation according to Khalīl. The normal age of menstruation is considered from the age of adolescence to the age of 50. The individual is consulted from the age of 9 to puberty and from 50 to 70. It can be red, yellow or brown. The minimum is one gush and its maximum is fifteen days. The minimum of purity is fifteen days and it has no maximum. And the maximum length of menstruation for someone with normal periods (even if she has only had one period) is fifteendays. There are three days of using precaution (i.e. above and beyond) her normal maximum. (i.e. if she normally menstruates five days and then menstruates after that and it does not stop after the full five days, she adds three days to it. If it does not stop after that, it is false menstruation.

But if her normal period is 15 days, she does not use precaution at all.) This is as long as it does not exceed half a month. (If it is 14, she uses one, and if 13, she uses 2.) Then she is pure (to fast, prayer and have intercourse even if the blood is flowing, because it is false menstruation and not menstruation.)

The maximum length of menstruation of a pregnant woman after three months (up until five months) is half a month and five days (i.e. twenty days). When she starts the sixth month, it is twenty days and the like (i.e. ten with the twenty and so the maximum is thirty days). Is the judgement of the woman whose has a period before three months the same as the judgement of a woman whose period comes after it ( after three months), or is she like the one with a regular period? There are two statements. If purity is stopped by blood before it is completely finished, even by a hour, she adds only the days of bleeding (i.e. rather than the days it stopped, and it cancels it when it is less than half a month. There must be 15 twenty-four days of continuous purity free of blood by agreement.

Then, after patches and continuous blood, it is false menstruation, not menstruation. So she does ghusl for the end of menstruation. The one who has bleeding patches does the ghusl whenever the blood stops in the patched days unless she thinks that the blood will return before the time she is in finishes. In such a case she is not commanded to do ghusl. She fasts (if it stops at Fajr or before) and prays and has intercourse after ghusl according to the known position as opposed to the author of the Irshād who says that intercourse is not permitted. She can pray in all the days of menstruation when the period comes to her at night and then stops before Fajr. So she might not miss a prayer or a fast.

Blood which is distinct (from false menstrual blood by the change of smell, colour or fineness or thickness) after (the full 15 days of ) purity is menstruation (and prevents prayer and the like). If it is not distinct from false menstruation in any way, it is false menstruation, even if it goes on a long time. It is like that for what is distinct before the end of purity. One does not pay attention to the distinction. If the blood is distinct from the blood of false menstruation by anything above and is judged to be menstruation and it continues until her normal time is complete and more, is changes from the quality of the blood of menstruation to that of false menstuation. So she does not use caution beyond her normal days, but does ghusl by the simple completion of her normal days according to the soundest version (from Mālik and Ibn al-Majishun.)

Purity from menstruation is known by the dryness (of the private parts) from blood, yellowness and brownness when she inserts a bit of cotton, for instance, and brings it out without seeing anything on it. Or it is by a white liquid which issues from the private parts after the end of menstruation. This liquid is more conclusive of the end of menstruation than dryness for the one who usually has it. If she sees the liquid before dryness, it is recommended that she do ghusl at the end of the preferred time [for the prayer]. There is some discussion about the sign of purity of the one whose has her first period. [Al-Bāji says that she is only pure by dryness which she sees, even if the time for the prayer goes by.]

The woman with a period does not have to look for her purity before Fajr. (Indeed, it is disliked because it is not something which the Salaf did.) She should look when she goes to sleep to see whether she can catch Maghrib and ʿIshā‘ and fast. She should look at the beginning of Subh and the other five prayers (allowing time for ghusl).

Menstruation prevents the validity of prayer and fasting and their obligation and divorce (which is prohibited, but is binding if it takes place.) It prevents the start of ʿiddah, which begins with purity. It prevents intercourse or touching under the waist-wrapper (from the waist to knees), even after the end of the period before the ghusl. Tayammum makes the prayer permitted, but does not remove the impurity. It prevents entering the mosque, so there is no iʿtikaf or tawāf. It prevents touching a copy of the Qur’an (except for a teacher or student who has a dispensation) and recitation]

2.2g. Incontinence of Urine

This is also the case for incontinence (salas) of urine.

[It is recommended for someone with incontinence to do wudū‘ for every prayer and for his wudū‘ to be directly before the prayer. There is no special judgement for incontinence of urine. It is a general judgement for everyone with some form of incontinence, be it urine, wind, or maniy-yu. All are the same in that they do do not break wudū‘ by what emerges from them and it constant, even if it is only half the time when he is unable to remove it by medical treatment or marriage. If someone is able to stop it, then it breaks his wudū‘, he is excused for the period of treatment in that it does not break it.]

2.2h. Loss of Consciousness: Deep Sleep

You have to do wudu’ after loss of consciousness caused by either deep sleep,

[Loss of consciousness is one of the reasons which lead to ritual impurity and obliges wudū‘ after it passes. The loss of intellect is when it is completely absent. When it departs completely, as in sleep or fainting, and then is restored to him, the judgement is that wudū‘ is obligatory. A deep sleep, whether long or short, breaks wudū‘ absolutely. A deep sleep that in which the sleeper is not aware of what he or someone else does. What is understood from the word “deep” is that the dozing in which the person is aware of the slightest thing definitely does not break wudū‘, be that short or long based on what is in Muslim, “The Companions of the Messenger of Allah used to sleep and then pray without doing wudū‘.” Nonetheless, it is recommended to do wudū‘ after a long light sleep.]

2.2i. Fainting

or fainting,

[Mālik said that someone who faints has to do wudu’. Fainting is is an illness in the head.]

2.2j. Drunkenness

or intoxication

[The one who loses his senses through drunkenness must do wudū‘. It makes no difference whether he becomes intoxicated by something lawful or unlawful, as when he drinks milk thinking that it is not intoxicating and it intoxicates him.]

2.2k. Insanity

or a bout of madness.

[This even more clearly breaks wudu’ because it removes the senses. It is not in itself a reason for it. Wudu‘ is obliged on account of insanity, intoxication and fainting because it is is obliged by sleep which is less severe than it because it removes a little awareness, and these cause that loss of intellect even more so and so it is more likely that it be obligatory on account of them. That is why there is no difference between long or short, deep or light. They judge that legal responsibility is removed with them which is not the case with sleep. The sleeper is responsible, even if he incurs no wrong action. This discussion concerns about of madness which ends. The one for whom insanity is complete and without end owes nothing.]

2.2l. Wudū‘ on Account Touching a Person

Wudū‘ is also necessary when you touch someone to gain sexual pleasure or have bodily contact with them for the same reason

[One of the causes which results in ritual impurity is touching which is less than intercourse as the Companions, Tabiʿūn, Mālik and his companions have explained it.The Almighty says, “Or if you have touched women.” (4:43) ʿAlī and Ibn ʿAbbās, however, explain this ‘touching’ as referring to intercourse, and say that His words “Or you have touched women” means to have intercourse with them.

Specifying ‘pleasure’ tells us is that if the toucher intends pleasure, he must do wudu’ simply by touching whether or not there is pleasure. So that is even more so if he touches and experiences it. If he did not intend pleasure, but intended totouch to find out whether the body was hard or not, and then experiences pleasure, he must do wudū‘ because of the existence of pleasure, even though it did not come from intention. So the obligation of wudū‘ hinges on intention, even if there was no feeling while touching. If the feeling occurs after touching, then it is like pleasure arising from thinking for which nothing is obliged. If he does not intend pleasure and does not feel it, he does not have to do anything. This is thethe judgement for touching.

As for anyone who is touched, if they are adult and experience pleasure, they must do wudu‘. Otherwise, they do not have to do anything if they did not intend pleasure. Otherwise the judgement regarding the person who is touched is the same as the one who touches.]

2.2m. Wudu’ on Account of Kissing

or for kissing them for sexual pleasure.

[It is clear from his words that kissing is general, whether on the mouth or elsewhere with the intention or arousal. That is not the case. The accepted position is that the kiss on the mouth generally breaks wudū‘ whether or not there is intention and arousal because it is a probable cause of pleasure unless other places give rise to pleasure. [Khalīl says that if it is to bid farewell or out of mercy, as when there is some misfortune, it does not break wudū. Looking at someone, even with pleasure, does not break wudū‘.]

2.2n. Touching the Human Genitals

A man must do wudū‘ if he touches his penis.

[One of the things which lead to ritual impurity is touching the penis because it says in the Muwaṭṭa and elsewhere that the Prophet said, “When one of you touches his penis, he should do wudū‘.” The touching referred to is with the palm or the inside or sides of the fingers. He only mentioned touching one’s own penis. As for the penis of someone else, it follows the judgement regarding touching with respect to intention or arousal. The penis must be connected to the body. As for that which is separate from the body, it does not break wudū‘ when it is touched.

When dealing with the eunuch, one considers the shape or lack it. If there is a shape, then touching it breaks wudū. If it does not have a shape, then one takes into consideration the judgement given to it. If masculinity is adjudged for him, it breaks wudū‘ and otherwise it does not.

There are different considerations regarding touching it through a barrier. If it is thick, that does not break wudū‘ in one position, If it is light, then the most accepted position is that it does break it. Touching the anus or the testicles does not break wudū‘ in the accepted position.]

2.2o. A Woman Touching Her Vagina

But there is difference of opinion about whether a woman has to do wudu’ if she touches her vagina.

[The position of the Mudawwana is that it does not break wudu’ based on what is on the hadith, “When one of you touches his penis, he should do wudū‘.” The position is based on the fact that that is what is understood by the word and when something is understood, a concealed meaning is not considered. The one who says that it does break wudu’ bases it on the hadīth which says, “If someone’s hand touches his private parts he should do wudū‘” because ‘private parts’ and can be applied to the penis or the vagina. Some of them say that wudu’ is not broken it if she touches the outside of it, but it is broken if she presses it or puts her hand inside the labia.]

2.2p. Further Note

[Ibn Juzayy: Things that break wudū‘ in other schools, but not in the Mālikī school are: vomiting, belching, nosebleeds or other bleeding, cupping, the emission of pus, laughing in the prayer (Abū Hanīfa), eating camel meat, eating cooked food, carrying the dead person, slaughtering animals. None of these break wudū‘.

] [Khalīl: It is recommended to wash out the mouth after eating meat or drinking milk.]

2.3 Ghusl (Full Ablution)

2.3a. Ghusl Because of Emission of Sperm

You have to do ghusl when, as has already been mentioned, sperm (maniy-yu) is ejaculated accompanied by sexual pleasure either during sleep or when awake whether from a man or woman.

[One of the things which oblige ghusl is the emission of sperm with normal pleasure, whether while asleep or awake, or man or woman. It is not a precondition for the obligation of ghusl that it emerge with pleasure when it actually takes place. Ghusl is obliged simply by its emerging after pleasure has departed, as when he has pleasure without intercourse and then sperm emerges from him after the pleasure is over.]

2.3b. At the End of Menstruation and Lochia

Ghusl is also necessary at the end of bleeding from menstruation.

[It is more precise to say ‘the blood of menstruation’ because it is more general than simply saying ‘menstrual period’ since that specifically designates that which is preceded by purity and followed by purity. The beginning or end of the blood which emerges is not called ‘a menstrual period’. In the Sharīʿah, the blood of menstruation is that which emerges on its own from the vagina which normally does not exceed 15 days and it emerges without being caused by illness or childbirth. Blood which emerges not by some cause, or which emerges from the anus, or emerges from a child of seven or a woman of 70, or which exceeds 15 days, or which emerges because of illness, or because of childbirth is not menstruation so that its judgements apply to it.]

2.3c. False Menstruation or Menorrhagia

Ghusl is necessary when abnormal bleeding (istihādah) stops

[Then the cessation of the blood of false menstruation was made a cause which obliges ghusl. Mālik’s final position was that ghusl was recommended. He first said that she does not have a ghusl. None of the people of the school say that it is obligatory except for al-Bājī if one takes his transmission literally.]

2.3d. Lochia

Ghusl is necessary at the end of the period of bleeding which follows childbirth (nifas).

[Lochia is one of the causes which makes ghusl obligatory. Lochia (nifas) linguistically means childbirth, whether there is blood with it or not. It designates the blood itself which emerges from the vagina because of childbirth. In the usage of the people of Sharī’ah it designates the blood which emerges from the vagina because of childbirth in a healthy and normal way. The blood which emerges from other than the vagina is not nifas. That which emerges not on account of of childbirth is not considered nifās. That which does not emerge in a healthy manner is not nifās. That would normally be bleeding which occurs is after the period of nifās, which is 60 days.]

2.3e. Penetration of the Vagina

Ghusl must also be done if the head of the penis penetrates the vagina even if no ejaculation takes place.

[One of the things which obliges ghusl is the penetration of the penis of the adult into the vagina, even if there is no ejaculation, whether it is human or animal, or into the anus, wherther female or male, whether or not there is emission, and whether or not there is a covering over it, but that is provided that the barrier is light so that pleasure can be felt with it. As for the thick barrier, ghusl is not obliged with it unless there is ejaculation. Then there is ghusl because of ejaculation, not because of the disappearance of the penis. The basis for that is what is in the Muwatta’ and Muslim from the words of the Prophet , “When he sits between her arms and legs and then presses her, he is obliged to do ghusl. This hadith is abrogated by what Muslim related from the words of the Prophet, “When you are too quick or there is no ejaculation, there is no ghusl,”and by what was related from his words, “Water is needed on account of water [semen].”]

2.4 Legal Consequences of Vaginal Penetration

2.4a. Ghusl is Obligatory

This penetration of the vagina by the head of the penis necessitates ghusl.

2.4b. Legal Consequences in Case of Fornication

It necessitates the hadd punishment (for zinā’u) and the payment of the dowry and gives the married couples the status of being muhsan and makes a woman who has gone through a triple divorce halal for her original husband and invalidates hajj and fasting.

[It obliges the hadd punishment for fornication and obliges the payment of the dower in full because the contract on its own demands half of the dower. It accords the married couple the states of being muhsan provided that they are free, Muslim, sane and adult.

It makes a woman lawful for her prior husband, if he is a free man. As for the woman divorced by a slave, it makes her lawful when he has divorced her twice. However making the divorced woman who has been trebly divorced lawful for her prior husband must involve full penetration. Thus full penetration is not a precondition for requiring ghusl, the hadd punishment and payment of the dowry, but full penetration and lack of barrier are preconditions for making the couple muhsan and making the divorced woman lawful. ]

2.4.c. Invalidation of hajj and fasting

It invalidates hajj and fasting.

[It absolutely invalidates hajj, be it obligatory or voluntary, intentional or by forgetfulness, when it occurs before standing at ‘Arafah or after it before the Tawāfu-l-ʿIfāḍah and stoning the Jamrāhu-l-ʿAqabah on the Day of Sacrifice. He continues with his hajj and makes it up the following year. It invalidates fasting, even without full penetration it, be it obligatory or voluntary, intentional or by forgetfulness. He must make it up and owes kaffārah for the obligatory if it is done it deliberately. Otherwise there is only making up, as is the case with doing it deliberately in a voluntary fast.]

2.5. Ghusl and Menstruation

2.5a. When Ghusl is Done After Menstruation

A woman does ghusl immediately after she sees the white liquid (qassah) which comes at the end of menstruation, or when she notices dryness, even if she notices this after a day or two days or only an hour.

