Fula Basic Course (Textbook only)

Ge the textbook for this course at the following link:

Fula Basic Course Textbook 

 The Fula or Fulani language

(Fula: Fulfulde or Pulaar or Pular ; FrenchPeul) is a language ofWest Africa. It is spoken as a first language by the Fulɓe (Fula or Fulani people) and related groups (such as the Tukulor in the Senegal River Valley) from Senegambia and Guinea to Cameroon and Sudan. It is also spoken as a second language by peoples in various areas of the region.

There are several names applied to the language, just as there are to the Fula people. They call their language Pulaar or Pular in the western dialects and Fulfulde in the central and eastern dialects. Fula(h) and Fulani in English come originally from Manding (esp. Mandinka, but also Malinke and Bamana) and Hausa, respectively; Peul in French, also occasionally found in literature in English, comes from Wolof.

Latin alphabet

When written using the Latin alphabet, Fula uses the following additional special “hooked” characters to distinguish meaningfully different sounds in the language: Ɓ/ɓ, Ɗ/ɗ, Ŋ/ŋ, Ñ/ñ, Ƴ/ƴ (i.e., implosive B, implosive D, velar N [sounds like “ng” in “king’], palatal N, ejective Y). The apostrophe (ʼ) is used as a glottal stop. In Nigeria ʼy substitutes ƴ, and in Senegal ñ is used instead of ɲ.

Sample Fula alphabet

aaabmbɓcdndɗeeefgnghiiijnjklmnŋny (or ñ or ɲ)oooprstuuuwyƴ

The letters qxz are used in some cases for loan words. In the Pular of Guinea an additional letter, ɠ, is also part of the orthography.

Arabic script

Fula has also been written in the Arabic script or Ajami since before colonization. This continues to a certain degree and notably in some areas like Guinea.

Information source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Published on November 7, 2011 at 12:49  Leave a Comment  

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