[As the blood of menstruation is mentioned as one of the causes which oblige ghusl, he goes on to clarify the sign which indicates that it has ended and that the womb is free of it. He mentioned that it has two signs: a white liquid and dryness. When the menstruating women sees one of the two signs, then her purity is clear and she is adjudged to be pure from that moment and does not wait for the second sign. There is no minimum length of menstruation. Its minimum amount is one spurt. There is no maximum amount of it, but has a maximum in time, which is fifteen days.]

[Khalīl: Its maximum for someone who is having a first period is half a month (i.e. 15 days. If it stops before that and then she remains pure for half a month and then blood comes, it is a new menstruation.) as half a month is the minimum of purity (which is fifteen days and there is no limit to its maximum).

[And the maximum length of menstruation for someone with normal periods (even if she has only had one period) is fifteen days. There are three days of using precaution (i.e. above and beyond) her normal maximum. (i.e. if she normally menstruates five days and then menstruates after that and it does not stop after the full five days, she adds three days to it. If it does not stop after that, it is false menstruation. But if her normal period is 15 days, she does not use precaution at all.) This is as long as it does not exceed half a month. (If it is 14, she uses one, and if 13, she uses 2.) Then she is pure (to fast, prayer and have intercourse even if the blood is flowing, because it is false menstruation and not menstruation.)]

2.5b. Resumed Bleeding

If bleeding starts again or if she sees any yellowish discharge, she must stop doing the prayer and then when the bleeding stops again she should do ghusl and start the prayer once more.

[If she sees the sign of purity and the judgement is that she is pure immediately, from the moment she sees purity, and then the blood resumes again or there is a yellowish discharge which does not have the colour of blood, she stops praying and reckons that she is still menstruating that day and considers all of it to be the same period. It is one period since it has come before complete purity. Or it may stop before the end of her normal period or extend after its normal length and before looking for purity or before it was complete. When the bleeding comes after complete purity or when it ended after her normal peiod and the days of looking for the end, then it is not menstruation, but abnormal bleeding, When it stops again, then she again does a ghusl and prays, and does not wait to see whether more blood comes again. This question is involves the woman whose purity is interspersed with bleeding to add the days together.]

[Khalil: The one who has bleeding patches has a ghusl whenever the blood stops in the patched days unless she thinks that the blood will return before the time she is in finishes. In such a case she is not commanded to do ghusl. She fasts (if it stops at Fajr or before) and prays and has intercourse after ghusl according to the known position as opposed to the author of the Irshād who says that intercourse is not permitted. She can pray in all the days of menstruation when the period comes to her at night and then stops before Fajr. So she might not miss a prayer or a fast.]

2.5c. Legal Consideration of Such Gaps

When this situation occurs, it is considered as one menstrual period when reckoning the period of ʿiddah (after divorce or being widowed) or the period of istibra (after the death of a husband).

[The intermittent blood is considered as the same period of bleeding in respect of ʿiddah and istibrā‘ and so the days of blood are added together until they reach that at which its judgement normally ends or other than. if it exceeds that it is abnormal bleeding.]

2.5d. Consideration of a Long Gap

If there is a considerable interval between the two periods of bleeding, such as eight or ten days, then the second one is considered a new menstrual period.

]If there is not a long gap between the two periods of bleeding, it is considered as one menstrual period for the purposes of ʿiddah and istibrā‘, but if there is a long interval between them but less than the time of purity, which is eight or ten, even though the accepted interval is 15 days, then the second is a new menstruation, i.e. the beginning of a new one which is counted for purposes of ʿiddah and istibrā‘.]

2.5e. Abnormal Bleeding

If menstrual bleeding continues longer than fifteen days, it is considered as istihādah and the woman should perform a ghusl, fast, pray and her husband can have sexual intercourse with her.

[This means if the bleeding continues for her, then she waits for fifteen days from its beginning because the maximum of menstruation in respect of her is fifteen days. Then she is judged to have abnormal bleeding whether the two periods of bleeding are distinct or not. She has a ghusl and prays and fasts. Her husband can come to her. We mentions that which has a beginning to distinguish it from that which has no beginning because there are certain points regarding that because it is either what is normal for her varies or it does not. If it is not different and the blood continues more for her than it normally does, she looks for purity for three days as long as they do not exceed fifteen days. If it varies, she then looks for purity when it is longer than its norm.]

2.6. Lochia

2.6a. Minimum of Lochia

If the bleeding after childbirth (nifās) stops soon after the birth, a woman should do ghusl straightaway and start doing the prayer.

[If shortly after childbirth a woman sees the sign which indicates that it is ended with white discharge and dryness, then she washes and prays. “Soon after birth” has no minimum limit in relation to time and it has a minimum in relation to what emerges, which is one gush.]

2.6b. Maximum of Lochia

However, if bleeding continues longer than sixty days, then she does ghusl anyway, the bleeding is considered as istihādah, and she does the prayer and fasts and her husband can have sexual intercourse with her.

[If the bleeding continues, she waits for sixty days, which it the maximum of its extent. If it stops after sixty, the matter is clear. If she continues to bleed after sixty, it is abnormal bleeding and she has a ghusl, prays and fasts and her husband can come to her.]

Risālah Ibn Abī Zayd – Chapter One: About What the Tongue Should Articulate and About What the Heart Should Believe In Regards to the Obligatory Matters of the Religion

Risālah ibn Abī Zayd al-Qayrawaanī

The Risālah : A Treatise on Mālikī Fiqh by ʿAbdullah ibn Abī Zayd al-Qayrawānī (310/922 -386/996)

Translated by Alhaj Bello Mohammad Daura, MA (London) (Including commentary from ath-Thamr ad-Dānī by al-Azharī)

CHAPTER 1: The Chapter About What the Tongue Should Articulate and About What the Heart Should Believe In Regards to the Obligatory Matters of the Religion

The obligatory matters of the deen that the tongue should give expression to and in which the heart should believe.

This chapter clarifies what should be expressed in words and what hearts should believe. It contains about a hundred items of creed, which can be divided into three basic categories: that which must be believed about Allah Almighty, that which is impossible in respect of Allah, and that which is permissible in respect of Him.These are matters which all those who are legally responsible must believe.

1.1 Beliefs regarding Allah

1.1a Tawhid – His Oneness and Disconnection from creatures (tanzih)

These obligatory tenets include believing in the heart and expressing with the tongue that Allah is One God with no god other than Him, nor any likeness to Him, nor any equal to Him.

[Belief is expressed on the tongue and confirmed by sincerity in the heart and action with the limbs. Thus it is composed of all three aspects. Nonetheless, simple belief in the Oneness of Allah will save a person from being in the Fire for all eternity.

The belief that Allah is One is the fundamental basis of Islam, and when Divine Unity is expressed, the name “Allah” must be used. It is not permissible to say, “There is no god but the Almighty” or use any other names except Allah. Nothing at all resembles Him or is equal to Him.]

[Al-Kalbi mentions that the clear evidence for this is found in four ayats: “If there had been any gods except Allah in heaven or earth, they would both be ruined” (21:22); “Say: ‘If there had been other gods together with Him as you say,they would have sought a way to the Master of the Throne'” (17:42); “Allah has no son and there is no other god accompanying Him, for then each god would have gone off with what he created and one of them would have been exalted above the other” (23:91); and “But they have adopted gods apart from Him which do not create anything. They are themselves created.” (25:3)

1.1b. Lack of Associates

He has had no child. He had no father. He has no wife. He has no partner

[See Qur’an 112: “Say: He is Allah, One with no other, Allah the Everlasting Sustainer of all. He has not given birth and was not born and there is no one is equal to Him,” and”And say: ‘Praise be to Allah Who has had no son and Who has no partner in His Kingdom and Who needs no one to protect Him from abasement.'” (17:111). He is totally unique. If he were to have a wife or partner, that would imply need, and He is absolutely beyond need.]

1.1c. Lack of Temporality

There is no beginning to His firstness nor any end to His lastness.

[His existence does not begin with firstness so that there is a point at which He could be said to begin nor does He have a point at which He could be said to end. He exists eternally, out of time, before time and after time.]

1.1d. Ineffablity and Indefinablity

Those who try to describe Him can never adequately do so nor can thinkers encompass Him in their thought. Real thinkers may derive lessons from His signs but do not try to think about the nature of His Essence. “But they do not attain any of His knowledge except what He wills.” (2:254)

[It is impossible to grasp His true description, let alone His Essence. Thinkers must learn through the Signs which indicate the splendour of His Power, but must not attempt to reflect on the nature of His Essence because the Prophet said, “Reflect on His creation, but do not reflect on His Essence.”]

1.1e. His Footstool

“His Footstool embraces the heavens and the earth, and their preservation does not tire Him. He is the Most High, the Magnificent” (2:254)

[He has full control and authority over all creation, high and low, and His preservation of them is no burden for Him.]

1.1g. His Attributes

The All-Knower and the All-Aware, the Arranger and the All-Powerful. The All-Hearer and the All-Seeing. The High and the Great. He is over His Glorious Throne by His Essence.

[He has knowledge of all things, and complete power and authority over all things. His hearing and vision is connected to all things in existence.]

1.1g. His Knowledge

He is everywhere by His knowledge. He created man and He knows what his self whispers to him and He is nearer to him than his jugular vein. No leaf falls without him knowing of it nor is there any seed in the darkness of the earth, nor any fresh thing nor any dry thing, that is not in a clear book.

[He knows our inner dialogue and thoughts. He is closer to man that his jugular vein, which is his physical body, and so He is closer to man than his own physicality. “We created man and We know what his own self whispers to him, and We are nearer to him than his jugular vein.” (50:16) In addition to the universal scope of His knowledge, He knows the precise details, like each individual leaf which falls – and it only falls by His will and in accordance with His knowledge. Everything is encompassed by His knowledge, dead or alive, growing or dormant. “The keys of the Unseen are in His possession. No one knows them except for Him. He knows everything in the land and sea. Not a leaf falls without His knowing it. There is no seed in the darkness of the earth, and no wet thing or dry thing, but that it is in a Clear Book.” (6:59)]

1.1h. Mastery Oover All Creation

He is firmly established on His throne and has absolute control over His kingdom. [No one knows the true interpretation of this expression. Imam Malik was asked about it and said, “‘Firmly established’ is known but ‘how’ is not known.” Nothing is hidden from Him and His control is absolute. “He then established Himself firmly on the Throne.” (10:3, etc.)]

1.1i. His Names and Attributes

[He has the most beautiful names and the most sublime attributes and He has always had all these names and attributes. He is exalted above any of His attributes ever having been created or any of His names having been brought into temporal existence.

He is described by the best and noblest of the meanings of His Names. He has attributes like power, will, height, and so forth. He is high exalted over any imperfection or lack. These Names have always been His and will remain His. Thus neither His names nor His attributes are created. They are simply His. “To Allah belong the Most Beautiful Names” (7:180)]

1.1j. His Speech and Manifestation

He spoke to Musa with His speech which is an attribute of His essence and not something created. He manifested Himself to the mountain and it disintegrated through exposure to His majesty.

[Allah spoke to Musa with His timeless words and Musa actually heard His timeless speech.”When Musa came to Our appointed time and his Lord spoke to him, he said, ‘My Lord, show me Yourself so that I may look at You!’ He said, ‘You will not see Me, but look at the mountain. If it remains firm in its place, then you will see Me.’ But when His Lord manifested Himself to the mountain, He crushed it flat and Musa fell unconscious to the ground.” (7:143)]

1.2 Belief in the Qur’an

The Qur’an is the speech of Allah, not something created which must therefore die out, nor the attribute of something created which must therefore come to an end.

[The Qur’an is the speech of Allah which is not created and is timeless, outside of temporal time. Hence it will not end as creatures must end, but will abide endlessly.]

1.3 Belief in the Decree (Qadar)

1.3a. The Prior Decree of Good and Evil

Also included is belief in the Decree both the good of it and the evil of it, the sweet of it and the bitter of it. All of this has been decreed by Allah, our Lord. The way things are decided is entirely in His hand and the way they happen is according to His decree. He knows all things before they come into existence and they take place in the way He has already decided.

[It is necessary to believe that all things, good and evil, are decreed by Allah and nothing escapes His will and thus only what He wills occurs in His kingdom. All things and their being brought into existence from the concealment of nonexistence to the domain of manifestation in their myriad aspects and forms – long and short, at one time rather than one, in one place rather than another. All of that occurs and issues directly from His Decree according to His knowledge and dependent on His will.]

1.3b. Prior Knowledge

There is nothing that His servants say or do which He has not decreed and does not have knowledge of. “Does not He who creates know, when He is the Subtle and the Aware.” (67:14)

[He knows everything which happens before it happens. It only occurs in accordance with His knowledge of it.]

1.3c. The Prior Predisposition of People

He leads astray whoever He wills and in His justice debases them and He guides whoever He wills and in His generosity grants them success. In that way everyone is eased by Him to what He already has knowledge of and has previously decreed as to whether they are to be among the fortunate or the miserable.

[Every man has prior disposition to what Allah already knows about him being happy or wretched because Allah only created man according to His knowledge. See Qur’an 14:4, 3:160, etc.]

1.3d. Exaltedness of Allah’s power

He is exalted above there being anything He does not desire in His kingdom, or that there should be anything not dependant on Him, or that there should be any creator of anything other than Him, the Lord of all people, the Lord of their actions, the One who decrees their movements and the time of their death.

[The power of Allah is so immense and vast that there is nothing which is not directly under his authority and subject to His will. All things – might and abasement, wealth and poverty, pious actions and all things are subject to His will and power.]

1.4 Belief in the Messengers and Muhammad

1.4a. The sending of Messengers

He has sent Messengers to them in order that they should have no argument against Him.

[The first of the Prophets was Adam and the last was Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. One must believe and accept that Allah sent the Messengers to those who are legally responsible, i.e adult and sane, and they conveyed the Message. The wisdom of sending the Messengers is that it removes any excuse which creatures might offer about not having heard the Message.]

1. 4b. The Final Messenger

He sealed this Messengership, warning, and Prophethood with his Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, whom He made the last of the Messengers – “A bringer of good news and a warner, calling to Allah by His permission and an illuminating lamp.

[Revelation, which is warning and prophethood, which is informing about what Allah has said, reaches its end with the Prophet Muhammad. There will be no Prophets after him. He brings the good news that whoever follows him will be happy and whoever does not will be punished. He calls to Allah, conveying tawhid to the legally responsible, and fighting the unbelievers. He is an illuminating light because his Shari’a is a light which guides the bewildered –whoever follows it and proceeds along the Straight Path will emerge from the darkness of disbelief to the light of belief.]

1.4c. Divine Guidance through the Book

He sent down on him His Wise Book and by means of him He explained his upright deen and guided people to the Straight Path.

[One must believe and affirm that Allah revealed to His Prophet Muhammad a Book containing judgement and wisdom to which no falsehood at all comes. Allah opened and expanded the Straight deen of Islam through His Prophet. Thus He manifests its judgements and clarifies it on the tongue of His Prophet. Allah only sent down the revelation to us so that it would be clear to people. The guidance of Muhammad is the sun of knowledges, the source of right guidance and the fount of certainty which guides people to the Straight Path.]

1.5. Belief in the Resurrection and Judgement

1.5a. The Last Hour

Also part of what must be believed is that the Hour is coming – there is no doubt about it .

[Cf. 40:59.This must be confirmed and believed and the one who denies that the Final Hour will come is an unbeliever. However, but only the All-Knower of the Unseen knows when it will come. ]

1.5b. Resurrection of the Dead

It must be believed that Allah will raise up all who have died: “As He brought them into existence the first time so they will be brought back again;”

[It must be believed that He will bring the dead back to life after they were dead and bring them back for the Gathering. There is no disagreement among Muslims that it will occur, but there is disagreement about whether He will bring them back from absolutely nothing or from dissolution through a reconstitution of their parts.]

1.5c. Divine Reward: Multiplication of Good Actions

It must be believed that Allah, glory be to Him, multiplies the reward of the good actions of His believing servants.

[It must be believed that Allah will multiply good actions for the believers according to sincerity and degrees of humility, so that multiplication can be from ten to 700, in other words, a great deal. Ibn Hanbal transmitted that Allah multiplies the good action a thousand thousand times. This means the reward for doing them. The “good action” is what is praised in the Shariʿa, and what is the opposite of that is a “bad action”, which is what the Shariʿa considers reprehensible.]

1.5d. Pardoning Wrong Actions

He pardons them for their major wrong actions by virtue of their repentance (tawba) and forgives them for their minor wrong actions by virtue of their avoidance of the major wrong actions.

[Part of His bounty to His believing servants is that if anyone does any major wrong actions and then repents and makes amends, He will pardon Him by His favour and generosity. Small wrong actions are expiated by avoiding major ones.]

1.5e. Those who do not repent are subject to His will

Those who do not repent of their major wrong actions become subject to His will. “He does not forgive anything being associated with Him, but He forgives anything other than that to whoever He wills.”

Those believers who commit major wrong actions and die without repenting of them are subject to the Will of Allah. If He wishes, He will forgive them out of His favour. If He wishes, He will punish them out of justice. He may forgive everything except for associating others with Him.]

1.5f. Deliverance from the Fire because of belief

Those He punishes with His Fire, He will remove from it because of any belief they have and by this He will cause them to enter His Garden. “Whoever does an atom’s weight of good will see it.” (99:7)

[It must also be accepted that if Allah wills that the rebels among the believers be punished in the Abode of Punishment, their punishment will be commensurate with what they have brought on themselves by their evil deeds and then mercy will envelop them and they will emerge from the Abode of Punishment and enter the Abode of Peace. Whoever has the weight of atom of belief in his heart will not be in the Fire forever. Thus belief is a reason for not being forever in the Punishment and a reason for entering the Garden with Allah’s pardon and mercy.]

1.5g. The Intercession of the Prophet

Any of the community of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who have committed major wrong actions and for whom he intercedes, will be brought out of the Fire by his intercession.

[The intercession of the Prophet and others must be affirmed. He is singled out for mention because he is the first intercessor and by the intercession of our Prophet the people of major wrong actions of his community of unifiers will emerge from the Fire. The Mu’tazilites deny intercession, based on the lack of permission to pardon and overlook wrong actions, but we defer to transmitted evidence and they hold to merely logical evidence. Transmitted evidence is more sublime and radiant.]

1.6 The Afterlife: the Garden and the Fire

1.6a. The Garden

Allah has created the Garden and has made it ready as an everlasting abode for His friends (awliya’). He will honour them in it with the vision of His Noble Face. This is the same Garden from which He sent down Adam, His Prophet and Khalif, to the earth, which was as it had already been decreed in His foreknowledge.

[Allah has created the everlasting abode of the Garden for the believers in which they will have no toil or fatigue, but will be rejoicing and will be blessed by contemplation of His Face. See 75:23.]

1.6b. The Fire

He has created the Fire and has made it ready as an everlasting abode for those who disbelieve in him and deny His signs and Books and Messengers and He keeps them veiled from seeing Him.

[He created the Fire as an eternal abode of punishment for those who deny and reject Him and ignored the evidence which indicates the existence and oneness of the Creator and denied His revealed Books and Messengers. They will abide in the hatred resulting from disbelief and will be veiled from seeing their Lord on that day.]

1.7 Details of the Resurrection

1.7a The Coming of Allah and the Angels

Allah, may He be blessed and exalted, will come on the Day of Rising together with the angels, rank upon rank. [It is confirmed by transmission that on the Day of Resurrection Allah will come with angels in ranks.

[It is confirmed by transmission that on the Day of Resurrection Allah will come with angels in ranks. That must be believed, and its knowledge comes from the Lawgiver. Malik and others say about this ayat (89:22) and others that they are read as they have come without qualification. We take what they say literally butdo not compare it to any creature.]

1.7b. Presentation of Peoples

All the different peoples are confronted with their accounts and their punishment or reward.

[All the different peoples will come to present themselves so that their states was be investigated and reckoning taken for their actions. The actions of those who present themselves for the Reckoning will have their good and bad actions enumerated. The believer will be called to account with graciousness and favour and the hypocrite and unbeliever with evidence and justice. So Allah Almighty will say to the believer, “I veiled it for you in the world and I forgive it for you on the Day of Rising.” The unbelievers will be reckoned in front of of witnesses and those who they denied will be summoned to their Lord, “The curse of Allah on wrongdoers.”]

1.7c. The Balance

The balances will be set up to weigh people’s actions – “Whoever’s actions are heavy in the balance – they are the successful.”

[See 21:47; 101:6. The balances will be set up to manifest justice so that no one will be wronged even the weight of a mustard grain. Allah will bring all the person’s actions, even to an atom’s weight, on the Day of Resurrection. Whoever has his balance heavy will be successful and achieve a happiness after which there will be no misery. Whoever has his balance light will be wretched and will have no happiness after his wretchedness.]

1.7d. The Books of Actions

People will be given pages on which their actions are recorded – “Whoever given his book in his right hand will be given an easy accounting and whoever is given his book behind his back – they will burn in a Fire.” (84:7-13)

[Nations will be given their pages which contain their actions. When they are given them, Allah will create knowledge in them and they will understand what they contain. If someone is given his book in his right hand, that indicates that he is one of the people of the right hand and happiness. If someone is given his book in his left hand, that is an indication that he is one of the people of misery.” The receiving of the books should actually be put before the balance and weighing of acting because the weighing is after the Reckoning and the Reckoning is after receiving the Books.]

1.7e. The Sirat

The Bridge (sirat) is true and people will cross it according to their actions. Those who cross it, and achieve safety from the Fire, do so at different speeds, while the actions of others cast them to their destruction in the Fire.

[There is a great deal of description of the Sirat and it is said that it is finer than a hair and sharper than a sword. Al-Qarafi, on the other hand, says that it is wide with two paths on it, one to the right and one to the left. The people of happiness travel on the right and the people of wretchedness on the left.

There are ropes on it and each rope leads to one of the levels of Jahannam and Jahannam lies between the creatures and the Garden. The Sirat is set up over Jahannam, and none of the people of the Garden enters the Garden until he has crossed over the Sirat.

People will cross over the Sirat according to the disparity in their actions and avoidance of the things forbidden by Allah. Some will pass over like lightning. Some will escape the hooks, some will be scratched but released, and some will be caught by the hooks and tipped into the Fire of Jahnnam.]

1.7f The Basin

Also included is belief in the Basin (hawd) of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, which his community will come down to drink from after which they will never feel thirst again. But those who make any changes or alterations in the dîn will be driven from it.

[It is necessary to believe in the Basin of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He will drive away from it those who alter things, like the apostates and those of his followers who follow him with the best will drink from it when they leave their graves thirsty. Whoever drinks from it will never feel thirst again.]

1.8 Belief

1.8a. Definition of Belief

Belief consists of what you say with the tongue, what you believe sincerely in the heart, and what you do with the limbs.

[Belief is articulation of the shahada, belief in the truthfulness of the Messenger and what he brought in the heart and then acting according to the judgements of the Shari’a, like praying and fasting. Someone with all of these three is a believer. If someone believes that belief does not consist of these three and imagines that what the author said was due to his inclination to what belief obliges because there is consensus that someone who believes with his heart, speaks with his tongue and acts with his limbs is a believer. If he does not believe that belief consists of these three, he takes it as a preface to the words which follow:]

1.8b Increase and Decrease of Belief

It increases when your actions increase and decreases when they decrease. So it is through actions or the lack of them that increase and decrease in belief occurs.

[It increases according to actions and decreases according to actions. This increase and decrease is in relation to its fruits. This is the school of the early and laster people of the community, and this is the final position taken in the matter by Malik. He first had said that it increases and does not decrease. Applying the name”belief” to action is agreed upon. The Almighty says, “Allah would not let your belief go to waste,” which referred to the prayers they did facing Jerusalem.]

1.8c. The intention and following the Sunna

The statement of belief is not complete without action. Neither the statement nor action are complete without intention. And neither the statement nor intention are complete unless they are in accordance with the sunna.

[Actions and words are according to intentions. The intention is the fulcrum upon which actions are based, and so a man should only base his actions on the pure Sunna and Straight Shari’a and follow the Rightly-guided khalifs.]

1.8d. Islam and Wrong actions

No Muslim becomes an unbeliever (kafir) through wrong actions.

[It must be believed that no Muslim who commits a wrong action becomes an unbeliever as long as he believes. The same applies to someone who commits acts of disobedience while he nevertheless believes that the Shari’a forbids them. If someone does something such shows that he lacks belief, like throwing a copy of the Qur’an into the rubbish, then he is an apostate. We are not discussing him. The Prophet said, “Whover faces our qibla and eats our sacrifices is truly a believer.” The Kharijites were heretics when they said that every sin is a major wrong action and every major wrong action removes actions and the one who does that is an unbeliever. The Mu’tazilites said that every major wrong action renders actions void and the one who commits it is between two stations, and he is not called a believer or an unbeliever. He is called a deviant (fasiq).]

1.8e. Martyrs

Martyrs (shuhada’) are alive, receiving their provision in the presence of their Lord.

[It is obligatory to believe that the marytrs, those who fought the unbelievers and were killed in the way of Allah to elevate the word of Allah, are alive and delighting in the Presence of their Lord because of the privileges they have been granted, one of which is that they will be secure from the Greatest Terror on the Day of Rising. See Qur’an 3:169.]

1.8f. In the grave: the spirits of the fortunate

The spirits of the fortunate remain in bliss until the day they are raised again.

[The souls of the fortunate will remain in bliss until the Day of Rising seeing their place in the Garden. When one of them dies, he is shown his place in the Garden morning and evening.]

1.8g. In the grave: the spirits of the miserable

The spirits of the miserable are tormented until the Day of Judgement.

[The souls of the wretched are punished by seeing their place in the Fire and other punishments.]

1.8h. The questioning in the grave

The believers are tried and questioned in their graves. “Allah makes those who believe firm by giving them firm words in the life of this world and the next world.”

[ This refers to the questioning by the two angels in the grave. The dead person will be placed in his grave and people will leave him and then two angels come and sit with him and ask him, “Who is your Lord? What is your deen? Who is your Prophet?” The believer will reply, “My Lord is Allah. My deen is Islam, My Prophet is Muhammad,” and his grave will be wide for him. When the unbeliever is in the grave and is asked these questions, he will reply, “I do not know,” and so he will be dealt a blow from an iron hammer and will scream so that all creatures except men and jinn will hear him. Also reported is the constriction of the grave, which is the pressing on the sides of the body of the dead person and none is safe from that except the one whom Allah grants an exception – they include Fatima bint Asad, the mother of ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, because of the blessing of the Prophet going into her grave, and whoever recites Surat al-Ikhlas in his final illness.”]

1.9 The Angels

1.9a. The Recording Angels

People have recording angels over them who write down their actions. Nothing people do escapes the knowledge of their Lord.

[Men and jinn, believers and unbelievers, free and slave, have recording angels who write down their actions, even the permissible ones and the groan in illness, and even the actions of the heart, like all the thoughts which occur to it. Allah has given the heart a token by which it can distinguish between the good and bad action. The source for the knowledge of that is the words of the Almighty, “Standing over you are guardians, noble, recording. They know everything you do,” (82:10-12) and the words of the Prophet, “The angels of the day and night succeed one another.” There is consensus on that. None of the actions are hidden from Allah. That is part of the subtlety of Allah regarding His slaves since they know that Allah has recording angels who record their actions and that will prevent them from acts of disobedience and the proof will be established against them when they reject and deny.]

1.9b. The Angel of Death

The angel of death seizes people’s spirits by the permission of his Lord.

[Allah has delegated an angel called ‘Azra’il to take the spirits of creatures, men, jinn and other birds and all animals who have a spirit. The Almighty says, “Allah takes back all selves at the time of their death,” (39:42) and He says, “Then when death comes to one of you, Our messengers take him,” (6:61) however the outward appearance differs from this. The action is ascribed to Allah because He is the one who does it in reality, and the attribution of taking the spirits is to the Angel of Death because he does it directly by the permission of Allah. Taking is ascribed to the angels who are messengers because they assist the Angel of Death in taking the spirits.]

1.10 Authorities

1.10a The Best generation

The best generation are those who saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and believed in him. Then those who followed them and then those who followed them.

[The best generation is those who were alive in the time of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and believed in him, respected and helped and followed the Light which was sent down with him and the suns of his prophethood shone on them and they won and chose the virtue of being a Companion. Their generation is the best generation. This is in accordance with his words, “The best of you is my generation and those who follow them and then those who follow them.]

1.10b. The best Companions

The best of the Companions (Sahaba) are the rightly-guided khalifs. Firstly, Abu Bakr, then ‘Umar, then ‘Uthman, then ‘Ali, may Allah be pleased with all of them.

[Not all the Companions had the same degree, but they varied in their degrees of excellence. The Rightly-guided Khalifs are the best and in order of excellence they were Abu Bakr, then ‘Umar, then ‘Uthman, then ‘Ali, may Allah be pleased with all of them.]

1.10c. Respect for all the Companions

None of the Companions of the Messenger should be mentioned except in the best way and silence should be maintained concerning any disagreements that broke out between them. They are the people who are most worthy of being considered in the best light possible and the people whose opinions should be most respected.

[One should avoid getting embroiled in the quarrels between them and one must always take the best interpretation in holding an opinion regarding them. They must always be thought about in the best possible light.]

1.10d. Those in authority

Obedience to the leaders of the Muslims, both their rulers and their men of knowledge, is obligatory.

[It is obligatory to obey the Imams of the Muslims who are in authority who are responsible for the best interests of the Muslims. If they command what is correct, it is obligatory to obey, and if they forbid the reprehensible, it is obligatory to refrain. It is only obligatory to obey the scholars who act by their knowledge and command the correct and forbid the reprehensible and preserve the limits of Allah. The evidence for the obligation is the words of the Almighty, “Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in command among you.” (4:58) The one who transgresses is not obeyed because the Prophet said, “There is no obedience due to a creature which involves disobedience to the Creator.” (Ibn Hanbal & al-Hakim)]

1.10e. The Salaf

It is also obligatory to follow the Right-acting Companions, to tread in their footsteps and ask forgiveness for them.

[It is obliged to follow the righteous Salaf who are the Companions, in their words and actions, whether it is learned from them or by derivation and ijtihad. Similarly one must pray for forgiveness for them.]

1.10f. Avoiding Disputation

It is also obligatory to avoid wrangling and argumentation regarding the deen..

[It is necessary to avoid wrangling and arguments about the deen. Wrangling is to deny the truth after it is clear. Argumentation is to quarrel with the people of innovations. That is forbidden because it could lead to attacking the Companions and cause doubt in the heart. If the aim of the argument is to set forth the truth without obduracy, then it is permitted.]

1.10g. Avoiding Innovations

…and to avoid every new thing which people have introduced into it.

[Avoid innovations because the Prophet said, “If anyone innovates something in this business of ours which is not part of it, it is rejected.” This is applied to innovations which did not occur in his time and which the Shari’a indicates are unlawful, according to some. Some believe that innovation is what did not occur in this time, whether the Shari’a indicates that it is unlawful, obligatory, recommended, disliked or permitted. Innovations are found in all five categories. This is what is stated by Ibn ʿAbdu’s-Salam, al-Qarafi and others.]

May Allah bless and give much peace to our Master Muhammad, His Prophet, and his family and his wives and his descendants.

Matn al-Akhḍarii an English Translation

mukhtassar-al-akhdari
Matn Al-Akhḍarī

مُقَدِّمَةُ الْكِتَابِ (The Introductory Chapter) from Matn al-Akhdarii

The Section about الطَّهَارَة – At-Ṭahaarah (Purity) from Matn al-Akhdarii

Sections About the Obligatory, Prophetic and Meritorious Acts of Wuḍuu’ from Matn al-Akhḍarii

Section: نَـوَاقـضُ‏ الْـوُضُـوء (Nawaaqiḍu-l-Wuḍuu’ [The Nullification of Wuḍuu’]) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

Section About Ghusl: Its Obligatory, Sunnah and Meritorious Actions from Matn al-Akhḍarii

The Section About التَّيَمُّم At-Tayammum (Dry Ablution) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

The Sections About الْـحَيْض Al-Ḥayḍ (Menstruation) and النَّفَاس An-Nafaas (The Blood Of Parturition [Child Birth]) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

The Section About الأَوْقَاتُ‏ الصَّلاَةِ Al-Awqaatu-ṣ-Salaah [The Times Of Prayer] from Matn al-Akhḍarii

The Section Concerning شُرُوطُ‏ الصَّلاَة (The Conditions of Ṣalaah) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

Section الصَّلاَّةُ‏ الـْـمَفْرُوضَـة (Aṣ-Ṣalaatu-l-Mafruuḍah [The Obligatory Prayer]) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

Section فصل قُـضَاءُ‏ مَـا فِـي‏ الذِّمَّةِ‏ مِـنَ‏ الصَّلَوَات (Making Up What is Owed from Prayers [That Have Passed]) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

A Chapter About السَّهْو (as-Sahw [Forgetfulness During Prayer] from Matn al-Akhḍarii

Published in: Uncategorized on November 20, 2020 at 15:25  Leave a Comment  

Matn Al ʿIzziyyah: an English Translation

Click on the following links in order to read the chapter for the each topic:

Chapter 1 Concerning Purity – Section:

  1. The Characteristics of the Water Used for Minor and Major Ablution From Matn al ʿIzziyyah

2. The Difference Between Pure and Impure Substances from Matn al ʿIzziyah

3. The Status of Substances That Come in Contact with the Body or Come from the Body both Externally and Internally from Matn al ʿIzziyah

4. The Removal of Impurity from the Garment of the Worshipper, His Body and His Prayer Area and What is Excusable in Regards to Blood and Festering Matter from Matn al ʿIzziyah

5. The Obligatory Actions of Wuḍuu’ from Matn al ʿIzziyah

6. The Sunnah Actions of Wuḍuu’ from Matn al ʿIzziyah

7. The Meritorious Actions of Wuḍuu’ from Matn al ʿIzziyah

8. الإسْـتِنجَاءُ ([Istinjaa’] Cleansing Oneself of Impurity), الاِسْـتِبْرَاءُ ([Istibraa’] Ridding Oneself of Impurity) from Matn al ʿIzziyah

9. (The Proper [Adaab] Manners for Urinating and Defecating from Matn al ʿIzziyah

10. نَوَاقِضُ الوُضُوء (The Nullification of Wuḍuu’) from Matn al ʿIzziyah

11. The Things That Make Ghusl [Major Ablution] Necessary from Matn al ʿIzziyah

12. التَّيَمُّمُ at-Tayammum (Dry ablution) from Matn al ʿIzziyyah

13. فَصْلٌ فِي الْـمَسْحِ عَلَى الْـخُفَّيْـنِ (Wiping over the Leather Socks) from Matn al ʿIzziyah

14. الْـحَيْضُ (The Blood of Menstruation) and النَّفَاسُ (The Blood of Parturition [Childbirth]) from Matn al ʿIzziyah

Chapter 2 – Concerning الصَّلاةِ (Prayer) – Section:

  1. الصَّلاَةُ‮ ‬الْـمَفْرُوضةُ‮ ‬ (The Obligatory Prayers) from Matnu-l-ʿIzziyah

This is not the complete text, but rather, its a work in progress. In shaa’a-l-laah, there will be more sections add over time.  

Get full Arabic text by clicking on link: Arabic Text

 Explanation of Matn Al īzziyyah click link: Audio

Published in: Uncategorized on November 20, 2020 at 03:22  Leave a Comment  

THE IDEA OF ISLAMIC TRADE

By Shaykh ʿUmar Vadillo

What is Islamic Trade?

Islamic Trade is trade conducted under Islamic Law. The most important prerequisite for the existence of trade is the existence of the Islamic Market. A key characteristic of Islamic Trade is its openness to everyone. It restores a natural right to the individual, which is, the right to trade: everyone has access to trade for free in a fitting venue, such as the traditional Open/Islamic Markets. This right has rapidly disappeared with the malls, supermarkets and hypermarkets, and has become the privilege of few. For example, the five largest supermarkets in Britain control two thirds of all retailing.

Trade cannot exist in a regime in which supermarkets control retailing. You cannot trade as an individual in a supermarket, you can only trade if there is a market-place available. This is why trading needs markets and why trading becomes monopolistic distribution if there are supermarkets instead of market-places.

Islamic Trade is opened to all: Muslims and non-Muslims.

Allah has presented trade in parallel to usury by saying: Allah has permitted trade and forbidden usury. This is like saying usury is the illness and trade is health. To restore health is not enough while suppressing the illness, we need to promote health (good eating, exercise), a healthy body. To promote trade is the effective way of eliminating our dependence in usury. Promoting Islamic Trade will be a positive way to present Islam to millions of victims of capitalism. Islamic Trade will be a way of calling millions of non-Muslims to Islam.

Another aspect of Islamic Trade: the Guilds

Islamic Trade is a complete recipe to stimulate and encourage independent entrepreneurship. An Islamic society is not a society of employees. We know through the literature that Muslims lived and worked organised in guilds. Belonging to a guild was the norm in Muslim societies. Businesses were created in collaboration with other members of a trade with the support and infrastructure of a guild organisation. The conditions to create an independent business were all favourable. The relationship employer/employee was replaced by master/apprentice. There was not a class of employees in the days of the guilds. Guilds were eliminated and a new set of privileges and monopolies were put in place. Today free competition and free access to the market do not exist for all. Islamic Trade guarantees equal rights for all. Islamic Trade will decisively contribute to the re-establishment of the guilds, challenging the system of the modern corporation based on one owner and 14,000 employees. It will encourage new models of open production processes (guilds), where production is open to thousands of free small owners who are associated.

This is also part of the wider framework of the Islamic Trade Initiative. Concerning this matter, it is important to point out that especially since the beginning of the 1990s, quite a few corporations have partially understood the benefits of dividing their production processes into smaller units. Instead of one pyramidal structure with one source of decision, they saw the benefit of many autonomous units working in collaboration while competing among each other. Thus, Toyota now claims that there is not one Toyota but two thousand Toyotas. Asea Brown Boveri, the Swedish-Swiss engineering giant, has subdivided itself into 1,300 independent companies and 5,000 autonomous profit centres. Their prosperous success is forcing others to adapt to the same principle. The policies of decentralisation, though they seem a step in the right direction, are limited because they have all been designed by corporate staff. Corporate staff could not suggest the ultimate step which would be to eliminate the corporation altogether, or in other words to give total independence to the autonomousworkshops. That could only happen if the small workshop could have an access to the customer identical to that of Toyota itself. To make that step we need open distribution networks and free market-places for all. These are all part of Islamic Trade.

Islamic Trade can transform money, transform production and distribution, create a new formulation of contractual law and, perhaps the most important, open trading to all in society. Islamic Trade consists of new procedures, mechanisms and institutions based on justice. But Islamic Trade is not a moral proposition, it is existential reality. It does not judge your inner convictions but only your outward behaviour and the effects of your behaviour.

The Foundations of Islamic Trade

consist of five main elements:

•The Open Market-place — a market-place open to all

•The Open Production Process—a production accessible to all

•The Open Distribution Network—a distribution accessible to all

•The Free Medium of Exchange—a medium of exchange freely chosen by all

•The Islamic Business Contracts—the contracts that guarantee 

What is the Islamic Market?

Soon after his arrival in Madinah al-Munawwara, the Prophet of Islam, salallahu alayhi wa sallam, created two institutions, a mosque and a market. He made clear by his statements and explicit injunctions that the market-place was to be a space freely accessible to everybody, with no divisions (such as shops) and where no taxes, levies or rents could be charged.

The Market is like a Mosque: …

The Messenger of Allah, salallahu alayhi wa sallam, said: 

“Markets should follow the same Sunna as the mosques: whoever gets his place first has a right to it until he gets up and goes back to his house or finishes his selling. (suq al-muslimin ka-musalla l-muslimin, man sabaqa ila shay’in fa-huwa lahu yawmahu hatta yada‘ahu.)”.

(Al-Hindi, Kanz al-’Ummal, V, 488, no. 2688)

It is a sadaqa, with no private ownership …

Ibrahim ibn al-Mundhir al Hizami relates from Abdallah ibn Ja’far, that Muhammad ibn Abdallah ibn Hasan said, “The Messenger of Allah, salallahu alayhi wa sallam, gave the Muslims their markets as a charitable gift (tasaddaqa ‘alal-muslimina bi-aswaqihim).”(Ibn Shabba, K. Tarikh al-Madinah al-Munawwara, 304)

With no rent charged … Ibn Zabala relates that Khalid ibn Ilyas al-’Adawi said, “The letter of ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz was read out to us in Madinah, saying that the market was a sadaqa and that no rent (kira’) should be charged on anyone for it.” (As-Samhudi, Wafa al-Wafa, 749)

With no taxes levied on it …Ibrahim ibn al-Mundhir relates from Ishaq ibn Ja’far ibn Muhammad, from Abdallah ibn Ja’far ibn al-Miswar, from Shurayh ibn Abdallah ibn Abi Namir, that Ata’ ibn Yasar said, “When the Messenger of Allah, salallahu alayhi wa sallam, wanted to set up a market in Madinah, he went to the market of Bani Qaynuqa’ and then came to the market of Madinah, stamped his foot on the ground and said, ‘This is your market. Do not let it be lessened (la yudayyaq), and do not let any tax (kharaj) be levied on it.’” (Ibn Shabba, K. Tarikh al-Madinah al-Munawwara, 304)

Where no reservations or claims can be made …Ibn Zabala relates from Hatim ibn Isma’il that Habib said that ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab [once] passed by the Gate of Ma’mar in the market and [saw that] a jar had been placed by the gate and he ordered that it be taken away. … ‘Umar forbade him to put any stones on the place or lay claim to it [in any way] (an yuhajjir ‘alayha aw yahuzaha). (As-Samhudi, Wafa al-Wafa, 749)

And where no shops can be constructed. Ibn Shabba relates from Salih ibn Kaysan …that …the Messenger of Allah, salallahu alayhi wa sallam, …said: ‘This is your market. Do not build anything with stone (la tatahajjaru) [on it], and do not let any tax (kharaj) be levied on it.’” (As-Samhudi, Wafa al-Wafa, 747-8)

Abu r-Rijal relates from Isra’il, from Ziyad ibn Fayyad, from one of the shaykhs of Madinah that ‘Umar ibn al Khattab,

radiya’llahu ‘anhu, saw a shop (dukkan) which someone had

newly put up in the market and he destroyed it. (Ibn Shabba, K. Tarikh al-Madinah al-Munawwara, 750)

Without the Market-Place there is no Trade

The first thing is that we need to distinguish between trade and monopolistic distribution. Supermarkets do not allow trade to happen, no one can go there to trade. The products that arrive at the supermarket have already been bought by the supermarket. The goods come from a warehouse that distributes them to the network of supermarkets throughout the nation. The goods arrive at the warehouse from producers or other warehouses, from where the goods were originally bought. This is not trade, this is monopolistic distribution. The clearest evidence that trade has disappeared is that there are no caravans any more. Caravans are the institution of trade. There cannot be caravans if there is nowhere to go to sell. If there are no markets there will be no caravans. Therefore if there are no markets there is no trade. To recreate trade we need to recreate Islamic or Open Markets.

Islamic Trade generates “New Wealth”

Trade is in itself a source of wealth.

Rasulullah, salallahu alayhi wa sallam, said: “9/10 of the provision comes from trade”. That is like saying that 9/10 of the generation of wealth comes from trade. If this is so important to us, it is obvious that its defence is proportionally important. Considering that trade is no longer possible without market-places, we can conclude that we have eliminated 9/10 of our provision. To re-establish trade must be considered a priority of every responsible government, and this primarily means the establishment of networks of Islamic Markets.

We are unfortunately living at a time in which people do not regard trade as something important. The result of this is that economists have concluded that traders should be eliminated from the economy in favour of distributors: supermarkets are encouraged while old markets are closed down.

Another result of this philosophy is that real traders are thrown into the streets with no infrastructure to support them (street  markets), while bankers (usurers) sit in palaces. The reverse of this is the Islamic way. ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, radiallahu ‘anhu, considered the traders that came to Madinah his guests.

Consequently, all Islamic cultures have treated traders with great esteem. They built for them palaces in which to trade. See for example, the markets of Istanbul, Samarkand or Isfahan. In the past our traders were in palaces while the usurers were in the streets chased by the police. Today the reverse is the norm.

Traders are a source of wealth for us and adequate infrastructure should be given to them. This is what the Islamic market provides for them.

The important thing is that the Islamic Dinar associated to Islamic Trade can generate new wealth with those people in society whom economists reject. The Islamic Dinar can generate a new wealth with the rejects of the present economy, that is, the real economy. The fate of the Islamic Dinar and the Real Economy are bound together through Islamic Trade.

The Islamic Trade Bloc

The implementation of Islamic Trade has its maximum political reality in the establishment of an Islamic Trade Bloc. The establishment of the Islamic Trade Bloc will have three conditions:

1.It must be based on the use of the IGD as currency rather than the creation of yet another paper currency.

2.It must be introduced gradually and should be offered as a choice to the Muslim community

3.It must be accompanied by the establishment of a trading infrastructure based on Islamic Markets.

The Core Mechanism of an Islamic Trade Bloc

Definition

The minimum mechanism that can guarantee a sustainable and continuous growth of the use of the Islamic Dinar as currency consisting of three elements, i.e. the Payment System, the Market Network and Investment (qirad). All three elements enhance trade and synergise one another.

Published in: Uncategorized on October 17, 2020 at 00:36  Leave a Comment  

Open Markets In Islam

Markets in Madina were public institutions (awqaf). The Islamic cities were, above all, a market-city. The importance of the Suq in the formation and development of the Muslim city cannot be underestimated. Muslim cities were founded on the combination of a Great Market and a Great Mosque. This combination was the heart of every city. Ottoman developers called this combination the Imaret. The Imaret is the distinctive feature of every Islamic city.

Soon after his arrival in Madina al-Munawwarah, the Prophet of Islam, salla’llahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, created two institutions, a mosque and a market. He made clear by his statements and explicit injunctions that the marketplace was to be a space freely accessible to everybody, with no divisions (such as shops) and where no taxes, levies or rents could be charged.

The Market is like a Mosque: …

The Messenger of Allah, salla’llahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, said: “Markets should follow the same sunnah as the mosques: whoever gets his place first has a right to it until he gets up and goes back to his house or finishes his selling. (suq al-muslimin ka-musalla l-muslimin, man sabaqa ila shay’in fa-huwa lahu yawmahu hatta yada‘ahu.)”.

(Al-Hindi, Kanz al-’Ummal, V, 488, no. 2688)

It is a sadaqa, with no private ownership …

Ibrahim ibn al-Mundhir al Hizami relates from Abdallah ibn Ja’far, that Muhammad ibn Abdallah ibn Hasan said, “The Messenger of Allah, salla’llahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, gave the Muslims their markets as a charitable gift (tasaddaqa ‘ala l-muslimina bi-aswaqihim).”

(Ibn Shabba, K. Tarikh al-Madinah al-Munawwarah, 304)with no rent charged …

Ibn Zabala relates that Khalid ibn Ilyas al-’Adawi said, “The letter of Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz was read out to us in Madinah, saying that the market was a sadaqa and that no rent (kira’) should be charged on anyone for it.”(As-Samhudi, Wafa al-Wafa, 749) with no taxes levied on it …

Ibrahim ibn al-Mundhir relates from Ishaq ibn Ja’far ibn Muhammad, from Abdallah ibn Ja’far ibn al-Miswar, from Shurayh ibn Abdallah ibn Abi Namir, that Ata’ ibn Yasar said, “When the Messenger of Allah, salla’llahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, wanted to set up a market in Madinah, he went to the market of Bani Qaynuqa’ and then came to the market of Madinah, stamped his foot on the ground and said, ‘This is your market. Do not let it be lessened (la yudayyaq), and do not let any tax (kharaj) be levied on it.’”

(Ibn Shabba, K. Tarikh al-Madinah al-Munawwarah, 304)

where no reservations or claims can be made …I

bn Zabala relates from Hatim ibn Isma’il that Habib said that Umar ibn al-Khattab [once] passed by the Gate of Ma’mar in the market and [saw that] a jar had been placed by the gate and he ordered that it be taken away. … Umar forbade him to put any stones on the place or lay claim to it [in any way] (an yuhajjir ‘alayha aw yahuzaha).

(As-Samhudi, Wafa al-Wafa, 749)

and where no shops can be constructed.

Ibn Shabba relates from Salih ibn Kaysan …that …The Messenger of Allah, salla’llahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, …said: ‘This is your market. Do not build anything with stone (la tatahajjaru) [on it], and do not let any tax (kharaj) be levied on it’”

(As-Samhudi, Wafa al-Wafa, 747-8)

Abu r-Rijal relates from Isra’il, from Ziyad ibn Fayyad, from one of the shaykhs of Madinah that Umar ibn al Khattab, radiya’llahu ‘anhu, saw a shop (dukkan) which someone had newly put up in the market and he destroyed it.

(Ibn Shabba, K. Tarikh al-Madinah al-Munawwarah, 750)

Open Markets versus SupermarketsOpenness and competition can only be granted not only if the legal conditions permit them to exist, but also if the infrastructural and practical conditions support them too.

For example, we cannot speak of full and fair competition in Britain when 80% of all retailing is controlled by 4 supermarkets. These supermarkets have driven out tens of thousands of small shops and small manufacturers throughout Britain. The same phenomenon is taken place across Europe. All sectors of industry are consolidating in fewer and fewer hands. The number of players is diminishing and the SME’s are suffering. The key concern behind the national protectionist measures that resist further integration in the EU single market is the effect that it will have in their small business. Carrefour is now the second largest retailer in the world, just behind Walmart.

Suqs in the Muslim City Suqs were an integral part of every city. The number of suqs varied considerably from one city to another. Cairo had 145, Aleppo 77, Baghdad, Damascus and Algiers only around 50. Within the central zone the markets were located, broadly, in decreasing order of importance: the markets for goldsmiths and money changers (sagha), for spices (‘attarin), and for the cloths (suq al-qumash) normally occupied the area closest to the center. The division of activities in Tunis around the Zaytuna, is specially significant in this regard.

The basic element of these central quarters was the shop (dukkan). In the large covered markets, the space of the dukkan was divided into two parts:

• the selling area which belonged to the suq and was free. It was the visible frontal part of the dukkan that connected to the passages of the suq;

• the storage area which belonged to the services of the suq which had to pay a rent. It was located in the back or on the top of the selling area.

An Example: The Grand Bazaar of IstanbulThe construction of the future Grand Bazaar’s core started during the winter of 1455/56, shortly after the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople. The construction of the initial Bedesten ended in the winter of 1460/61, and the building was endowed to the waqf of the Aya Sofya Mosque. Over the centuries the market was made bigger and new sections were added.

According to a 1890 survey, in the Bazaar were active 4,399 shops, 2 Bedesten, 2195 rooms, 1 Hamam, one mosque, 10 Medrese, 19 fountains (among them two Şadırvan and one Sebil), one Mausoleum and 24 Han.

The full extension of the market complex is 30.7 hectares, protected by 18 gates, there are 3,000 shops along 61 streets, the 2 Bedesten, 13 Han or caravanserais (plus several more outside).

Bazaar’s merchants were organized in guilds. In order to establish a new one, it was only necessary to have enough traders of the same good.

The ethics of trade in the Market until the Tanzimat age (half of the 19th century) was quite different from the modern one: indifference to profit, absence of envy in the successes of other traders and a single and correct price were peculiar traits of the Ottoman bazaar during its golden age. The reason for such behavior lies partly in the ethics of Islam, and partly in the guild system which provided a strong social security net to the merchants. Afterward, the westernization of the Ottoman society and the elimination of the waqf and the guilds caused the introduction of the new practices that we see today.

Shaykh Umar Ibrahim Vadillo

June 2, 2014

Published in: Uncategorized on October 12, 2020 at 13:56  Leave a Comment  

TGIF (Thank God Its Friday Khuṭbah Series)

Khutbah: Be Allah’s People 

Delivered by: Abu Modibbo

Date: Friday 18 Shawwal 1427 November 10, 2006                                          Norwich, England 

بسم اللّه الرحمن الرحيم
الحـمد الله الَّذي ابْتَدَأَ الاِنْسَـانَ بِنِعْـمَـتِهِ وَصَـوَّرَهُ فِي الأرْحَـامِ بِحِكْمَـتِـهِ وَأَبْرَزَهُ إِلَى رِفْـــقِــهِ وَمَـــا يَسَّـرَهُ لَهُ مِـن رِّزْقِــهِ وَعَـلَّـمَـهُ مَـــا لَمْ يَكُنْ يَـعلَمْ وَكَانَ فَضْلُ اللّهُ عَليْهِ عَظِيمًا وَنَبَّهَهُ بِآثَرِ صَـنْعَتِهِ وَآعْذَرَ إِلَيْهِ عَلَى أَلْسِنَةِ الـْمُـرْسَلِينَ الـْخِـيَـرَةِ مِنْ خَلْقِـهِ فَـهَـدَى مَنْ وَفَّقَـهُ بِفَـضْلِهِ وَأَضَلَّ مَنْ خَـذَلَهُ بِعَـدْلِهِ وَيَسَّـرَ الـْمُـومِِنِينَ لِلْيُـسْـرَى وَشَـرَحَ صُـدُورَهُمْ لِلذِّكـرى فَـآمَنُوا بِاللهِ بِأَلسِنَتِـهِمْ نَاطِقِينَ وَقُلُوبِهِمْ مُخْلِصِينَ وَبِمَـا أَتَتْهُمْ بِهِ رُسُلُهُ وَكُـتُبُهُ عَـامِـلِينَ وَتَعَـلَّمُوا مَـا عَلَّمَهُمْ وَوَقَفُـوا عِنْدَمَا حَدَّلَهُمْ وَاسْـتَغٌنَوا بِمَا أَحَلَّ لَهُمْ عَـمَّ احَرَّمَ عَلَيْهِمْ أَمَّا بَعدُ: 

Praise belongs to Allah who caused the human being to come into existence by His grace and formed and shaped him (the human being) in the wombs by His wisdom and brought him out to His kindness and what He facilitated him with of His sustenance and taught him what he did not know. 

Allah’s favor was greatly upon him. Allah instructed him through the signs of His creation and forgave him through the tongues of the chosen messengers from among His creation. 

He whom He (Allah) caused to succeed, He guided him aright out of His kindness, and he whom He had forsaken, He cause him to go astray out of His justice. 

He made it easy for the believers to prosper and He opened their hearts to the Remembrance. They believed in Allah with a speech that was clear and their hearts were pure. They acted by what came to them from His messengers and His books. They learned what He taught them and they stayed within the bounds which he had set for them. They were satisfied with that which He made lawful for them and they were not in need of that which He made unlawful for them. 

As for what comes next:

اشـهــد أن لا إله إلاّ اللّهُ وحـده لاَ شــريك له و أشـهـد أنّ مــحـمّـدًا عــبـده رسوله

I bear witness that there is no god except Allah who is Alone without partners for Him, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and His messenger.

يَا أيَّهَا المسلمون: اتّقَوا اللهَ حق َّ تقَاته وَ لا تَمُوتن إِلاّ وَ أَنْتْمْ ُ مُسلمونَ 

Oh Muslims, guard your duty to Allah with a true guarding and do not die unless you are Muslims. 

قال الله في كتابه الكريم  بسم اللله الرحــمن الرحيم 

Allah has said in His Noble Book: 

الَّذِينَ يَتَّبِعُونَ الرَّسُولَ النَّبِيَّ الأُمِّيَّ الَّذِي يَجِدُونَهُ مَكْتُوباً عِندَهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالإِنْجِيلِ يَأْمُرُهُم بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَاهُمْ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَيُحِلُّ لَهُمُ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَيُحَرِّمُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْخَبَآئِثَ وَيَضَعُ عَنْهُمْ إِصْرَهُمْ وَالأَغْلاَلَ الَّتِي كَانَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ فَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ بِهِ وَعَزَّرُوهُ وَنَصَرُوهُ وَاتَّبَعُواْ النُّورَ الَّذِيَ أُنزِلَ مَعَهُ أُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْـمُفْلِحُونَ ١٥٧:٧ 

“Those who follow the Messenger, the Ummii Prophet, about whom they have found (something) written in the Torah which they possess and the Ingiil (Gospel), He commands them to do al-Maʿ ruuf (good) and he prohibits them from al-Munkar (evil). He makes lawful for them at-Tayyibaat (all that is good and lawful) and he makes unlawful for them al-Kabaa’ith (all that is harmful and unlawful) for them. He rid them of their burden and the shackles which were on them. So those who believe in him, and honor him and help him and follow the Light which has been sent down with him, it is they who will be successful. 7:157 

As it can be seen, this ayat clearly indicates that the successful ones in this Earth are those who believe in the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ)  (that is to say his prophethood and his Sunnah) and who give honor and help to him and follow the Light (meaning the Light of the Holy Qur’an) which has been sent down with him. 

Who else can this verse be referring to, as being “the successful ones” except Muslims? Therefore, this ayat is a call for a full commitment to Islam and the abandonment of every way other than Islam in order to succeed. 

Allah سبحان رتعالى has said,

وَ مَن يَبْتِغِ غَيْرِ الإِسْلامِ دِينًا فَلَن يُقْبَلَ مِنْهُ وَ هُوَ فِي الاخِرَةِ مِنَ الخَْسِرِينَ 

“Whoever seeks other than Islam as a diin (social transaction), it will never be accepted from him, and in the Hereafter, he will be among the losers.” 3:85 

And therefore, if the Muslims are calling the disbelievers to Islam with the attitude of “I’m OK you’re OK”, then in reality, then what are they really saying to the disbelievers: “It is OK if you don’t become Muslim as long as you believe in God and be a good person?” 

If that is the case, why bother doing daʿwah (calling non-Muslims to Islam) at all and why do those who do daʿwah in this manner bother becoming a Muslim himself if he was following another diin (social transaction) before becoming Muslim? It should be that when one becomes Muslim, he realizes there is nothing else; that Islam is the only way. 

Our daʿwah must be a presentation of Islam as the only alternative to every other behavior; especially those behavioral patterns that are hated by Allah and His Messenger (ﷺ). Muslims must look to the Prophet (ï·º) for the balanced way and the best methodology for calling non-Muslims to Islam. Again Allah سبحان رتعالى has said,

قُلِ اِن كُنتُمْ تُحِـبـُّـونَ اللَّهَ فَاتَّبِـعُـونِي يُحْبِـبْكُمُ اللَّهُ وَيَغْـفِـرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُم وَاللهُ غَفُورٌ ر َّحِيم 

Say if you love Allah then follow me, and Allah will forgive you for your sins. Allah is ever forgiving and Most Merciful. 3:31 

There is no question that Muslims must understand the environment in which they live and its social pattern and that the Muslims through their daʿwah must address the pressing concerns of the environment in which they live. 

That said, however, the Muslims in each locale cannot carry on a method of daʿwah that is completely opposite to the commands of Allah in order to reach the people of that locale. Their method of daʿwah should be in compliance first and foremost with the Sunnah of the Prophet (ﷺ) and based on the command of Allah in the Holy Qur’ān wherein He says: 

… وَلْتَـكُنْ مِنكُمُ و أُمَّةٌ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى الخَْيْرِ وَ يَأَمَرُونَ بِالْـمَعْرُوفِ وَ يَنْهَونَ عَنِ الْـمُنْكَرِ … ١٠٤:٣ 

“…and let there come forth from you a community inviting to goodness, enjoining right conduct while forbidding wrong reprehensible actions…” 3:104. 

From this verse we can see that the daʿwah (calling non-Muslims to Islam) must contain a call to good and upright action and an uncompromising admonition and prohibition against wrong. 

True daʿwah must cause the disbeliever to know that Islam is the very opposite of kufr and the only example of correct behavior. 

No behavior in kufr should be so tolerable that a Muslim finds himself behaving in a similar fashion nor should a Muslim keep the company of disbelievers for the purpose of friendship or worldly gain at the expense of compromising his or her Islamic principles. 

Allah has said, he is not accepting any other diin (social transaction) accept Islam; He has clearly outlined the reason for this in the following ayat wherein He has said: 

 هُوَ الَّذِي أَرْسَلَ رَسُولَهُ بِالْهُدَى وَدِينِ الْحَقِّ لِيُظْهِرَهُ عَلَى الدِّينِ كُلِّهِ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْمُشْرِكُونَ ٣٣:٩ 

He, it is Who has sent His Messenger with the Guidance and the Religion of Truth so that He may cause it to prevail over all (other) diin (social transaction)s however much (the people who associate partners with Allah) may be adverse. 9:33 

A Muslim must not merely be a believer. He must be a hater of disbelief (kufr) and what it does to the human spirit. The Muslim must strive hard against disbelievers and be compassionate with his brother. This is from the commands of Allah. Therefore, Muslims have no alternative but to hear and obey. 

Allah has said in His Noble Book: 

مُـحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ اللهِ الَّذِينَ مَـعَهُ أَشِـد َّآءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّـارِ رُحَمَـاءُ بَيْنَهُمْ … سورة الفتح ٢٩:٤٨ 

Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah and those who are with him are fierce with towards the disbelievers and merciful to one another … 48:29 

This of course does not mean that Muslims should go around indiscriminately attacking non-believers physically or verbally abusing them. 

For Allah has mentioned the best method of daʿwah, 

اُدْعُ إِلَى سَبِيلِ رَبِّكَ بِالحِْكْمَةِ وَالْـمَوْعِـظَةِ الْـحُسْنَةِ وَجَادِلْهُم بِالَّتُي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ إِن َّ رَبُّكَ هُوَ أَعْـلَمُ بِمَن ضَل َّ عَنْ سَبِيلِهِ ے وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْـمُهْتَدِينَ ١٢٥:١٦ 

Invite (people) to the Path of Allah with wisdom and fair admonition (preaching) and argue (debate) with them in the best manner. Surely, your Lord knows who is astray from His Path and He knows those who are rightly-guided. 16:125 

Allah has said, 

وَ أَن َّ هَذَا صِرَطِي المُْسْتَقِيمَ تَبِعُوهُ وَلاَ تَتَّبِعُوا السُّبُلَ فَتَـفَـرَّقَ بِكُمْ عَنْ سَبِيلِهِ وَض ََّاكُمُ بِهِ لَعل َّكُم تَت َّقُونَ 

Surely, this is My Straight Path, so follow it and do not follow (other) paths; for they will separate you from His path. This has been ordained for you so that you would guard your duty. 6:1 

What is found in Kitaabu-l-laah (the Book of Allah) is the Path of Allah and it is Siraatu-l-Mustaqiim (the Straight Path) and the Sunnah of His Messenger Muhammad (ﷺ)  is the best example of adaab (good manners) that one should have while journeying on that Siraat. 

Allah has said in His Noble Book: 

لَقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ الل َّهِ أُسوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لمَِنْ كَانَ يَرْجُو اللهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الاَخِرِ وَ ذَكَرَ اللهَ كَثِيرًا سورة الاحزاب ١٢:٣٣ 

“For you in the Messenger of Allah is Uswatun Hasanatun (an excellent example) for those who hope for Allah and the Last day and dhakara-l–laaha kathiiraa (who remembers Allah much).” 33:12 

The excellent example spoken of here is the Sunnah or what is known as- Sunnatu-l-Muhammadiyyah (the Way of Muhammad (ﷺ). The Sunnah is an exemplary form of behavior and is a term that is never used in a negative sense. The Sunnah is a positive example – the best example. The best of the  Prophet’s Sunnah is ُأَخْـلاَقُــه (his character). His Akhlaaq is the foundation upon which the rest of his Sunnah sits. It is the nucleus, the heart, the driving force behind the rest of his Sunnah. It is the best part of his Sunnah because it was the love of his character and his disposition which cause the people to love his Sunnah. Allah has said in His Noble Book regarding the matter of the character of Muhammad (ﷺ) 

وإِنَّكَ لَعًَلَى خُلُقٍ عَظِيم

“You possess a mighty character.” 

It has been reported that the Prophet (ﷺ) said “I have come to perfect noble character. This was a major part of his mission – to build men and women of equal worth in character. He did not come to police people and abuse people about there shortcomings. The proof of this is in an ayat where Allah said: 

فَــبِــمَــا رَحْــمَــةٍ مِّنَ اللهِ لِنتَ لَهُمْ لَـوْ كُنْتَ فَظ َّا غَـلِيظَ الْقَلـبِ لاَنْقَــضُــواْ مِنْ حَولِكَ فَاعْفُ عَنْهُمْ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَـهُمْ وَشَاوِرهُمْ فِي الأَمْرِ فَإِذَا عَزَمَتْ فَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللهِ إِن َّ يُحِب ُّ الـْمُتَوَكِّلينَ 

“And by the mercy of Allah, you dealt with them gently. And if you had been hard-hearted towards them, they would have dispersed from around you. So excuse them and ask forgiveness for them and consult with them in matters, then when you have made a decision, put your trust in Allah. Surely Allah loves those who place trust (in Him)” 3:159 

It is not sufficient just to say Kitaab wa Sunnah ( كــتــاب وسنّة). It better to teach Kitaab wa Sunnah) by presenting to the people a living example of the Book and the Sunnah which emanates from one’s self. 

Allah has said in His Noble Book: 

أَتَامُرُونَ الن َّاسَ بِالْبِر ِّ وَتَنْسَوْنَ أَنْفُسَكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ تَعْلُونَ الْكِتَابَ أَفَلاَ تَعْقِلُونَ من سورة البقرة ٤٤:٢ 

Do you enjoin right conduct (correct behavior) upon the people while you forget yourself and you recite the Book? Do you not have sense? 2:44 

Islam is organic. Organic means to develop in a natural way, It is a diin (social transaction) or way of life base on سنة اللّه [Sunnatu-l-laah (the Natural Law of Allah)]. 

Kufr is inorganic – unnatural. It is a diin (social transaction) base on social engineering, manipulation, tyranny and injustice and alteration of سنة اللّه (Allah’s Sunnah). 

And so the building of the Muslim Community is the building of الْفِطْرَة (natural disposition) and أحــــلاق الحــــسـنى (the good character). And according to the people of knowledge, this is accomplished by the individual Muslim being mindful of سنة االلّه [Sunnatu-l-laah (the bounds that Allah has placed upon man) so that he remains within Allah’s commands and prohibitions and he turns to Allah in repentance before Allah becomes displeased with him. 

The Muslim must control the six organs: the eyes, the ears, the tongue, the heart, the stomach and the private parts. 

For example the fuquhaa have said: 

وَ يَجِبُ عَلَيْـهِ حِـفْظُ لِسَانِهِ مِـنَ الَفَحْـشَـاءِ وَالْكَلاَمِ الْقَبِـيحِ وَ أَيْمَـانِ الطَّلاَقِ وَ انْتِهَارِ الْـمُْسْلِمِ وَ إِهَاَتِهِ وَ سَبِّهِ وَ تَخْوِيفِهِ فِي غَيْرِ حَق ٍّ شَرْعِيّ

It is obligatory for him (meaning the Muslim) to guard his tongue from foul and disgraceful speech, pronouncement of unwarranted divorce, and from rebuffing, humiliating, insulting and intimidating a (fellow) Muslim without (having) a legitimate reason. 

وَ يَجِبُ عَلَيْـهِ حِـفْظُ بًصَـرِهِ مِنَ الـنَّظَرِ إِلَى الحَْـرَامِ وَ لاَ يَحِل ُّ لَهُ أَنْ يَنْظُرَ إِلَى مُسْلِمٍ بِنَظْرَةِ تُؤْذِيهِ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَكُونَ فَاسِقٍا فَيَجِبُ هِجْرَانُهُ 

He must guard his vision from looking at (what) is unlawful. It is unlawful for him to look at (another) Muslim with a harmful glance unless that Muslim is a transgressor. In such case, his disassociation from him would becomes obligatory. 

يَجِبُ عَلَيْـهِ حِفْظُ جَمِـيعِ جَوَارِحِـهِ مَا اسْتَطَاعَ وَ أَنْ يُحِبُّ لِل َّـهِ وَ يَبْغَضَ لَهُ وَ يَرْضَى لَهُ وَ بَغْضَبَ لَهُ 

He must guard all of his limbs, as much as possible, (from haraam acts). (He must) love for the sake of Allah, hate for (Allah’s) sake, be pleased for His sake and be angry for His sake. 

وَ يَأْمَرَ بِالمَْعْرُوفِ وَ يَنْهَى عَنَ المُْنْكَرِ 

He is obligated to command good deeds and to prohibit evil reprehensible ones. 

وَ يَحْـرُمُ عَلَيْــهِ الْكَذِبُ وَ الْغَـيٌـبَـةُ و النَّمِـيـمَـةُ وَ الْكِبْـرُ وَ الْـعُـجْبُ وَ الرِّيَاءُ وَ السَّمْـعَةُ وَ الحَْسَـدُ وَ الْبَغْضُ وَ رُؤْيَةُ الْفَضْلِ عَلَى الْغَـيْرِ وَ الْهَمْـزُ و اللَّمْزُ وَ الْعَبَثُ وَ الس ُّخْرِيَةُ وَ الزِّنَى 

Lying, slander, defamation, arrogance, conceit, hypocrisy, (seeking) reputation, envy, hatefulness, selfish pre-occupation with one’s good deeds done for others, defamatory insinuation (that is to say defaming someone by subtle hints), mockery and scorn (of others), adultery, 

وَ النَّظَرُ إِلَى الأَجْنَبِـيَّةِ وَ التَّلَـذ ُّذُ بِكَلاَمِهِ وَ أَكْلُ الأَمْـوَالِ النَّاسِ بِغَيْـرِ طِيبِ نَفْسٍ وَ الأَكْلُ بِالش َّفَاعَةِ أَوْ بِالدِّينِ تَأْخِيرُ الصَّلاَةِ عَنْ أَوْقَاتِهَا 

looking at a female who is unlawful (to him) and finding pleasure in her speech, consuming the property or wealth of someone else, who has not willingly turned it over, subsisting by acts of intercession or borrowing and delaying the prayer beyond its prescribed time (are all unlawful for the Muslim). 

وَ لاَ يَحِلُّ لَهُ صَحُبَةُ الْفَاسِقِ وَ لاَ مُجَالَسَةُ لِغَيرِ ضُرُورَةٍ 

It is (equally) unlawful for him to keep the company of he who transgresses the bounds (of Allah) or to sit with him without having the necessity to do so. 

وَ لاَ يَطْلُبُ رِضَــاءَ المَْخْلُوقِينَ بِسَــخْطِ الخَْـالِقِ قَـالـض سُـبْـحَـانَهُ وَ تَـعَـالَى: وَالل َّهُ وَ رسُولُهُ أَحَق ُّ أَنْ يَرْضَوْهُ إِنْ كَانُواْ مُومِنِينَ .١ 

He should not seek the pleasure of he who has been created by (invoking) the anger of the Creator. Allah glory be to Him has said, “…while Allah and His messenger, it is more appropriate that they please Him if they are believers 9:62. 

وَ قَالَ عَلَيْهِ الصَّلاَةُ وَ السَّلاَمُ  لاَ طَاعَةَ لمَِخْلُوقٍ فِي مَعْصِيَةِ الخَالِقٍ 

And he (the Messenger of Allah) (ﷺ) has said, “No obedience is owed to that which has been created for the sake of disobedience to the Creator. 

وَ لاَ يَحِل ُّ لَهُ أَنْ يَفْـعَلَ فِـعْـلاً حَـت َّى يَعْلَـمَ حُكْمَ الل َّهِ فِـيـهِ وَ يَسْـأَلَ العُلَمَـاءَ وَ يَقْتَـدِي بِالمُْت َّبِعِينَ لِسُن َّةِ مُـحَم َّدٍ صَل َّى الل َّهُ عَلَيْـهِ وَ سَل َّمَ وَ ال َّذِينَ يَدُل ُّونَ عَلَى طَاعَةِ الل َّهِ وَ يُحَذ َّرُونَ مِنْ ات ِّبَاعِ الش َّيْطَآنِ من سورة التوبة أَيَة ٦٢ 1 

It is unlawful for him to perform an action until he knows Allah’s judgment concerning it. He should ask the ʿulamaa and he should follow the example of those who follow the Sunnah of Muhammad (ﷺ) and those who show obedience to Allah and who are on guard against following Shaytaan. 

وَ لاَ يَرضَى لِنَفْسِـهِ مَا رَضِيَهُ الـمُفْلِسُـونَ الَّذِينَ ضَاعَتْ أَعْمَارُهُمْ فِـي غَيْرِ طَاعَةِ اللهِ تَعَالَى فَيَا حَسْرَتَهُمْ وَ يَا طُولَ بُكائِهِمْ يَومَ الْقِيَامَةِ 

He should not desire for himself that which those who have been brought to ruin desired (for themselves) – those whose lives have been wasted as a result of disobedience to Allah the Most High. Oh! What grief will be theirs and how lengthy will their tears be on the Day of Rising. 

أَقُولُ‏ قَوْلِي‏ هَذَا وَأَسَْتَغْفِرُ‏ ا‏للهَ‏ لِي‏ وَلَكُمْ‏ وَلِسآئِرِ‏ الْمُسْلِمِينَ‏ فَاسْتَغْفِرُوهُ‏ إنَّهُ‏ هُوَالْغَفُورُ‏ الرَّحِيمُ

I am making these statements while seeking Allah’s forgiveness for me, you and the rest of the Muslims, and so they should seek His forgiveness; for He is Forgiving and Merciful. 

Khutbah – Part 2 

اشـهد أن لا إله إلاّ الـلّهُ وحده لاَ شـريك له و أشـهـد أنّ محـمّـدًا عبـده و رسوله 

I bear witness that there is no god but Allah who is Alone without partners, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and his messenger.

يَا أي ُّهَا المسلمون: اتّقَوا اللهَ حق َّ تقَاته وَ لا تَمُوتن إِلاّ وَ أَنْتْمْ ُ مُسلمونَ قال الله في كتابه الكريم  بسم اللله الرحــمن الرحيم: 

Oh Muslims, guard your duty to Allah with a true guarding and do not die unless you are Muslims.

Allah has said in His Noble Book: 

وَ مَـآ ءَاتاكُـمُ الرَّسُـولُ فَــخُـذُوهُ وَ مَــا نَهَـاكُمْ عَـنْهُ فَـانتَــهَـواْ … مـن سـورة الحشر ٧:٥٩ 

“Whatever the Messenger brings to you take it and whatever he prohibits for you to refrain from it …” 59:7 

م

… إِن يَشَأْ يُذْهِبْكُمْ وَيَسْتَخْلِفْ مِن بَعْدِكُم مَّا يَشَاءُ كَمَا أَنشَأَكُم مِّن ذُرِّيَّةِ قَوْمٍ ءَاخِرِينَ 

“….If He wills he can destroy you, and in your place make who He wills as your successors, as He raised you from the seed of another people.” 6:133 

again Allah says: 

… إِنْ تَتَوَلُّو يَسْـتَبْدِلْ قَوْمًا غَيْرَكُمْ ثُمَّ لاَ تَكُونُوا أَمْثَالَكُم … ٣٨:٤٧ 

“…And if you turn away, then he can exchange you with another people and they will not be like you .” 47:38 

Islam itself is the fitrah (natural disposition) of the entire creation. Islam means submission. When Islam is practiced correctly, As-Salaam (the Peace that comes as a result of submission) prevails. As-Salaam is not As-Sulḥ the peace that comes after war – for no one can make war with Allah. 

Allah says in His Noble Book:: 

… وَ السَّلاَمُ عَـلَى مَنِ اتَّبَعَ الْـهُدَى … ٤٧:٢٠ 

“ The Peace (The Peace coming from Allah) be upon those who follow the Guidance.” 20:47 

If we want peace in our individual lives and peace in our community life  and peace in the Muslim Ummah, then we must come to realize, Peace only comes to those who follow the guidance. 

Islam and Salaam only can be established as a result of guidance from Allah who is As-Salaam (the Ones Who’s essence is Peace). 

Therefore the Islamic society cannot be built on any other social model or pattern of behavior, It must be built on principles that are based on Allah’s Guidance 

There is an exact model, an exact blueprint, an exact pattern which has been left for us to follow by our beloved Prophet (ﷺ) . That model or pattern is not based on the establishment of an empire or the organizational structures of the Christians, the Jews, or the freemasons. 

Islam and kufr (disbelief) cannot be integrated. Islam is one system and kufr is another. Therefore, it is up to the Muslims to draw a clear line of demarcation between their religious, moral, social, ideological, political, and economic behavior and that of the disbelievers. This line of demarcation must first be drawn in the mind of every Muslim. Each Muslim should be able to distinguish and comprehend in his or her mind that Allah is not accepting any other diin (social transaction) accept Islam as He has clearly indicated in the Holy Qur’ān. 

If the Muslim is not convinced about this matter then he will not be able to convince the disbeliever about it. Allah has said in his Noble Book:

لَقَدْ جِئْنَاكُم بِالْحَقِّ وَلَكِنَّ أَكْثَرَكُمْ لِلْحَقِّ كَارِهُونَ ٧٨} أَمْ أَبْرَمُوا أَمْراً فَإِنَّا مُبْرِمُونَ ٧٩} أَمْ يَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّا لَا نَسْمَعُ سِرَّهُمْ وَنَجْوَاهُم بَلَى وَرُسُلُنَا لَدَيْهِمْ يَكْتُبُونَ ٨٠} ٤٣: ٧٨-٨٠

Surely We have brought the Truth to you, but most of you hate the Truth. Or have they plotted a plan? And so We (too) are plotting. Or do they think We do not hear their secrets and their private counsel? And Our messengers (angels) are with them – recording. 43:78-80 

فَذَرْهُمْ يَخُوضُوا وَ الْـيَلْعَبُوا حَتَّى يُلاَقوا يَومَهُمُ الَّذِي يُعَدُونَ ٨٣:٤٣ 

So leave them alone to speak nonsense and play until they encounter their day which has been promised (to them). 43:83 

So we can not establish Islam by means of kaafir structures because those structures are established on Shaytaans rules of misconduct rather than on the correct code of conduct that has been established by Allah and His Messenger. 

Our system, our way, our organization, our body politic our business practice, our diin (social transaction) is the Kitaabu-l-laah (the Book of Allah) and the Sunnah of His Prophet (ﷺ) . 

وَ أَن َّ هَذَا صِـرَطِي المُْسْتَـقِـيمَ تَبِـعُوهُ وَلاَ تَت َّـبِـعُوا الس ُّـبُلَ فَـتَـفَـر َّقَ بِكُمْ عَنْ سَبِيلِهِ وَض ََّاكُمُ بِهِ لَعل َّكُم تَت َّقُونَ 

Surely, this is My Straight Path, so follow it and do not follow (other) paths; for they will separate you from His path. This has been ordained for you so that you would guard your duty. 6:153 

The Prophet (ﷺ) established the Madinan model. The Madinan model is not an empire because it is local. It does not exceed the proximity. It remains the “little community” in the sense of trust and relationships. It is because of this trust and very special personal relationships that there is no need for organizational structure in the kaafir sense, but there is an organizational structure in the way of the Kitaab (the Book of Allah) and the Sunnah Muhammadiyyah (the Exemplary Way of Behaving as demonstrated by Muhammad. (ﷺ) . 

In the Madinan model, the people are not held together by a man made structural law, but rather they are held together by a natural law which emanates out of the Book of Allah called Sunnatu-l-laah and the Sunnah of His Prophet (ﷺ) . 

In the Madinan model men are made and women are made.  

What is Madinah? It is the city of the Prophet Muhammad who through his Sunnah established an abode of safety in it. It is the place where the best example of Islamic life flourished. Out of the social pattern of the first three generations of that city came the best men and women in behavior. 

The Prophet (ﷺ) by his example not only molded the character of men but he also caused them to unite for the pleasure of Allah. He taught them to “want for their brother what they wanted for themselves. He (ﷺ) said, 

لا يومن أحدكم حتّى يحبّ لأخيه ما يحبّ لنفسه 

“Not one of you believes until he wants for his brother what he wants for himself.” In this saying, he has connected concern for your brother with belief. 

And the prophet also left us with a higher standard to achieve beyond being brothers – for the Prophet did not consider the men around him as just his brothers. 

He referred to them as his اصحاب [As-haab (Companions)]. Like what has been recorded when the men who accompanied him to the grave asked, “are we not your brothers?” and the Prophet بَلْ أنْـتُمْ أَصْـــحَــــابِي “On the contrary, you are my companions. 

And so the way of Muhammad (ﷺ) in Madinah was not built on empire an organizational structure. It was built on keeping company, good relationship, trust, wanting for one’s brother what wants for one’s self and companionship and camaraderie. 

There is a narration in Sahiih al-Bukhaarii which shows the nature of the Islamic society where its people were اصحاب [Aṣ-ḥaab (Companions)]. 

It was narrated by Ibraahiim bin Sa’d from his father from his grand-father  ʿAbdu-r-Rahmaan bin ʿAuf who said,  “When we came to Madinah as immigrants, the Messenger of Allah(ﷺ) .ʿ alayhi wa Sallim established a bond of brotherhood between me and Saʿd bin Rabiiʿ said to me I am the riches among the Ansaar, so I will give you half of my wealth and you may look at my two wives and whichever of the two you choose, I will divorce her and when she has completed the prescribed waiting period you may marry her. ʿ Abdu-r-Rahmaan said, ‘I am not in need of all of that. (Then he said), ‘Is there a marketplace where trade is practiced?’ Saʿ d bin Rabiiʿ said the market of Qaynuqaa’u .ʿAbdu-r-Rahmaan went to that market the following day and brought some yogurt and butter… ” B34:6 

Establishing a Madinan society which is the model Islamic society begins with the establishment of bonds of trust and love between the Muslims and by doing this, we establish a dynamic which immediately empowers the Muslim. Our statement to the disbelievers both those who are in authority and those who aren’t is “we absolutely reject your social pattern because we prefer the Sunnah of Muhammad (ﷺ) and we reject the idea of kaafir political dominance over Islam.” 

Allah has mentioned about Himself, that He ُيُد َّبِـر (Organized) everything in the heavens and the Earth. Allah has said in His Noble Book: 

يُدَّبِرُ اْلاَمْرَ مِنَ الس َّمَاءِ إِلَى الاَرْضِ 

He organizes (or puts in order) (every) affair from the heavens to the earth… 32:5 

We must ask, “What are the parameters and terms of our relationship with each other? “ The answer to this question is what will determine – and Allah is the Best Knower – the success or failure of this venture that we have all embarked upon called Islam. 

In other words, how we deal with each other; how we treat each other will determine our success or failure. Islam as has been mentioned is base on community, and community is base on relationships between people – like the relationship between the bricks in a building. 

مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاء عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاء بَيْنَهُمْ … ٤٨: ٢٩  

Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah and those who are with him are fierce with towards the disbelievers and merciful to one another … 48:29 

In the Muwatta of Imaam Maalik, it has been related that: 

Yahyaa reported to me from Maalik from Ibn Shihaab from ʿUrwah ibn Zubayr that Aaʿishah the wife of the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) did not choose a matter, except that he chose the easier of them as long as it was not a wrong action. If it was a wrong action, he was the furthest of people from it. The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ)  did not take revenge for himself unless the limits of Allah were violated. Then he took revenge for it for Allah.”

Allah in his Noble Book:

إِنَّ اَللهَ لاَ يَظْلِمُ مِـثْـقَـالَ ذَرَّةٍ وَ إن تَكُ حَـسَنَــةٌ يُضَــعِـفْـهَـا و يُوتِ مِن لَّدُنْهُ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا ٤٠:٤ 

“Surely! Allah is not unjust even the weight of an atom and if there is a good deed, He multiplies it and gives a great reward (to its doer) from Him. 4:40 

and again: 

يَوْمَئِذٍ يَصْدُرُ النَّاسُ أَشْتَاتًا لِّيُرَوَ اعْمَالَهُمْ وَ يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْرًا يرَهُ 

A Day mankind will proceed in scattered groups so that they can be shown their deeds and who does good the weight of an atom shall see it …. 99:7 

And so we should not seek peoples faults to the minute detail especially since our Lord looks for our good down to the minute detail. 

We should not act as if we know it all and thereby condemn people to hell by our small knowledge. A case in point is a hadith that has come to us about Amiru-l- Muminiin ʿUmar: 

There is Hadith about ʿUmar as a case in point: 

It has also been reported in Sahiih Al-Bukhaariy from ʿUmar that he said: 

حَدَّثَنَا سَعِيدُ بْنُ عُفَيْرٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي اللَّيْثُ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي عُقَيْلٌ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي عُرْوَةُ بْنُ الزُّبَيْرِ، أَنَّ الْمِسْوَرَ بْنَ مَخْرَمَةَ، وَعَبْدَ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنَ عَبْدٍ الْقَارِيَّ، حَدَّثَاهُ أَنَّهُمَا، سَمِعَا عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ، يَقُولُ سَمِعْتُ هِشَامَ بْنَ حَكِيمٍ، يَقْرَأُ سُورَةَ الْفُرْقَانِ فِي حَيَاةِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَاسْتَمَعْتُ لِقِرَاءَتِهِ فَإِذَا هُوَ يَقْرَأُ عَلَى حُرُوفٍ كَثِيرَةٍ لَمْ يُقْرِئْنِيهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَكِدْتُ أُسَاوِرُهُ فِي الصَّلاَةِ فَتَصَبَّرْتُ حَتَّى سَلَّمَ فَلَبَّبْتُهُ بِرِدَائِهِ فَقُلْتُ مَنْ أَقْرَأَكَ هَذِهِ السُّورَةَ الَّتِي سَمِعْتُكَ تَقْرَأُ‏.‏ قَالَ أَقْرَأَنِيهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم‏.‏ فَقُلْتُ كَذَبْتَ فَإِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَدْ أَقْرَأَنِيهَا عَلَى غَيْرِ مَا قَرَأْتَ، فَانْطَلَقْتُ بِهِ أَقُودُهُ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقُلْتُ إِنِّي سَمِعْتُ هَذَا يَقْرَأُ بِسُورَةِ الْفُرْقَانِ عَلَى حُرُوفٍ لَمْ تُقْرِئْنِيهَا‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ أَرْسِلْهُ اقْرَأْ يَا هِشَامُ ‏”‏‏.‏ فَقَرَأَ عَلَيْهِ الْقِرَاءَةَ الَّتِي سَمِعْتُهُ يَقْرَأُ‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ كَذَلِكَ أُنْزِلَتْ ‏”‏‏.‏ ثُمَّ قَالَ ‏”‏ اقْرَأْ يَا عُمَرُ ‏”‏‏.‏ فَقَرَأْتُ الْقِرَاءَةَ الَّتِي أَقْرَأَنِي، فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ كَذَلِكَ أُنْزِلَتْ، إِنَّ هَذَا الْقُرْآنَ أُنْزِلَ عَلَى سَبْعَةِ أَحْرُفٍ فَاقْرَءُوا مَا تَيَسَّرَ مِنْهُ ‏”‏‏.‏

“I heard Hishaam bin Hakiim read Suuratu-l-Furqaan during the Prophet’s (ﷺ) time. While I listened to his reading, I noticed that he was reading it (the Suurah) in a number of ways different from the one that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) had not taught me to read the Qur’ān. I almost interrupted his prayer, but I checked myself until he finished. When he did, I seized him by the collar and asked, ‘Who taught you the way you have just read the Suurah?’ To which he replied that it was the Prophet (ﷺ) who (taught him). I then retorted, ‘You are a liar! By Allah, that is not the way the Prophet has taught me to read it.’ Thereafter I took him straight to the Prophet (ﷺ) to whom I said. ‘Oh Messenger of Allah, I have heard this man read Suuratu-l-Furqaan in a way, unlike the way I have learned from you.’ The Prophet (ﷺ) requested that I release the man. When I did, the Prophet (ï·º) asked Hishaam to recite the Suurah – which he did in the very way that I heard him do it. When Hishaam finished, the Prophet (ﷺ) approvingly said, ‘That is the way it was revealed.’ Then he asked me to let him hear my way of reading the same Suurah. When I read it the only way I had learned it from him, he (ﷺ) said, ‘That is the way it was revealed.’ The Prophet (ﷺ) then said, ‘Verily the Qur’ān has been revealed in seven ways. Read from it (the way) which is easiest.’” (Bukhaariy 6:514) 

Now remember we’re talking about ʿUmar al-Khaṭṭaab about whom the Prophet (ﷺ) said in the hadith found in Bukhaarii: 

عن أَبِي هُرَيْرَة رَضِيَ الـلّهُ عنه قـال  قـال النَّبِي ُّ صلى الله عليـه و سلم لَقَـدْ كَـانَ فِـيـمَـنْ كَـانَ قَـبْلَكُمْ مِـنْ بَنِي إِسْـرَائِلَ رِجَـالٌ يُكَــل ِّمُـونَ مِنْ غَـيْــرِ أَنْ يَكُونُواْ أَمنبيَاءَ فَإِنْ يَكُنْ مِنْ أُم َّتِي مِنْهُمْ أَحَدٌ فَعُمَرُ 

Reported from Abu Hurayrah is that he said, “The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Those who came before you from among the Bani Israa’iil were men who were inspired with guidance although they were not prophets. And if there is any such person from among my Ummah, it is ʿUmar. [B. 5:37] 

And ʿUmar is the one – about whom the famous Mufassir Jalaalu-d-diin (social transaction) as-Suyuuti wrote in his book ‘Taariikhu-l-Kulafaa’ saying: “The agreement of ʿUmar with subsequent confirming revelations – Some of them make them amount to more than twenty. 

Mujaahid said that ʿUmar used to hold a view (concerning a matter) and the Qur’ān would be revealed with confirmation of it ʿAli said: In the Qur’ān are some of the views of .ʿUmar.

Ibn ʿUmar said, “When people said one thing and ʿUmar said another, the Qur’ān would be revealed with the like of what ʿUmar said. 

So who are we in comparison to ʿUmar ibn al-Khataab. The above-mentioned hadith shows that he hadn’t heard it all. What makes us think in the infant stages of our development that we have heard it all, or at least enough of this matter call Islam that we can’t make severe judgments on people without the guidance of Qaadiis (judges), Fuqahaa (scholars of Islamic Law), or ʿ Ulamaa’ (scholars of the diin (social transaction)), just because we have read a couple of hadith. 

It took 23 Years for the Prophet to establish the diin (social transaction). But with us sometimes it only takes 23 minutes or less of conversation before we are condemning people to the hell calling them deviants or worst. 

Allah says: 

 يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا يَسْخَرْ قَومٌ مِّن قَوْمٍ عَسَى أَن يَكُونُوا خَيْراً مِّنْهُمْ وَلَا نِسَاء مِّن نِّسَاء عَسَى أَن يَكُنَّ خَيْراً مِّنْهُنَّ وَلَا تَلْمِزُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ وَلَا تَنَابَزُوا بِالْأَلْقَابِ بِئْسَ الاِسْمُ الْفُسُوقُ بَعْدَ الْإِيمَانِ وَمَن لَّمْ يَتُبْ فَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِـمُونَ ٤٩: ١١

“Oh you who believe, let not a group of people scoff at another group of people. It may be that the latter group is better than the former nor let not women scoff at other women, it may be that the latter is better than the former nor defame one another nor insult one another with nicknames. How bad it is to have a name for evil after having Belief. And those who do not repent, these are they who are transgressors.” 49:11 

حدتني مالك عن عبد الله بن د ينار عن عـبد الله بن عمر أنّ رسول اللّه قال من قال لأخيه كافر فقد باء بها أحدُهم 

It was related to me from Maalik from ʿAbdallah bin diin (social transaction) and from Abdallah bin Umar that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, “He who says that his brother is a kaafir, one of them is deserving of it (literally “one of them comes back with it”). 

Again in another Hadith: 

حــدتـني مــالـك عن سُــهَـــيّل بن أبي صـــالح عن أبـيــه عن أبـي هريرة أن َّ رسول اللّه صَل َّى الل َّهُ عَلَْهِ وَ سَل َّم قـال إذا سـمـعت الرّجلَ يقـول: هَلَكَ الناس فـهـو أَهْلَكُهُمْ 

It was related to me from Maalik from Suhayl bin Abii Saalih from his father from Abii Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah said, “If you hear the man say, ‘the people are damned (meaning to the Hellfire), (Know) that he is the most damned one among them.

Shaykh ʿUthmaan bin Fuudii in his book Bayaan Wujuubu-l-Hijrah ʿalaa-l-ʿIbaad said in the section on “A Quality That Makes It Easy For The Commander Of the faithful and Others to Be Friendly with All People, 

“When you find a man hunting for people’s faults class him with the fly. A fly lands on the body and looks for a place where there is blood and uncleanness, brush him off, and pay no more attention to him than you would a fly.” 

“ If you afflicted by a slanderer who separates friends class him with the family of the skunk which is an animal whose smell is unbearable. The Arabs say when friends break up, A skunk has broken wind in there midst and so they dispersed. Just as people drive away this animal when it approaches them and prevent it from getting in among them so also should a slanderer be driven from among them or they should move away from him.” 

Khibr (Pride, Elitism) is one of the sicknesses of our time. Khibr (Pride Elitism) is based on finding the good one’s self. The elitist choose themselves as the elect of men or are raised up by other men while the elect of Allah are elevated by Him . Elitism causes men to say “I”. I did this and I did that, I am this and I am that, I have this and I have that.. And a group of people who say “we” in the say context are just as bad. 

Allah said in His Noble Book: 

وَ مَا رَمَيتَ إِذْ رَمَيْتَ وَ لَكِن َّ اللهَ رَمَى ٨:١٧ 

“And you Did not throw when you threw, but Allah threw.” 8:17 

again Allah says: 

“…We elevate by degrees whom We please…” 6:83 

We must overcome elitism. Every group believes that it has the Mahdi coming from their ranks. This prevents us from listening to or finding truth wherever it may be found. It is good to take a stand for something as a principle. A man who stands for nothing fall for anything. But it is not always wise to take to rigid a stand on a matter especially when you are a baby in knowledge. 

As for fault finding, if you want a good nights sleep, find the good in others and the blame in yourself. Do not seek the faults of others, because it leads to restless days and sleepless nights. When we seek the faults of others, we expose our biggest fault. We should ask Allah to protect the people from the exposure of their faults and short comings to the mercilessness of human beings, and to protect us as well from seeking out the faults of others. We should ask Allah to show us the goodness in others and the blame / faults in ourselves. If So and so comes to you with bad news or the news that another person was talking ill of you, then say to him or her, “Did you have to be the Shaytaan that would bring me this bad news?” 

For Allah has said, 

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِن جَاءكُمْ فَاسِقٌ بِنَبَأٍ فَتَبَيَّنُوا أَن تُصِيبُوا قَوْماً بِجَهَالَةٍ فَتُصْبِحُوا عَلَى مَا فَعَلْتُمْ نَادِمِينَ ٤: ٦

“Oh you who believe, If a rebellious evil person comes to you with news, verify it, unless you harm people in ignorance and afterward regret what you have done.” 49:6 

Allah has said, 

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اجْتَنِبُوا كَثِيراً مِّنَ الظَّنِّ إِنَّ بَعْضَ الظَّنِّ إِثْمٌ وَلَا تَجَسَّسُوا وَلَا يَغْتَب بَّعْضُكُم بَعْضاً أَيُحِبُّ أَحَدُكُمْ أَن يَأْكُلَ لَحْمَ أَخِيهِ مَيْتاً فَكَرِهْتُمُوهُ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَوَّابٌ رَّحِيمٌ ٤٩: ١٢

“Do not spy or backbite one another. Would one of you love to eat the flesh of his dead brother. You should abhor that. And fear Allah Who is the One to Whom repentance is made and He is the Merciful.” 49:12 

And so those who harm believing men and women undeservingly, they bear the guilt of slander and manifest sin. 

We must not look at the fiṭnah between brothers as an ongoing soap opera – not being able to wait to see the next episode. Nor should we join sides of any party of fiṭnah. Our duty is to extinguish the flames of fiṭnah in order to save the community from perishing in the fires of that fiṭnah. 

Allah has said: 

وَإِن طَائِفَتَانِ مِنَ الْـمُؤْمِنِينَ اقْتَتَلُوا فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَهُمَا فَإِن بَغَتْ إِحْدَاهُمَا عَلَى الْأُخْرَى فَقَاتِلُوا الَّتِي تَبْغِي حَتَّى تَفِيءَ إِلَى أَمْرِ اللَّهِ فَإِن فَاءتْ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَهُمَا بِالْعَدْلِ وَأَقْسِطُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْـمُقْسِطِينَ ٤٩: ٩

And if two parties of believers fall into fighting, make peace between them: and if one party of them does wrong to the other, You should fight the one which did the wrong until it (the party) returns to the commands of Allah; and if it returns, make peace between the two justly and act equitably. Surely, Allah loves the even handed person. 49:9 

إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَ أَخَوَيْكُمْ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ ٤٩: ١٠

“The believers are brothers, So make reconciliation between your brothers and fear Allah so that you may receive mercy.” 49:10 

Lets strive to be brothers and sisters. And if we achieved that level, then lets us take to the next level of based on what the Prophet said to the men that were with  him when he said أنْتُمْ أَصْحَابِي. It is O.K. for us to be friends, even a righteous cliqueas long as it is for the pleasure of  Allah. 

A case in point is the following hadith which demonstrate the close friendship between he Messenger of Allah (ﷺ), Abu Bakr and ʿUmar ibn al-Khattaab:

حَدَّثَنِي الْوَلِيدُ بْنُ صَالِحٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عِيسَى بْنُ يُونُسَ، حَدَّثَنَا عُمَرُ بْنُ سَعِيدِ بْنِ أَبِي الْحُسَيْنِ الْمَكِّيُّ، عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي مُلَيْكَةَ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ قَالَ إِنِّي لَوَاقِفٌ فِي قَوْمٍ، فَدَعَوُا اللَّهَ لِعُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ وَقَدْ وُضِعَ عَلَى سَرِيرِهِ، إِذَا رَجُلٌ مِنْ خَلْفِي قَدْ وَضَعَ مِرْفَقَهُ عَلَى مَنْكِبِي، يَقُولُ رَحِمَكَ اللَّهُ، إِنْ كُنْتُ لأَرْجُو أَنْ يَجْعَلَكَ اللَّهُ مَعَ صَاحِبَيْكَ، لأَنِّي كَثِيرًا مِمَّا كُنْتُ أَسْمَعُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ كُنْتُ وَأَبُو بَكْرٍ وَعُمَرُ، وَفَعَلْتُ وَأَبُو بَكْرٍ وَعُمَرُ، وَانْطَلَقْتُ وَأَبُو بَكْرٍ وَعُمَرُ‏.‏ فَإِنْ كُنْتُ لأَرْجُو أَنْ يَجْعَلَكَ اللَّهُ مَعَهُمَا‏.‏ فَالْتَفَتُّ فَإِذَا هُوَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ‏.‏

Ibn ʿAbbaas related “I was standing among the people who were invoking Allah for .ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭaab who was lying (dead) on his bed, a man behind me rested his elbow on my shoulder and said, “(Oh ʿUmar), may Allah grant you His mercy. I always hoped that Allah would keep you with your two companions for I often heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say, “Abu Bakr, ʿUmar and I were together and Abu Bakr, ʿUmar and I did such and such, and Abu Bakr, ʿUmar and I set out.” So I hope that Allah will keep you with both of them. I turned back to see that the speaker was … Alii bin Abii Taalib.”  taken from Al-Bukhaari: The Book of Noble Characteristics of the Companions:كتاب فضائل أصحاب.

إمَّا بَعْدُ

As for what I will say next:

وَإِن َّ خَيْرَ الْقُرُونِ الْقرْنُ ال َّذِينَ رَأَوْ رَسُولَ الل َّهِ وَآمَنُوا بِهِ ثُم َّ ال َّذِينَ يَلُونَهُمْ ثُم َّ ال َّذِينَ يَلُونَهُمْ وَأَفَـضَلَ الص َّحَـابَةِ الْـخُلَفَاءُ الر َّاشِـدُونَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ ِثُم َّ عُـمَرُ ثُم َّ عُثْمَانُ ثُم َّ عَلي ٌّ رَضِيَ الل َّهُ عَنْهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ و 

The best of the generations were those who saw the Messenger Allah (ﷺ) and believed in him, then those who came after them, then those who came after them. 

Th most honorable of the the Companions are the Khulafaa’ Rashiiduun ( The Rightly Guided Khaliifs): (they are) Abū Bakr, then ʿUmar, then .ʿUthmaan,  and then .ʿAlī may Allah be please with all of them. 

None must speak ill of any of the Companions of the Prophet (ﷺ) nor discuss their mutual disagreements.

نَسْــأَلُ اللهَ سُـبْــحَـانَهُ أَنْ يُوَفِّـقَنَآ لإِتِّبَــاعِ سُنَّةِ نَبِّـِنَا وَ شَــفِـيــعِنَا وَ سَـيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ سَلَّمَ 

We implore Allah, glory be to Him to grant us success in following the Sunnah of our Prophet (ﷺ) and intercessor and master Muhammad (ﷺ). 

‎إِنَّ‏ ا‏للهَ‏ وَمَلآئِكَتَهُ‏ يُصَلُّونَ‏ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ‏ ،‏ يَآ أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ‏ آمَنُوا صَلُّوا عَلَيْهِ‏ وَسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيماً

‎اَللَّهُمَّ‏ صَلِّ‏ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ‏ وَعَلَى آلِهِ‏ وَصَحْبِهِ‏ وَسَلِّمْ‏ تَسْلِيماً
‎وَارْضَ‏ اللَّهُمَّ‏ عَنِ‏ الْخُلَفَآءِ‏ الرَّاشِدِينَ‏ أَبِي‏ بَكْرٍ‏ وَعُمَرَ‏ وَعُثْمَانَ‏ وَعَلِيٍّ‏ ،‏ وَسَآئِرِ‏ الصَّحَابَةِ‏ خُصُوصاً‏ اِلْمُهَاجِرِينَ‏ مِنْهُمْ‏ وَالْأَنْصَارِوالتَّابِعِينَ‏ لَهُمْ‏ وَتَابِعِي‏ التَّابِعِينَ‏ وَمَنْ‏ تَبِعَهُمْ‏ إلَى‏ يَوْمِ‏ الدِّينِ‏.

اَللَّّهُمَّ‏ اهْدِ‏ وُلَاةَ‏ أُمُورِ‏ المُسْلِمِينِ‏ لِمَا‏ يُرْضِيكَ‏ ولِاتِّباعِ‏ سُنَّةِ‏ مُحَمَّدٍ‏

‎اَللَّهُمَّ‏ أَعِزَّ‏ الْإسْلاَمَ‏ وَالْمُسْلِمِينَ‏ ،‏ وَاخْذُلِ‏ الْكُفْرَ‏ وَالْكَافِرِينَ‏ ،‏ وانْصُرِ‏ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ‏ فِي‏ سَبِيلِ‏ ا‏للهِ‏ ،‏ واجْعَلْ‏ كَلِمَتَكَ‏ هِيَ‏ الْعُلْىَا‏ ،‏ وَكَلِمَةَ‏ الْكُفْرِ‏ هِيَ‏ السُّفْلَى

‎رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ‏ لَنَا وَلِإِخْوَانِنَا الَّذِينَ‏ سَبَقُونَا بِالْإِيمَانِ‏ وَلَا تَجْعَلْ‏ فِي‏ قُلُوبِنَا‏ غِلّاً‏ لِّلَّذِينَ‏ آمَنُوا‏ ‏ ص‏ رَبَّنَا إِنَّكَ‏ رَؤُوفٌ‏ رَّحِيمٌ‏
 

رَبَّنَا آتِنَا مِنْ‏ لَّدُنْكَ‏ رَحْمَةً‏ وَهَيِّئْ‏ لَنَا مِنْ‏ أَمْرِنَا رَشَداً

رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي‏ الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً‏ وَفِي‏ الآخِرَةِ‏ حَسَنَةً‏ وَقِنَا عَذَابَ‏ النَّار

رَبَّنَا هَبْ‏ لَنَا مِنْ‏ أَزْوَاجِنَا وَذُرِّيَّاتِنَا قُرَّةَ‏ أَعْيُنٍ‏ وَاجْعَلْنَا لِلْمُتَّقِينَ‏ إِمَاماً‏

إنَّ‏ الصَّلاَةَ‏ تَنْهَى عَنِ‏ الْفَحْشَآءِ‏ وَالْمُنْكَرِ ولَذِكْرُ‏ ا‏للهِ‏ أَكْبَرُ يَعِظُكُمْ‏ لَعَلَّكُمْ‏ تَذَّكَّرُونَ
‎وَقُومُوا إلَى صَلاَتِكُمْ‏ يَرْحَمُكُمُ‏ ا‏لله

Published in: Uncategorized on August 30, 2020 at 19:11  Leave a Comment  
%d bloggers like this: