Risālah ibn Abī Zayd al-Qayrawaanī – Chapter 4: On How to do Wudū’ and what is Farḍ and Sunnah in it – How to Clean Yourself after Going to the Lavatory with Water (Istinjā’) or with Stones and Other Things (Istijmār)

Risālah ibn Abī Zayd al-Qayrawaanī

The Risālah : A Treatise on Mālikī Fiqh by ʿAbdullah ibn Abī Zayd al-Qayrawānī (310/922 -386/996)

Translated by Alhaj Bello Mohammad Daura, MA (London) (Including commentary from ath-Thamr ad-Dānī by al-Azharī)

Chapter 4: On How to do Wudū’ and what is Fard and Sunnah In It (Wudū) – How to Clean Yourself after Going to the Lavatory with Water (Istinjā’) or with Stones and Other Things (Istijmār)

4.1 Istinjā’ (Cleansing With Water in the Lavatory)

[Istinjā‘ is to wash the place of filth with water, It (Istinja) is derived from najaa, to rescue or to deliver from. It is as if the one who does istinjā’ removes something offensive from himself. Istijmār is to use small stones to remove offensive matter on the place].

4.1a. Not Part of Wudū

Cleaning yourself with water after going to the lavatory should not be considered a part of wudu’, being neither one of its sunnah nor its farḍ aspects.

[It is neither obligatory, sunnah or recommended to connect wudu’ to istinjā. It is a separate form of worship which is distinct from wudū’ in time and place. It is not considered one of the sunan nor one of the obligations nor one of the merits of wudū‘. Its aim is to clean the place in particular. It is recommended that it precede wudu‘. If he delays it, then he must be careful about touching his penis which would break his wudū‘.]

4.1b. Its Purpose

However, you have to do it in order that all impurities are removed before doing the prayer. You do not have to make a special intention before doing it.

[Istinjā‘ is to remove impurity and so it is obligatory that it be done with water, as istijmār is done with stones so that he does not pray with impurity on the body. Part of what indicates that it is part of removing impurity is that it is enough that he remove it without intention.]

4.1c. Impurity on Clothes

The same thing applies when washing impurities off clothes.

[Cleaning impurity from clothes does not require an intention.]

4.1d. Description of Istinjā

The way you wash yourself after going to the lavatory (istinjā‘) is first of all wash your hand and then the end of the penis where the urine comes out. You then wipe any impurity from your anus using hard earth or other things or your left hand, which you should then wipe on the ground and wash.

[The full description of istinjā’ is that after he has removed anything by lightly using his fingers, he takes his penis in his left hand with his index finger and thumb and then lightly pulls it from the bottom to the glans. Then he wipes any impurity from his anus with clods or anything which can be used for istijmār. Then he washes his left hand fearing that any unpleasant smell will remain on it. Then he does istinjā‘ with water, but he first washes the place of urine before the place of faeces so that his hand will not be impure. Combining istijmār and istinjā‘ with water is better since the Prophet did that.]

4.1e. Further Cleaning

After this you wash your anus by pouring water over it which you continue to do while at the same time relaxing it a little, rubbing the area thoroughly with the left hand until it is clean.

[ You continue to pour water without letting up because it is more helpful in removing filth. You relax the anus a little because there are folds in it. When water touches it, it contracts. When it is relaxed, it can be washed. The place is rubbed with the hand while the water is being poured until it is cleaned of noxiousness. It is enough that he thinks it probable if he is able to do that. If he is not able to do it because his hand is cut off or short, he delegates someone who is able to touch that place, be it wife or concubine. He does not do wudū’ when he leaves that without washing it.]

4.1f. What is Unnecessary

You do not have to wash the inside of either of the two openings.

[It is not recommended or sunnah to wash inside the openings. For a man, there is only one opening, because the urethra has no opening.]

4.1g. In Case of Breaking Wind

You should not do istinja’ on account having broken wind.

[It is forbidden to do this cleansing on account of wind. The basis for that is the words of the Prophet,”The one who does istinjā‘ on account of wind is not one of us.” There is no text which clarifies whether the prohibition is one of prohibition or one of dislike. The hadīth can imply either.]

4.2 Istijmār (Cleansing with Stones)

4.2a. Number of Stones

When doing istijmār it is sufficient to use only three stones provided that the last one comes out clean,

[Istijmār is done with three stones. When the last one comes out clear of noxiousness, then that is adequate, even if water is available. One might conclude from his words that istijmār using less than three stones is not permissible. But the well-known position is that it is based on cleanness, even if it that is achieved with only one stone.]

[Ibn Juzayy points out that it should be an odd number.]

4.2b. Water is Better

but using water is more purifying, more pleasant and preferred by the men of knowledge (ʿulamā‘).

[It is understood from his words that the stones are enough, even if water exists, out of the fear that someone might imagine that is the same as using water and that they are equally excellent. That possibility is eliminated by his words that water is “more purifying” because neither substance nor trace remains when it is used while the stone only removes the actual thing, and water is better because it removes doubt. It is preferred by scholars, with the exception of Ibn al-Musayyab who said that using water is the action of women and implies that it is part of their obligation, i.e. specific to them and they are not allowed to use stones, as it is specifically necessary in menstruation, lochia and sperm, i.e. in respect of the one obliged to do tayammum because of illness or when he does not have enough water for ghusl, but does have enough water to remove the impurity. Water is also specifically necessary when a lot spreads out from the orifice when it is more than is customary.]

4.3 Washing the Hands Before Wudū’

If someone has neither urinated nor defecated but is doing wudū’ because he has broken it in some other way or has been asleep or has done something else which makes it necessary for him to do wudū‘, he should wash his hands before he puts them into whatever water container he is using.

[If someone has not urinated nor defecated or anything else which would require istinjā‘, like madh-yu and wadiy-yu, and wants to do wudū‘ because he has broken wind or done something else which obliges wudu‘, like apostasy, uncertainty about impurity, becoming a Rafidite [extreme Shi’ite], and other reasons like sleep, intoxication and unconsciousness, in following the sunnah, he must wash his hands first even if there is nothing on them which demands washing them as when they are both clean. Washing the hands to must absolutely be done whether he does istinjā‘ or anything else]

4.4 Sunnahs and obligations of Wudū

4.4a.Washing the hands to the Wrists

The sunnahs of wudū‘ include: washing the hands before putting them into the water container,

[One of the sunnahs of wudū‘ is to wash the hands to the wrists before putting them in the vessel. The sunnah of washing the hands before putting them into the vessel is when there is little water and it is possible that it might be used up. Otherwise it is not sunnah to wash them before putting them in the vessel.]

4.4b. Rinsing the Mouth

rinsing the mouth,

[Rinsing the mouth is a sunnah: it is to move water about in the mouth and spit it out. If he swallows it, it is not the sunnah. Also if he opens his mouth so the water runs into it, it is not the sunnah. The water must be moved about in the mouth and then spat out.]

4.4c. Sniffing up Water

sniffing up water into the nose and blowing it out again,

[One of the sunnahs is to to put water in the nostril by inhaling and if water is put up the nose without sniffing, that is not the sunnah. To blow it out, he puts his forefinger and thumb of his left on his nose and blows out the water from the nostrils using his breath.]

4.4d. Wiping the Ears

and wiping the ears. These are all sunnah actions,

[It is a sunnah of wudu‘ to wipe the outside and inside of the ears. The outside is what is next to the head and the inside is what is beside the face.]

4.5 Obligatory Elements of Wudū

the rest being obligatory (farḍ).

[The rest of wudū‘ is obligatory. This sentence is unclear since the rest of wudū‘ includes aspects which are sunnah, like repeating the wiping of the head, renewing the water for the ears, and the correct sequence, and that which is recommended, like saying the Basmala at the beginning. The answer to that is that his words, ‘the rest being obligatory‘ means the rest of the limbs which are washed and wiped independently since it is obligatory to wipe the head, and repeating it is dependent on it. The rest of the limbs designates independent obligations. Renewing the water and the correct sequence are not limbs. They are not connected to limbs, but to other than limbs because renewal is connected to water and proper sequence is connected to washing.]

4.6 How to Do Wudū’

4.6a. Basmala

Some of the men of knowledge (ʿulamā‘) say that when you go to do wudū‘ because you have been asleep or for any other reason you should begin by saying “Bismillah” (in the name of Allah), whereas others say that this is not part of doing wudū‘ correctly.

[When you go to do wudu‘ for some reason which obliges it, like sleep or something else, some scholars says that one begins with the Basmala. It is said that he says, “In the name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate,” and it is said that he simply says, “Bismillah.” Some scholars do not think that beginning with the Basmala was part of the known business of the Salaf, and indeed think that it is reprehensible, i.e. disliked. It is evident from the words of the author when he ascribes each position to ‘some’ that Malik did not take any stand regarding the Basmala. There are three transmissions from Mālik about the Basmala. One is that it is recommended, and that is what was stated by Ibn Habib, and is well-known because of the words of the Prophet, “There is no wudū‘ for the one who does not mention Allah.” The hadith appears to imply the obligation, and that is what was said by Imam Ahmad and Ishaq ibn Rahawayh, who was a mujtahid. The second is that it is reprehensible, saying, “Is he slaughtering so that he needs to say the Basmala?” The third is that there is a choice and then the judgement is that it is permitted.]

4.6b. Where to Place the Water Vessel

It is easier to get at the water if the container is on your right hand side.

[It is recommended for the person doing wudū‘ to put the vessel from which he does wudū‘ to his right because it is easier to take water. If the vessel is open, he can scoop from it. If the opening is narrow, it is better to have it on his left because that is easier.]

4.6c. Washing the Hands Three Times

You begin by washing your hands three times before putting them into the water container,

[After putting the open vessel to the right and the narrow one to the left, to follow the sunnah, he begins by washing his hands to the wrists three times before putting them into the vessel with a separate intention.]

4.6d. If You Have Gone to the Lavatory

except if you have just urinated or defecated in which case you wash off any traces of impurity before starting to do wudū’.

[What precedes is about the one who has not urinated or defecated. If he has urinated or defecated, then that person washes off the urine or faeces from himself before doing wudū‘. Then he does wudū‘, meaning the linguistic washing of the hands. Thus his first words about washing the hands before putting them in the vessel is about the one who has not urinated or defecated. If he has urinated or defecated, then he washes the place of urine or other filth and then does wudū‘, i.e, washes his hands, which is the first of the sunnahs of wudū‘.]

4.6f. Rinsing the Mouth

You put your hand into the container, take some water, and rinse your mouth out three times, using either one handful or three as you wish.

[You put your hand in the vessel if it is possible. Otherwise you pour the water and take enough water without being extravagant. You can rinse the mouth three times using one handful of water. The first handful is sunnah and each of the remaining two is recommended. If he wishes, he rinses the mouth three times with three handfuls, and the second form is better than the first form.]

4.6g. Rubbing the Teeth

It is also good to rub your teeth with your finger.

[It is recommended to clean the teeth with the finger before doing wudu‘.]

4.6h. Sniffing Water up the Nose You Then Sniff Up Water into Your Nose

[For the correct sequence only, so after he has rinsed the mouth, he sniffs water up his nose. Note that he says, “into the nose” because there might be sniffing without in going into the nose. Perhaps he mentioned that to seek the blessing of the actual words of the hadīth. Muslim says, “He snuffs water up his nose.”]

4.6i. Blowing Water Out the Nose

and blow it out again three times, holding your nose as you do when you blow it.

[What is accepted is that it is sunnah on its own, and the description of blowing out is to put the finger and thumb of the left hand on the nose and to bring the water with the air of the nose as he does when he blows the nose. Mālik disliked blowing it like a donkey because of the prohibition against that in the hadīth.]

4.6j. Number of Times

It is all right if you do this rinsing and sniffing less than three times. It is also all right to do all of this with only one handful of water but three handfuls is preferable.

[Less than three is adequate for rinsing and sniffing. The minimum is achieved by one or two times. The evidence for what he mentioned is that the Prophet did wudū‘ doing each action once and each action twice. The person doing wudū‘ can also combine rinsing and sniffing in the same handful. It has two forms. One that he only moves to sniffing after he finishes rinsing and the second is that he rinses and sniffs and then rinses and sniffs and then rinses and sniffs. The first is better because it is free of any reversal of order in worship.]

4.6k. Washing the Face: Wetting the Face

Then you take water, either with both hands together or with the right hand bringing the hands together afterwards, and using both hands pour the water unto the face.

[After finishing rinsing the mouth and sniffing, then he takes water with both hands if he wishes, or with the right hand and then puts it onto both hands and brings the water to his face. It appears that moving the water to the face is a precondition. This is according to Ibn Habīb, Ibn Majishūn and Saḥnūn. The well known position is that it is not a precondition to move it. What is desired is to bring water to the surface of the face however that happens, even by a waterspout.]

4.6l. Actual Washing of the Face

Then Using Both Hands You Wash the Face

[He applies water to the face without splashing the face with water as women and most men do it. He washes it with the hands. This means that washing connected to moving the water to the washed limb is a precondition of the recommendation in wudu‘. He also does that himself, even if he entrusts someone else to do the wudū‘ when that is not necessary. It does not satisfy the requirement because that is one of the actions of the arrogant. Rubbing is also obligatory, and the well-known position is that rubbing is obligatory in itself, not simply bringing the water to the face.]

4.6m. Area Covered: from the Top of the Forehead – Which is Marked by the Hairline –

[The sunnah in washing is to begin to wash the limbs from their top. If he begins from the bottom, it is allowed, but what he has done is disliked. He explains that what is meant by forehead is what touches the earth in prostration and the right and left sides of the brow, which is next to the normal roots of the hair. One does not take into consideration thick hair or baldness. He includes the thick hair in washing but not the place of baldness. From ‘hairline’ it is understood that part of the head must be washed to achieve the obligation.]

4.6n. to the End of the Chin,

[The face has both length and width. The beginning of its length is the normal roots of the hair and the end is to the end of the chin, which is the point of the beard, and the hairs on the bottom lip. There is no dispute about it being included in the washing. Its width is from ear to ear.]

4.6o. Covering the Entire Face

covering the whole area of the face from the jawbones to where the ears start, making sure you include the eye sockets, any wrinkles on the forehead and the bottom of the nose.

[He must wash the entire face, rubbing around it, including the temples between the ears and the eyes. The well-known position is that it is included in washing. You run your hand over what is hidden inside the sockets and inside the eyes. That must be washed. Also the hand must pass over the wrinkles on the brow, which is the place of prostration The hand must be passed over the bottom of the nostrils. This refers to the outside out and not the inside. He must wash the outside of his lips if they are not covered while washing the face.]

4.6p. Doing It Three Times

You wash your face in this way three times taking water to it.

[The face is washed in this manner three times from the beginning of the limb to the end and rubbing it.]

4.6q. The Beard

When washing your face you rub the beard with both palms to make sure that water gets into it since hair has a natural tendency to repel water. You do not have to put your fingers through your beard when doing wudū‘ according to Malik. You merely rub your hands over your beard down to the end.

[When the beard is thick, when washing the face, rub the hair of the thick beard with the palms in order to make the water enter it. If he does not do this, he will not do all of the outside of the hair because the hair repels water which gets on it unless it is moved by the hands. The well-known position from Mālik is that one does not have to put your fingers through the hair of a thick beard in when doing wudū’. Indeed the apparent text of the Mudawwana is that it is disliked in the case of a thick beard. As for the sparse beard through which the skin shows, he must put his fingers through it when doing wudū‘. It is absolutely obligatory to make the water penetrate the hair of the thin or thick beard in washing. The hands must move the water to the end of the beard.]

4.6r. The Second Obligation: the Hands

You then wash your right hand and forearm three times, or twice, pouring water over it and rubbing it with the left hand, making the fingers of one hand go between the fingers of the other. Then you wash the left hand and forearm in the same way.

[Then first after finishing washing the face, which is the first obligation, he moves on to the second obligation, which is the hands. He washes the right hand first because it is recommended without dispute to begin with the right in things before the left since it is sound that the Prophet said, “When you do wudū‘ begin with the right.” It is done three or two times. There’s a choice in the number times the hands are washed, but there is no choice in washing the face and feet. The reason for that is that it is established that the Prophet washed his face three times and his hands twice each. He pours water on the right hand and rubs it with the left hand. The rubbing must be connected to pouring the water. He puts the fingers of one hand between those of the other hand. He inserts them through the gaps from the top and not the bottom because otherwise that would entail entwining which is disliked. His words can imply either obligation or recommendation, but the first is the well known position. The basis for that is the words of the Prophet, “When you do wudū‘, put water between your fingers and your toes.” However, the command is obligatory for the hands and recommended for the feet. Then he washes the left hand in the same manner.]

4.6s. Extent of Washing the Hands and Arms

When washing the arms you go right up to the elbow, including it in what you wash. It has also been said that you only wash up to the elbows and that it is not necessary to include them but it is better to include them in order to remain on the safe side.

[When doing wudū‘ you wash up to the elbows and include the elbows in the washing. It is possible to include them or not in the washing. The most famous position is that it is obligatory to include them. He clearly stated that here. This is taking the ayat [“and your hands to the elbows,”] to mean “with”. Those who say that it that the washing ends at the elbows take the ayat to actually mean ” up to”. The third position is that it is recommended to include them in the washing to remove the difficulty of definition because it is difficult to define the end which the washing reaches.

4.6t. The Third Obligation: Wiping the Head

Then you take water with your right hand, pour it onto the left hand and using both hands you wipe over your head, beginning at the hairline at the front of the head. You place fingertips together with the thumbs at the temples then wipe over your head with both hands as far as the hairline at the back of the neck. Then you bring them back to the place you started, bringing your thumbs up behind your ears back to the temples. Whatever way you wipe your head is acceptable as long as the whole head is covered but the way mentioned is better. If you were to put both hands into the container, then lift them out wet, and wipe over your head with them this is also acceptable.

[After finishing the second obligation, he moves to the third obligation, and takes the water with the right hand and pours it onto the left palm and wipes his entire head with his hands. It is recommended to start at the front of the head or the normal hairline whether the hair is thick or he is bald. The fingers are put together except for the thumbs which are put at each of the temples. Then the head is wiped to the back of the neck, which is the bottom of the skull and then it is brought back to the place from where you started. It is recommended to bring the thumbs behind the ears and back to the temples which must be wiped along with the rest of the face including the hair. This manner of wiping is not obligatory, but the basis is to achieve a comprehensive washing and to completely wipe the head and hair. If he put his hands in the vessel, that is another way of taking water for wiping the head. So if he brings his hands out wet after putting them in the water, whether it is in a vessel or not and then wipes his head, that is enough according to Mālik without dislike and it is recommended according to Ibn al-Qāsim.]

4.6u. The Ears

Then you pour water over your index fingers and thumbs or if you like you dip them into the water and with them you wipe the outside and inside of both ears.

[After wiping the head, then the ears are wiped by taking water in the right hand and pouring it over the index finger and thumb of the left hand and the adjoining part of the left palm and he pours it on the same of the right hand. Then he wipes the outside and inside of both ears. If he wishes, he can dip the index fingers and thumbs in the water and then wipe with them. The first manner comes from from Ibn al-Qāsim and the second from Mālik.]

4.6v. Women’s Action in Wiping

Women wipe their heads and ears in the same way but they have to wipe over any hair that is hanging loose and cannot wipe over any head covering.

[The woman wipes her head and ears like the man in amount and description by the words of the Almighty, “Wipe your heads,” and women are the sisters of men. She wipes over any hair hanging loose. What is well-known is the obligation to wipe over any of man’s hair which is hang ing on the two sides since it will fall on the place of the obligation or on the face. As for that which actually extends over the place of the obligation, it is agreed that it is obligatory to wipe it. The ‘head covering’ is a cloth by which a woman binds her hair to protect it from the dust. She also does not wipe over other similar hair coverings when they are put next to the head because all of that is a barrier since it does not let her wipe what must be wiped. Otherwise it is permitted as Mālik said that the Prophet wiped over his turban, which is by necessity. Imam Ahmad disagreed and said that there is choice in that. It is affimed that the Prophet wiped the forelock at the front of the head first and finished by wiping over the turban.]

Wiping under plaits

They should put their hands under their plaits when bringing their hands back to the front.

[After the woman begins the wiping from the front of her head and reaches the back where the hair hangs down, she must put her hands under the plaits of hair to complete it, and it is sunnah to bring the hands back if there is any moisture left on them. It is clear from his words that she does not have to undo her plaits because of the difficulty involved. Some people limit that to what is tied with a thread or two. When there are a lot of threads, it must be undone.]

4.6w. Fourth Obligation: the Feet

[After he finishes wiping the ears, he begins the fourth obligation, i.e. washing the feet. It is said that its obligation is wiping. The reason for the disagreement has to do with how the words of the Almighty are read and whether “your feet” is in the genitive or accusative. If it is accusative, then the feet are added to “face and hands” and there is no doubt that its obligation is washing, and so this judgement is given by the conjunction. If it is genitive, then it is joined to “head” and it has the judgement of what it is joined to, which is wiping, and so they are wiped. They are wiped if he is wearing leather socks. This is deduced from what the Prophet did since it is confirmed that he only wiped his feet when he was wearing leather socks. The multiple transmissions from him is that he always washed them when he was not wearing leather socks.]

4.6x The Manner of Washing the Feet

You then wash both feet pouring water onto your right foot with your right and rubbing it with your left hand little by little. You do this thoroughly three times.

[The description of washing the feet is that water is poured with the right hand onto the right foot which is rubbed with the left hand. Rubbing one foot with the other is not enough. This is the position of Ibn al-Qāsim. Its washing is recommended to be completed by water and rubbing three times and should not be more than that. The washing of the feet is limited to three times, which is one of two well-known positions about whether the fourth is disliked or forbidden. The other statement is that washing the feet has no limitation. What is desired is to cleanse, even that is more than three. It is also well-known.]

4.6y The Toes and Heels

If you want you can put your fingers between your toes. If you do not do this it does not matter, but doing it makes you feel more satisfied. You then rub your heels and ankles and any part which water does not get to easily due to hardening or cracking of the skin. You should make sure you do this well, pouring water on the area with your hand because there is a hadith which says, “Woe to the heels from the Fire.” The “heel” of a thing is its extremity or end. You then do the same thing with the left foot.

[If he wishes, he puts water between his toes while washing them, and if he wishes, he leaves that, but it is better to put them between the toes and no doubt remains when it is done. Rubbing the heels can mean either the obligation or recommendation. What is meant is the first. He must rub all those places where the water does not immediately reach due to hardness or cracks as well as wrinkles in loose skin. The threat regarding “Woe to the heels from the Fire” does not only apply to heels, but to every part of the limbs of wudū’. The Prophet said that about when he saw that the heels had no water on them and had not been wiped with water. The whole process is repeated with the left foot. He did not state the limit of washing, and it extends to the ankles. The best known position is to include them in the washing.]

4.6z Three Times

Washing each of the limbs three times is not an actual command. You can do it less but three is the most you should do. If you can do it thoroughly with less than that it is acceptable as long as you do not leave anything out. Not everyone is the same in the amount of water they require to do wudū‘ thoroughly.

[There is no actual definition that it is not adequate if the limbs are not washed in wudū‘ three times each. Three is the limit of what can be done, and no more than three. Ibn Bashīr transmits the consensus that the fourth time is forbidden. The story of the consensus of its prohibition is not established because of the existence of the statement that it is disliked. However prohibition can include what is disliked. The basis in this is that it is related that a bedouin asked the Messenger of Allah about wudū‘ and he showed him three times each. It is clear that he did wudū‘ in his presence and then said, “This is how wudū‘ is.” Therefore anyone who does more than this has acted badly, transgressed and done wrong. If it is done throroughly with less than that, it is allowed. The maximum is specified, but not the minimum since it is contained in one and two and so its state is known and there is no need to define it. Not all people are the same in doing that washing thoroughly. If someone does not do it thoroughly with one time, then it is not allowed and specified in respect of him that which will achieve it. If that is only complete with two, then he intends the obligation by them, and the third is excellence. If it is only thorough with three, then the obligation is intended by it and the recommendation removes what is more. It is clear that the description of wudū‘ contains obligations, sunnahs and virtues and the person is encouraged to perform them in the manner by which none of them is lacking.]

4.7 The Reward for Performing Wudū

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Anyone who does wudū‘ and does it well and then raises his eyes to the sky and says, ‘I bear witness that there is no god but Allah alone, without any partner and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger,’ will have the eight gates of the Garden opened for him and he can enter by any of them he chooses.”

47a. What to Say Afterwards

Some of the ‘ulamā‘ recommend saying when you finish wudū‘, “O Allah, make me one of those who turn back to You and make me one of those who purify themselves.” (Allahumma ijʿalnii mina-t-tawwabīna wa-jʿalnii mina-l-mutatahhirīn).

[Ibn Habīb says that it is recommended to say this. The ‘tawwabin‘ are those who have committed wrong actions and then repented and purified themselves of the wrong actions.]

4.8 Purpose of Wudū

4.8a. Aim

You must do wudū‘ realising that you are doing it for Allah as He has ordered you to do, hoping that it will be accepted and that you will get the reward for it and that it will purify you of your wrong actions.

[Scholars say that the shaykh did not speak about the intention (niyyah) for wudū‘ because he did not say that he makes the intention to perform wudū‘ which is an obligation by agreement with Ibn Rushd because he did not recall any disagreement about its being obligatory for wudū‘. That is why the agreement is related about its being obligatory and in the soundest position with Ibn al-Hājib. Opposite it there is a text on wudu‘ from Mālik about it not being obligatory. Then they disagree about whether it can be deduced from his words or not. Some say that he does not speak about intention in the Risālah at all and some of them say that it is deduced from his words “he must”, meaning the person doing wudū‘ must be doing wudū‘ sincerely for Allah, not for showing off or reputation. That is because sincerity is commanded in the words of the Almighty, “They were only commanded to worship Allah making the deen sincerely His.” Sincerity is that a person intend the Worshipped by the act of worship without actual articulation. The focus of the intention is the heart. Part of its precondition is that it accompany the first obligation in wudū‘, which is washing the face. If it precedes it by a lot, then it is agreed that it is not permissible. There are two accepted positions about it preceding by a little. The best known is that it is allowed. They agreed that if he makes the intention after washing the face, then it is not adequate. The basis for the intention is that it accompany it. If it happens that he overlooks it, he is forgiven. When wudū‘ is done sincerely with the intention of obeying Allah’s command and secure in himself that the action is done freely, he should hope that it will be accepted and he will be purified of wrong actions based on what is in (Saḥīh) Muslim where the Prophet said, “When a Muslim (or a believer) does wudū’ and washes his face, then every wrong action at which his eye looked leaves from his face with the water – or with the last drop of water”]

4.8b. Wudu‘ as Preparation

You should feel in yourself that it is a preparation and a cleansing for speaking to your Lord and standing in front of Him to carry out the acts He has made obligatory on you with humility in your bowing and prostration.

[He should know that wudū‘ is a preparation and a cleansing from wrong actions and dirt. When the legally responsible person wants to perform wudū‘, he does it sincerely for Allah Almighty desiring that Allah will accept it because he is purifying himself and this is in order to prepare to converse with his Lord. Conversing with the Lord demands sincerity of heart and devotion of inner consciousness to His remembrance. It is also in order to perform the obligation Allah has imposed on him. Bowing and prostration are specifically mentioned as well as humility in other actions because total humility is meant and because the closest a slave is to his Lord is when he is in prostration.]

4.8c. Having Certainty

You should do wudu‘ with a certainty of this, taking good care to do it properly for no action is complete without the right intention behind it.

[You should be aware that wudū‘ is preparation for intimate conversation with your Lord in order to make reverence and esteem firm in your heart. That will result in doing wudū’ with due humility to your Master. This reverence and esteem will result in doing wudu‘ in a manner which is mindful of avoiding imperfections and whisperings. Actions are only according to intentions. It is enough that the Prophet said, “Every man has what he intends.”]

Sections About the Obligatory, Prophetic and Meritorious Acts of Wuḍuu’ from Matn al-Akhḍarii

Sections About the Obligatory, Prophetic and Meritorious Acts of Wuḍuu’

فَرَائِضُ الْوُضُوءِ سَبْعَ  النَّيَّةِ وَغَسْلُ الْوَجْهِ وَغَسْلُ الْيَدَيْنِ إِلَى الْـمَـرْفَقَيْـنِ وَمَسَحُ الرَّأْسِ وَغسْلُ الرِّجْلَيْـنِ إِلَى الْكَعْبَيْـنِ والدَّلْكُ وَالْفَوْرُ.

فَـرَائِـضُ الْـوُضُـوءِ (The fara’id  of wuḍuu [obligatory acts of’ minor ablution) سَبْعَ (are seven): النِّيَّةُ (the intention), وَغَسْلُ الْوَجْهِ (the washing the face), وَغَسْـلُ الْـيَدَيْـنِ (washing the hands)  إلَـى الْـمَرْفَـقَيْـنِ (up to the the elbows), وَمَسَحُ الرَّأْسِ (wiping the head), وَغسْلُ الرِّجْلَيْـنِ (washing the feet) إلى الّـكَعْبَيْـنِ (up to the ankles), and الدَّلْـكُ (the rubbing of each limb) وَ‏الْـفَوْرُ ([washing each limb] one immediately after the other without delay).

(وَسُنَنُهُ) غَسْلُ الْيَدَيْنِ إَلَى الْكَوْعَيْـنِ عِنْدَ الشُّرُوعِ والْـمَـضْمَضَةُ والاِسْتِنْشَاقُ والاِسْتِنْثَارُ وَرَدُّ مَسْحِ الرَّأْسِ وَمَسْحُ الأُذْنََيْـنِ وَتَـجْدِيدْ الْـمـَاءِ لَـهُمَا وَالتَّرْتِيبُ بَيْـنَ الْفَرَائِضِ.

وَسُـنَنُهُ (It’s sunan [the actions of wuḍuu’ which are done in accordance with the tradition of the Prophet صَـلَّى اللهُ عَـلَيْهِ‏ وَسَـلَّمَ‏  are):  غَسْـلُ‏ الْـيَدَيْْـنِ (washing the hands)  إَلَى الْكَوْعَيْـنِ (up to the wrist) عِنْدَ الشُّرُوعِ (at the outset), والْـمَـضْمَضَةُ (rinsing the mouth, while swishing water through it, and spitting it out), والاِسْـتِنْشَاقُ (inhaling water up into the nostrils), والاِسْـتِنْثَارُ (forcing out the water from the nose by lightly exhaling it), وَرَدُّ مَـسْحِ الرَّأْسِ (returning the wiping over the head with wet hands to the front), وَمَـسْحُ الأُذْنََـيْـنِ (wiping the two ears) وَتَـجْدِيدْ الْـمـَاءِ لَهُمَا (while renewing the water for them [by placing the hands back into the receptacle or at the water spout for more water]), وَالتَّرْتِـيبُ (and correct order) بَـيْـنَ الْـفَرَائِـضِ (between the performance of each of the obligatory action of wuḍuu’).

وَمَنْ نَسِيَ فَرْضاً مِنْ أَعْضَائِهِ فَإِنَّ تَذَكَّرَهُ بِالْقُرْبِ فَعَلَهُ وَمَا بَعْدَهُ وِإنْ طَالَ فَعَلَهُ وَحْدَهُ وَأَعَادَ مَا صَلَّى قَبْلَهُ وَإِنْ تَرَكَ سُنَّةً فَعَلَهَا وَلاَ يُعِيدُ الصَّلاَةَ .

وَمَـنْ نَسِـيَ (He who forgets)  فَـرْضًـا مِـنْ أَعْـضَائِـهِ  ([to perform] an obligatory washing مِـنْ أَعْضَائِـهِ (of one of the parts of his body) فَإِنَّ تَذَكَّرَهُ بِـالْـقُرْبِ (and then remembers it soon after), فَـعَلَهُ (he should do it [wash the forgotten part]) وما بَـعْدَهُ (and what comes [the next part of the body which is required to be washed] after it [in the sequential order of washing]).  وِإنْ طَـالَ (If a length of time has elapsed [since he last performed wuḍuu’]), فَـعَلَهُ وَحْـدَهُ (then he should do it [wash the forgotten part] by itself, وَأَعَـادَ مَـا صَـلَّى قَـبْلَهُ (and should repeat the prayer he prayed before it [before he renewed his wuḍuu’]). وَإِنْ تَـرَكَ سُـنَّةً (and if he has left [unwashed], a sunnah [a part of the body that falls under the Sunnah]), فَـعَلَهَا (he should do it [wash it]), وَلاَ يُـعِيدُ الصَّلاَةَ (but he should not repeat the prayer).

وَمَنْ نَسِيَ لـُمْعَةٌ غَسَلَهَا وَحْدَهَا بِنًيَّةٍ ، وَإِنْ صَلَّى قَبْلَ ذالِكَ أَعَادَ وَمَنْ تَذَكَّرَ الـْمَـضْمَضَةَ والاِسْتِنْشَاقَ بَعْدَ أَنْ شَرَعَ فِي الْوَجْهِ فَلاَ يَرْجِعُ إِلَيْهِمَا حَتَّى يُتِمَّ وُضُوءَهُ .

وَمَـنْ نَسِـيَ (Whoever forgets)  لـُـمْعَةٌ ([to wash] a small portion [of a limb]) غَسَـلَهَا وَحْـدَهَـا (should wash it [that portion] alone) بِـنًيَّةٍ ([along] with [making] intention [to do so]), وَإِنْ صَـلَّى (and if he has prayed) قَـبْلَ ذالِـكَ (before that [before washing the part he missed]) أَعَـادَ  (then he should repeat [the prayer]). وَمَـنْ تَـذَكَّرَ الـْـمَـضْمَضَةَ (Whoever remembers to rinse the mouth with water), والاِسْـتِنْشَاقَ (and to inhale water up into the nostrils) بَـعْدَ أَنْ شَرَعَ فِي الْوَجْهِ (after he has begun washing the face) فَلاَ يَرْجِعُ إِلَـيْهِمَا (shouldn’t return to [wash] them) حَـتَّى يُـتِمَّ وُضُـوءَهُ (until he has completed his wuḍuu’).

(وَفَضَائِلُهُ) التَّسْمِيَّةُ وَالسِّوَاكُ وَالزَّائِدُ عَلَى الضَّرْبةِ الأُولَى فِي الْوَجْهِ وَالْيَدَيْنِ وَالْبِدَايَةُ بِـمُقَدَّمِ الرَّأْسِ وَتَرْتِيبُ السُّنَـنِ وَقِلَّةُ الْـمَـاءِ عَلَى الْعُضْوِ وَتَقْدِيمُ الْيُمْنَى عَلَى الْيُسْرَى ، وَيَجِبُ تَخْلِيلُ أَصَابِعِ الْيَدَيْنِ وَيَستَحَبُّ فِي أَصَابِعِ الرِّجْلَيْـنِ وَيَجِبُ تَخْلِيلُ اللِّحْيَةِ الْـخَفِيفَةِ فِي الْوُضُوءِ دُونَ الْكَثِيفَةِ وَيَجِبُ تَخْلِيلُهَا فِي الْغُسْلِ وَلَوْ كَانَتْ كَثِيفَةً .

وَفَـضَائِـلُهُ (It’s faḍaa’il [the meritorious acts of  wuḍuu] are): التَّسْمِيَّة (saying Bismi-l-laahi [at the beginning of wuḍuu’]), السِّوَاك (the use of the miswak – traditional wooden toothbrush]), وَالزَّائِـدُ عَـلَى الضَّرْبةِ الأُولَـى (the addition of two more washings) فِـي الْـوَجْـهِ وَالْـيَدَيْـنِ (of the face and hands [which are added to the initial obligatory washing of them]), وَالْبِدَايَةُ بِـمُقَدَّمِ الرَّأْسِ (beginning at the front of the head [when wiping it]),وَتَـرْتِـيبُ السُّنَـنِ (observing  the sequential order of the Sunnah), وَقِلَّةُ الْـمَـاءِ (using the least amount of water) عَـلَى الْـعُضْوِ (on the limbs [during the performance of wuḍuu]),وَتَـقْدِيمُ الْـيُمْنَى عَـلَى الْيُسْـرَى (proceeding from right to left)وَيَجِبُ تَخْـلِيلُ أَصَـابِعِ الْـيَدَيْـنِ (rubbing between the fingers [of one hand with the fingers of the other hand] is required) وَيُستَحَبُّ فِـي أَصَـابِـعِ الرِّجْـلَيْـنِ (rubbing between the toes is also recommended) , وَيَـجِبُ تَخْـلِيلُ اللِّحْيَةِ الْـخَفِيفَةِ (combing the fingers through a thin beard is required) فِـي الْـوُضُـوءِ (during the performance of wuḍuu’); دُونَ الْـكَثِيفَةِ (especially when [the beard] is not thick); وَيَـجِبُ تَخْـلِيلُهَا فِـي الْغُسْـلِ (and the combing of it [with fingers] is required during the performance of ghusl [major ablution]), وَلَـوْ كَـانَـتْ كَـثِيفَةً (even if it [the beard] is thick).

مُقَدِّمَةُ الْكِتَابِ (The Introductory Chapter) from Matn al-Akhdarii

The Section about الطَّهَارَة – At-Ṭahaarah (Purity) from Matn al-Akhdarii

Section: نَـوَاقـضُ‏ الْـوُضُـوء (Nawaaqiḍu-l-Wuḍuu’ [The Nullification of Wuḍuu’]) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

Section About Ghusl: Its Obligatory, Sunnah and Meritorious Actions from Matn al-Akhḍarii

The Section About التَّيَمُّم At-Tayammum (Dry Ablution) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

The Sections About الْـحَيْض Al-Ḥayḍ (Menstruation) and النَّفَاس An-Nafaas (The Blood Of Parturition [Child Birth]) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

The Section About الأَوْقَاتُ‏ الصَّلاَةِ Al-Awqaatu-ṣ-Salaah [The Times Of Prayer] from Matn al-Akhḍarii

The Section Concerning شُرُوطُ‏ الصَّلاَة (The Conditions of Ṣalaah) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

Section الصَّلاَّةُ‏ الـْـمَفْرُوضَـة (Aṣ-Ṣalaatu-l-Mafruuḍah [The Obligatory Prayer]) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

Section فصل قُـضَاءُ‏ مَـا فِـي‏ الذِّمَّةِ‏ مِـنَ‏ الصَّلَوَات (Making Up What is Owed from Prayers [That Have Passed]) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

A Chapter About السَّهْو (as-Sahw [Forgetfulness During Prayer] from Matn al-Akhḍarii


Chapter 18 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About General Aspects of Wuḍuu’ and the Movement of the Beard

جَامِعُ الْوُضُوءِ وَتحْرِيكُ اللِّحْيَةِ

General Aspects of Wuḍuu’ and the Movement of the Beard

قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬مَنْ‮ ‬كَانَ‮ ‬عَلَى وُضُوءٍ‮ ‬فَذَبَحَ‮ ‬فَلاَ‮ ‬يَنْتَقِضُ‮ ‬لِذَلِكَ‮ ‬وُضُوءُهُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِك فِيمَنْ‮ ‬تَوَضَّأَ‮ ‬ثُمَّ‮ ‬حَلَقَ‮ ‬رَأْسَهُ‮ ‬إنَّهُ‮ ‬لَيْسَ‮ ‬عَلَيْهِ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬يَـمْسَحَ‮ ‬رَأْسَهُ‮ ‬بِالْـمَاء ثَانِيَةً‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬الْقَاسِمِ‮ ‬وَبَلَغَنِي‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬عَبْدُ‮ ‬الْعَزِيزِ‮ ‬بْنُ‮ ‬أَبِي‮ ‬سَلَمَةَ‮ ‬أَنَّهُ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬هَذَا مِنْ‮ ‬لَـحْنِ‮ ‬الْفِقْهِ

Ibn Al-Qaasim said Maalik said, “Whoever has wuḍuu’ and he does slaughtering, his wuḍuu does not become nullified because of that.  Maalik also said, concerning the person who  has performed wuḍuu’ and then cut his hair, “he is not required to wipe over his head with water a second time.” Ibn al-Qaasim said, “It has reached me that ʿAbdul Aziiz bin Abū Salamah said that he said this from understanding the fiqh.”

قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬وَسَمِعْتُ‮ ‬مَالِكًا‮ ‬يَذْكُرُ‮ ‬قَوْلَ‮ ‬النَّاسِ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الْوُضُوءِ‮ ‬حَتَّى‮ ‬يَقْطُرَ‮ ‬أَوْ‮ ‬يَسِيلَ‮ ‬،‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬فَسَمِعْتُهُ‮ ‬وَهُوَ‮ ‬يَقُولُ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬قَطْرًا قَطْرًا إنْكَارًا لِذَلِكَ‮ .

He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “I heard Maalik mention the statement of the people (of knowledge)  concerning wuḍuu until it dripped or flowed.” He said, “I heard him while he is says: قَطْرًا‮ ‬قَطْرًا  (drip drip) disapprovingly for that. ”

قَالَ‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬وَقَدْ‮ ‬كَانَ‮ ‬بَعْضُ‮ ‬مَنْ‮ ‬مَضَى‮ ‬يَتَوَضَّؤُنَ‮ ‬بِثُـلُثِ‮ ‬الْـمُدِّ‮.

Ibn Al-Qaasim said Maalik said, “From among those who have passed were those who performed wuḍuu’ with one-third of a mudd.”

قَالَ‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬تُـحَرَّكُ‮ ‬اللِّحْيَةُ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الْوُضُوءِ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬غَيْرِ‮ ‬تَخْلِيلٍ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ‮ ‬إنَّ‮ ‬رَبِيعَةَ‮ ‬بْنَ‮ ‬أَبِي‮ ‬عَبْدِ‮ ‬الرَّحْمَنِ‮ ‬كَانَ‮ ‬يُنْكِرُ‮ ‬تَخْلِيلَ‮ ‬اللِّحْيَةِ‮ ‬،‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬يَكْفِيهَا مَا مَرَّ‮ ‬عَلَيْهَا مِنْ‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ‮ . ‬

Ibn al-Qaasim said Maalik said, “The movement of the beard in wuḍuu’ is no more than combing the beard with the fingers.  Ibn Wahb said, “Rabiiʿah bin Abū ʿAbdur Rahmān used to disapprove of combing the beard with the fingers.”  He said, the water that passed over it was sufficient.

وَقَالَ‮ ‬الْقَاسِمُ‮ ‬بْنُ‮ ‬مُحَمَّدٍ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬أَغْرِفُ‮ ‬مَا‮ ‬يَكْفِينِي‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ‮ ‬فَأَغْسِلُ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬وَجْهِي‮ ‬وَأُمِرُّهُ‮ ‬عَلَى لِـحْيَتِي‮ ‬،‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬حَدِيثِ‮ ‬ابْنِ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬حَيْوَةَ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬شُرَيْحٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬سُلَيْمَانَ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬أَبِي‮ ‬زَيْنَبَ‮ . ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬الْقَاسِمِ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬لَسْتُ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬الَّذِينَ‮ ‬يُخَلِّلُونَ‮ ‬لِـحَاهُمْ‮

al-Qaasim ibn Muhammad said, “I scoop up enough water for me;  I wash my face with it and pass it over my beard.”  It is from the ḥadīth of Ibn Wahb who transmitted it from Ḥaywah bin Shuryaḥ who transmitted from Sulaymaan bin Abū Zaynab.  Ibn al-Qaasim said, “I am not among those who comb the beard with the fingers.”

وَقَالَ  إبْرَاهِيمُ  النَّخَعِيُّ  :  يَكْفِيهَا مَا مَرَّ  عَلَيْهَا مِنْ  الْـمَاءِ  مِنْ  حَدِيثِ  وَكِيعٍ  عَنْ  الْفُضَيْلِ  عَنْ  مَنْصُورٍ  .

Ibrahīm an-Nakhaʿii said, “The water that passes over it (the beard) is enough.”  It is from the ḥadiith of Wakiiʿ who transmitted it from al-Fuḍayl who transmitted it from Manṣuur.

قَالَ  وَكِيعٌ  وَقَالَ  ابْنُ  سِيرِينَ  :  لَيْسَ  مِنْ  السُّنَّةِ  غَسْلُ  اللِّحْيَةِ  وَأَنَّ  ابْنَ  عَبَّاسٍ  لَمْ  يَكُنْ  يُخَلِّلُ  لِـحْيَتَهُ  عِنْدَ  الْوُضُوءِ  مِنْ  حَدِيثِ  ابْنِ  وَهْبٍ  عَنْ  عَبْدِ  الْـجَبَّارِ  بْنِ  عُمَرَ

Ibn Sīrīn said, “Washing the beard is not part of the Sunnah, and Ibn ʿAbbaas did not comb his beard with his fingers when performing wuḍuu’.”  It is from the ḥadiith of Ibn Wahb who transmitted from ʿAbdul Jabbaar bin ʿUmar.

The Beneficial Actions of Wuḍuu’ from Matn al ʿIzziyah

The Beneficial Actions of Wuḍuu’

فَضَائِلُهُ‮ ‬إِحْدَى عَشَرَةَ (The beneficial actions of wuḍuu’ are eleven):

الأُولَـى التَّسْمِيَّةُ (The first beneficial action: is to say In the Name of Allah) فِـيابْـتِدَاءِ‮ ‬الْـوُضُـوءِ (at the beginning of wuḍuu’). بِـأَنْ‮ ‬يَـقُولَ‮ ‬بِـسْمِ‮ ‬اللهِ‮ ‬ (It is to say: بِـسْمِ‮ ‬الله‮ ‬[In the Name of Allah]). وَإِذَا نَسِـيَهَا (If the one performing wuḍuu’  forgot to say  بِـسْمِ‮ ‬الله‮ ‬[In the Name of Allah]) فِـي‮ ‬ابْـتِدَائِـهِ (at the beginning of his wuḍuu’),ثُـمَّ‮ ‬تَـذَكَّرَهَا (then he remembers it) فِـي‮ ‬أَثْنَائِهِ‮ ‬(while performing it), أَتَى بِهَا  (he should say it [the Basmalah]).

الثَّانِـيَةُ‮ ‬الدُّعَـاءُ‮ ‬بَـعْدَ‮ ‬الْـفَرَاغِ‮ ‬مِـنْهُ (The second beneficial action: is to recite the supplication that is said at the completion of wuḍuu) بِأَنْ‮ ‬يَقُولَ (which the worshipper says) وَهُوَ‮ ‬رَافِعٌ‮ ‬ظَرْفَهُ (while raising his index finger) إِلَى السَّمَاءِ (to the sky):

أَشْهَدُ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬إِلَـاـه الاَّ‮ ‬الله وَحْدَهُ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬شَريكَ‮ ‬لَهُ‮ ‬وَأَشْهَدُ‮ ‬أَنَّ‮ ‬مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ‮ ‬وَرَسُولُهُ‮ ‬اللَّهُمَّ‮ ‬اجْعَلْنِي‮ ‬مِنَ‮ ‬التَّوَابِينَ‮ ‬وَاجْعَلْنِي‮ ‬مِن الْـمُتَطَهِّرِينَ‮.  ‬

I openly bear witness that there is no God, other than Allah, Who is Alone without a partner for Him, and I openly bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and His messenger. Oh Allah, Place me among the repentant and place me among the purified ones.

‮ ‬الثَّالِثَةُ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬يَـتَكَلَّمَ (The third beneficial action: is for the one who is performing wuḍuu not to talk فِي‮ ‬وُضُوئِهِ (while performing his ablution);

الرَّابِـعَةُ‮ ‬قِـلَّةُ‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ (The fourth beneficial action: is the use a small amount of water, بِلاَ‮ ‬حَدٍّ (but without limits), كَـالْغُسْـلِ similar to ghusl. مَـعَ‮ ‬إِحْـكَامِـهِمَا (with the rules for both of them [wuḍuu’ or ghusl]) إتْـقَانِـهِمَا (being exactly the same).

الْـخَامِـسَةُ السِّوَاكِ (The fifth beneficial action: is to use of siwaak) بِـعُودٍ (with a small stick)‮ ‬رَطْـبٍ (wet)  أَوْ‮ ‬يَـابِـسٍ‮ ‬(or dry). وَالأَخْـضَرُ‮ ‬أَفْـضَلُ (The green stick is the best kind) لِـغَيْرِ‮ ‬الصَّائِـمِ (for everyone except the individual who is fasting). فَإِنْ‮ ‬لَـمْ‮ ‬يَجِـدْ‮ ‬عُـودًا (If a stick is not found) فَـبِأَصْـبُعِهِ (then the finger of the person who is performing wuḍuu will suffice) أَوْ‮ ‬بِشَـيْءٍ‮ ‬خَـشِنٍ (or something course). يَسْـتَاكُ‮ ‬بِـالْـيُمْنَي ( He should brush the teeth with the right hand), وَ‮ ‬يَـكُونُ‮ ‬قَـبْلَ‮ ‬الْـوضُـوءِ (and it is done before performing wuḍuu’), وَيَـتَمَضْمَضُ (and he should rinse his mouth) بَـعْدَهُ (after it). وَإِذَا بَـعُدَ‮ ‬ (If there is a long period of time) مَـا بَـيـْنَ‮ ‬الْـوُضُـوءِ‮ ‬(between the wuḍuu and the prayer), اسْـتَاكَ (he should brush his teeth). وَإِنْ‮ ‬حَـضَرَتْ‮ ‬صًـلاَةُ‮ ‬أُخْـرَى‮ ‬(If another prayer comes in), وَهُـوً‮ ‬عَـلَى طَـهَارَةٍ (and he still has wuḍuu’), اسْـتَاكَ‮ ‬لِـلثَّانِـيَةِ (then he should brush his teeth again).

السَّادِسَةُ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬يَتَوَضَّأَ (The sixth beneficial action: is to perform wuḍuu’) فِي‮ ‬مَكَانٍ‮ ‬طَاهِرٍ (in a clean place).

السَّابِِـعة أَنْ‮ ‬يَـكُونَ‮ ‬ألإنَـاءِ (The seventh beneficial action: for the one who is performing wuḍuu’ is to place the water container) عَـنْ‮ ‬يَـمِينِهِ (on his right side) إِنْ‮ ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬مَـفْتُوحًـا (if it is open).

الثَّامِـنَة أَنْ‮ ‬يُـقَدِّمَ (The Eighth beneficial action: is to start)‮  ‬غَسْـلَ‮ ‬الْـمَيَامِـنِ (by washing the right side) عَلَى الْـمَيَاسِرِ (before the left side).

التَّاسِعَةُ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬يَبْدَأَ‮ ‬(The ninth beneficial action: is to begin) بِتُقَدِّمَ‮ ‬الرَّأْسِ (at the front of the head);

الْـعَاشِـرَةُ الـْـمَسْنُونَ‮ ‬مَـعَ‮ ‬الْـمَسْنُونِ‮  ‬(Tenth beneficial action: is to perform in sequential order the prescribed sunnah)‮ ‬كَـالْـمَضْمَضَةُ (like the rinsing of the mouth) والإسْـتِنْشاَقِ (and the inhaling of water).

الْـحَادِيَةُ‮ ‬عَشَـرَةِ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬يُكَرِّرَ‮ ‬الْـمَغْسُولَ‮ ‬ثَـلاَثَـا (The eleventh beneficial action: is to repeat the washing of the the limbs of wuḍuu’ three times),  بِـخِلاَفِ‮ ‬الْـمَمْسُوحِ (with the exception of the parts that are wiped over only once), وَهُـوَ‮ ‬الرَّاسُ (and they are the head) وَأُذُنَـانِ (and the ears). فَإِنَّهُ‮ ‬لاَيَستَجِبُ (It is not recommended) تَـكْرَارُ‮ ‬مَـسْحِهِ‮ ‬(to repeat wiping over them).

تَنْبِيهNote / Rule: 2

الزِّيَادَةُ‮ ‬عَلَى الثَّلاَثَةٍ‮ ‬غَـيرَمَشَـرُوعَـةٍ‮  ‬وَإختُلِفَ‮ ‬هَـل تُـكرَهُ‮ ‬أو تَـمْـنُوعُ‮  ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬يَسْتَحَبُّ‮ ‬إطالَةُ‮ ‬الغُرٌةِ‮ ‬وَهِيَ‮ ‬الزِّيَادَةُ‮ ‬عَلَى مَا وَجَبَ‮ ‬غَسْلُهّ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬الْوَجْهِ‮ ‬وَالْيَدَيْنِ‮ ‬مَعَ‮ ‬الْـمِرْفَقَيْـنِ‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬مَـسحُ‮ ‬الٌرقبَةِ‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬بِـمَسحِ‮ ‬الاَعضَاءِ‮ ‬بِالْـمَنْدِيلِ‮ ‬

الزِّيَـادَةُ‮ ‬عَـلَى الثَّلاَثَـةٍ (An increase above three washings) غَـيرَمَشَـرُوعَـةٍ (is not correct) وَإخْـتُلِفَ (and it has been debated) هَـل تُـكرَهُ‮ ‬أو تَـمْـنُوعُ (as to whether it disliked or prohibited?) قَـوْلاَنِ‮ ‬مَـشْهُورَانِ (The two are well known debates). إطالَـةُ‮ ‬الغُرٌةِ (The lengthening of the blaze) وَلاَ‮ ‬يَسْـتَحَبُّ‮ ‬ (is not recommended). وَهِيَ‮ ‬الزِّيَـادَةُ (It is to go beyond) عَـلَى مَا وَجَبَ‮ ‬غَسْـلُهُ (what is required of the person performing wuḍuu’ while washing) مِـنْ‮ ‬الْـوَجْـهِ (the face) وَالْـيَدَيْنِ (and the hands) مَـعَ‮ ‬الْـمِرْفَـقَيْـنِ (up to and including the elbows). وَلاَ‮ ‬مَـسحُ‮ ‬الٌـرقبَةِ (The neck should not be wiped), وَلاَ‮ ‬بَـأْسَ (but there is no objection) بِـمَسحِ‮ ‬الاَعْـضَاءِ (to wiping the limbs) بِـالْـمَنْدِيلِ (with the handkerchief).

8. الإسْـتِنجَاءُ ([Istinjaa’] Cleansing Oneself of Impurity), الاِسْـتِبْرَاءُ ([Istibraa’] Ridding Oneself of Impurity) from Matn al ʿIzziyah

9. (The Proper [Adaab] Manners for Urinating and Defecating from Matn al ʿIzziyah

10. نَوَاقِضُ الوُضُوء (The Nullification of Wuḍuu’) from Matn al ʿIzziyah

11. The Things That Make Ghusl [Major Ablution] Necessary from Matn al ʿIzziyah

12. التَّيَمُّمُ at-Tayammum (Dry ablution) from Matn al ʿIzziyyah

13. فَصْلٌ فِي الْـمَسْحِ عَلَى الْـخُفَّيْـنِ (Wiping over the Leather Socks) from Matn al ʿIzziyah

14. الْـحَيْضُ (The Blood of Menstruation) and النَّفَاسُ (The Blood of Parturition [Childbirth]) from Matn al ʿIzziyah

Chapter 2 – Concerning الصَّلاةِ (Prayer) – Section:

  1. الصَّلاَةُ‮ ‬الْـمَفْرُوضةُ‮ ‬ (The Obligatory Prayers) from Matnu-l-ʿIzziyah

This is not the complete text, but rather, its a work in progress. In shaa’a-l-laah, there will be more sections add over time.  

Get full Arabic text by clicking on link: Arabic Text

 Explanation of Matn Al īzziyyah click link: Audio

Chapter 17 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About Wiping the Water from Wuḍuu’ With a Handkerchief

مَسْحِ‮ ‬الْوُضُوءِ‮ ‬بِالْـمِنْدِيلِ

The Chapter About Wiping the Water from Wuḍuu’ With a Handkerchief

قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬بِالْـمَسْحِ‮ ‬بِالْـمِنْدِيلِ‮ ‬بَعْدَ‮ ‬الْوُضُوءِ‮ ‬،‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬زَيْدِ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬الْـحُبَابِ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬أَبِي‮ ‬مُعَاذٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬ابْنِ‮ ‬شِهَابٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬عُرْوَةَ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬الزُّبَيْرِ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬عَائِشَةَ‮ ‬أَنَّ‮ ‬رَسُولَ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬صَلَّى اللَّهُ‮ ‬عَلَيْهِ‮ ‬وَسَلَّمَ‮ ‬كَانَتْ‮ ‬لَهُ‮ ‬خِرْقَةٌ‮ ‬يَنْتَشِفُ‮ ‬بِهَا بَعْدَ‮ ‬الْوُضُوءِ‮

Ibn al-Qaasim said Maalik said, “Its OK to wipe one’s self with a handkerchief after wuduu’.”  Ibn Wahb said after transmitting from Zayd bin al-Hubaab who transmitted from Abū Muʿaadh who transmitted from Ibn Shihaab who transmitted from ʿUrwah bin az-Zubayr who tramsmitted from ʿAa’ishah that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلّم used to have a cloth which he used to dry himself with after performing wuḍuu’.

The Sunnah Actions of Wuḍuu’ from Matn al ʿIzziyah

The Sunnah Actions of Wuḍuu’

وَسُـنَـنُهُ (The actions of wuḍuu’ that follow the example of Prophet) ثَـمَانِـةٌ (are eight). الأُولَـى‮ ‬غَسْـلُ‮ ‬الْـيَدَيْـنِ‮ ‬(The first sunnah is washing the hands)  قَبْلَ‮ ‬إِذْخَالِهِمَا فِي‮ ‬الإِنَـاءِ (before putting them into the water container) وَيَـنْوِي‮  ‬بِغَسْـلِهِمَا (and the one performing wuḍuu’  should make the intention to wash them) التَّعَبُّدَ‮ ‬عَـلَى حِـدَتِـهَا (for the purposes of  worship only).

الثَّانِـيَةُ‮ ‬الْـمَضْمَضَةُ The second sunnah is rinsing the mouth. وَهِـيَ‮ ‬إِدْخَـالُ‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬الْـفَمِ‮ ‬(It is the action of putting water into the mouth) ثُـمَّ‮ ‬يُـخَضْخِضُهُ (then swishing it around)‮ ‬يـَـمُجُهُ (and spitting it out).

الثَّالِثَةُ‮ ‬الإسْتِنْشَاقُ (The third sunnah is inhaling water).  وَهُوَ‮ ‬جَذْبُ‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ‮ ‬(It is drawing up water) بِنَفسِهِ‮ ‬لِدَاخِلِ‮ ‬الأَنْفِ (in order to cause it enter into the nose).

‮ ‬الرَّابِـعَةُ‮ ‬الإسْـتِنْثَارُ (The fourth sunnah is blowing out the water) وَهُوََ‮ ‬دَفْعُ‮ ‬الـْمَاءِ (and it is forcing out the water) مِـنْ‮ ‬أَنْـفِهِ‮ ‬بِـنَفْسِهِ (from his nose)  مَـعَ‮ ‬جَـعْلِ‮ ‬السَّبَّابَـة (by placing the index finger) وَالإبْـهَام (and the thumb) مِنْ‮ ‬يَـدِه الْيُسْـرَى (from the left hand) عَـلَ‮ ‬الأَنّـفِ (on top of the nose). وَيُـبَالِـغُ‮ ‬غَـيْرُ‮ ‬صَـائِـمِ‮ ‬(Everyone except the individual who is fasting should exert himself) فِـي‮ ‬الْـمَضْمَضَةُ‮ ‬وَ‮ ‬الإسْـتِنْشَاقُ‮ ‬(in the rinsing the mouth and inhaling water into the nose). وَالأَفْـضَلُ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬يَـتَمََضْمَضَ (It is best to rinse the mouth) بِـثَلاَثِ‮ ‬غَـرَفَـاتٍ‮ ‬(with three handfuls of water) ثُـمَّ‮ ‬يَسْـتَنْشِقَ (and inhale)  بِـثَلاَثِ‮ ‬غَـرَفَـاتٍ (three handfuls of water).

الْـخَامِـسةُ‮ ‬مَـسْحُ‮ ‬الأُذْنَـيـْنِ (The fifth sunnah is wiping the two ears, both) ظَـاهِرِهِـمَا (the outside of them) وَبَـاطِـنِهِمَا (and the inside of them) بِـأَنْ‮ ‬يَـدْخُـلَ‮ ‬سَـبَّابَـتَيْهِ (by the worshipper putting his index fingers  فِـي‮ ‬صِـمَاخَـيْهِ (in his ear canals) وَيَـجْعَلَ‮ ‬إِبْـهَامَـيْهِ (and placing his thumb) عَلَى ظَاهِرِهِمْ (on the outside of them).

السَّادِسَةُ‮ ‬تَـجْدِيدُ‮ ‬الـْـمَاءِ (The sixth sunnah is to fresh the water) لِـمَسْحُ‮ ‬الأُذُنَيْـنِ (used for wiping over the ears).

السَّابِـعةُ رَدُّ‮ ‬الْيَدَيْن (The seventh sunnah is returning the two hands back to their starting position) فِـي‮ ‬مَسْحُ‮ ‬الرَّأْسِ (when wiping the head).

الثَّامِـنَةُ‮ ‬تَرْتِيبُ‮ ‬فَرَائِضِهِ The eight sunnah is to maintain the correct order of the obligatory actions of wuḍuu’.

تَنْبِيهNote / Rule: 1

مَنْ‮ ‬تَرَكَ‮ ‬فَرْضًا مِنْ‮ ‬فَرَائِضِ‮ ‬الْوَُضُوءِ‮ ‬فَإِنَّهُ‮ ‬يَأْتِي‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬ثُمَّ‮ ‬يُعِيدُ‮ ‬الصَّلاَةَ‮ ‬وَ‮ ‬تَرَكَ‮ ‬سُنَّةً‮ ‬فَإِنَّهُ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬يُعِيدُ‮ ‬الصَّلاَةَ‮ ‬وَيَفْعَلُ‮ ‬تِلْكَ‮ ‬السُّنَّةَ‮ ‬لِـمَا‮ ‬يَستَقْبَلُ‮ ‬مِنَ‮ ‬الصَّلَوَاتِ‮

مَنْ‮ ‬تَرَكَ‮ ‬فَرْضًا مِنْ‮ ‬فَرَائِضِ‮ ‬الْوَُضُوءِ (Whoever omits one of the obligatory acts of wuḍuu’), ‮ ‬فَإِنَّهُ‮ ‬يَأْتِي‮ ‬بِهِ (should do it), ثُـمَّ‮ ‬يُـعِيدُ‮ ‬الصَّلاَةَ (then repeat the prayer), وَ‮ ‬تَرَكَ‮ ‬سُنَّةً (and whoever omits a sunnah act of wuḍuu’), ‮ ‬فَإِنَّهُ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬يُـعِيدُ‮ ‬الصَّلاَةَ‮ ‬(does not repeat the prayer), وَيَـفْعَلُ‮ ‬تِـلْكَ‮ ‬السُّنَّةَ (but he should do that sunnah) لِـمَا‮ ‬يَستَقْبَلُ‮ ‬مِنَ‮ ‬الصَّلَوَاتِ‮ ‬ (for the next prayer coming).

7. The Meritorious Actions of Wuḍuu’ from Matn al ʿIzziyah

8. الإسْـتِنجَاءُ ([Istinjaa’] Cleansing Oneself of Impurity), الاِسْـتِبْرَاءُ ([Istibraa’] Ridding Oneself of Impurity) from Matn al ʿIzziyah

9. (The Proper [Adaab] Manners for Urinating and Defecating from Matn al ʿIzziyah

10. نَوَاقِضُ الوُضُوء (The Nullification of Wuḍuu’) from Matn al ʿIzziyah

11. The Things That Make Ghusl [Major Ablution] Necessary from Matn al ʿIzziyah

12. التَّيَمُّمُ at-Tayammum (Dry ablution) from Matn al ʿIzziyyah

13. فَصْلٌ فِي الْـمَسْحِ عَلَى الْـخُفَّيْـنِ (Wiping over the Leather Socks) from Matn al ʿIzziyah

14. الْـحَيْضُ (The Blood of Menstruation) and النَّفَاسُ (The Blood of Parturition [Childbirth]) from Matn al ʿIzziyah

Chapter 2 – Concerning الصَّلاةِ (Prayer) – Section:

  1. الصَّلاَةُ‮ ‬الْـمَفْرُوضةُ‮ ‬ (The Obligatory Prayers) from Matnu-l-ʿIzziyah

This is not the complete text, but rather, its a work in progress. In shaa’a-l-laah, there will be more sections add over time.  

Get full Arabic text by clicking on link: Arabic Text

 Explanation of Matn Al īzziyyah click link: Audio

The Obligatory Actions of Wuḍuu’ from Matn al ʿIzziyah

The Obligatory Actions of Wuḍuu’

فصل – Section:

فَـرَائِـضُ‮ ‬الوُضُـوء (The obligatory actions of wuḍuu’) سَـبْعَةٌ (are seven):   الأُولىَى النِّيَّةُ (The first obligation is the intention); وَهِـيَ‮ ‬القَصْدُ‮ ‬بِـالْـقَلْبِ‮ ‬(it is the intention with the heart), فَيَنْوِي‮ ‬بِـالْـقَلْبِ (and so he [the worshiper] intends with his heart) عِـنْدَ‮ ‬غسْلِ‮ ‬وَجْهِهِ (to wash his face) فَرْضَ‮ ‬الْوُضُوءِ (as an obligatory action of wuḍuu’), أَوْ‮ ‬رَفْـعَ‮ ‬الـحَـدَثِ (or to remove the impurities) أَوِ‮ ‬اسْـتِبَاحَـةِ‮ ‬مَـا‮ ‬(or to make permissible) كَـانَ‮ ‬الْـحَـدَثُ‮ ‬مَـانِـعًا مِـنْهُ (what the impurity prevented from being performed).

الثَّانِـيَّةُ‮ ‬غَسْـلُ‮ ‬جَـمِيعِ‮ ‬الوَجْـحِ (The second obligation is to wash the entire face) وَحَدَّهُ‮ ‬طُولاً‮ ‬ (and its limits lengthwise), مِـنْ‮ ‬مَـنَابِـت شَعْرِ‮ ‬الرَّأْسِ‮ ‬الـمُتَادِ‮ ‬(from the roots of the hair of the normal head), إِلى آخِرِ‮ ‬الذَّقَـن‮ ‬(to end of the chin)‮ ‬وَعَرْضًا مَا بَيْنَ‮ ‬الأُذُنَـيْـن (and a span of what is between the two ears).‮ ‬وَيَـتَفَقَّدُ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬غَسْلِهِ‮ ‬أَسَـارِير جَبْهَـتِه (The one performing wuḍuu’ should pay attention to the lines of his forehead during his washing).  وَهِـي‮ ‬التَّكَامِـشُ (They are the which part that becomes wrinkled) فِـي‮ ‬الْـجَبْهَـتِهِ (on the forehead). ‮ ‬وَظَـاهِـر الشَّفَتَيْـنِ (The outer part of the lips [are also included in the washings]), وَمَا بَـيْـنَ‮ ‬الـمِنْخَـرِينِ (and what is between the two nostrils), تَخْـلِيلُ‮ ‬شَـعْرِِ‮ ‬اللِّحْيَةِ‮ ‬الْـخَفِيفِ (as well as combing the fingers through the thin hairs of the beard),  وَغَسْـلُ‮ ‬مَـا طَـالَ‮  ‬ (and what grows long) مِن اللِّـحْيَةِ‮ ‬الْكَشِيفِ (from a thick beard).

اللثَّالِـثَةُ‮ ‬غَسْـلُ‮ ‬الْـيَدَينِ (The third obligation is to wash the hands) ‮ ‬مَعَ‮ ‬الـمَرْفَـقَيْـنِ (up to the elbows)  وَيَجِبُ‮ ‬تَخْـلِيلُ‮ ‬أَصَـابِـهِمَا (and combing between the fingers of both hands is also required).

الرَّابِـعَةُ‮ ‬مَسْحُ‮ ‬جَمِيعِ‮ ‬الرَّأْسِ (The fourth obligation is to wipe the entire head), وَ‮ ‬أَوَّلُهُ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬مَبْدَإِ‮ ‬الْـوَجْـهِ (The wiping begins at the top of the face), وَآخِـرِهِ‮ ‬مُنْتَهَــى الـجُـمْجُمَة (and ends at the base of the skull).

وَمَـنْ‮ ‬تَـوَضَّأَ‮ ‬(Whoever performs (ritual ablution), ثُـمَّ‮ ‬قَـلَّمَ‮ ‬أَظَـافِرُهُ (then (trims) ‮ ‬أَوْ حَـلَقَ‮ ‬قَـرَأْسِـهِ (or cuts his hair), فَـإنَّهُ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬يُعِيدُ‮ ‬غَسْـلَ‮ ‬مَوْضِعِ‮ ‬التَّقْلِيمِ (shall not re-wash  the area that has been trimmed) وَلاَ‮ ‬مَـسْحَ‮ ‬الرَّأْسِ (nor repeat the wiping of the head). وَاخْـتِلَاف (There is  a difference of opinion however), إِذَا حَـلََقَ‮ ‬لِـحْـيَتِهِ (about if he cuts his beard)‮ ‬بَـعْدَ‮ ‬الْـوُضُـوِءِ (after performing ablution). فَـقِيلَ (It has been said [by some of the scholars]), يُـعِيدُ‮ ‬غَسْـلَ‮ ‬مَوْضِـعِهَا‮ ‬ (“he should re-wash the area”) وَقِيِلَ (and it is said [by others]), لاَ‮ ‬يُـعِيدُهُ (“he should not repeat it”).

الْـخَامِـسَةُ‮ ‬غَسْـلُ‮ ‬الرِّجْـلَيْـنِ (The fifth obligation is to wash both feet) مَـعَ‮ ‬الكَعْبَيْـنِ (along the ankles). وَهُـمَا العَظْمَانِ النَّاتِـئَانِ (The ankles are the two protruding bones) طَـرَفَـي‮ ‬السَّافَـيْـنِ (on the lower part of the legs).  ‮ ‬وَنَدِبَ‮ ‬تَـخْـلِيلُ‮ ‬أَصَـابِـهِمَا (combing between the toes of both of them [the feet] is also required).

السَّادِسَةُ‮ ‬الدَّلْـكُ (The sixth obligation is rubbing). وَهُـوَ‮ ‬إمْرَارُ‮ ‬الْيَدِ (It is the passing of the hand)  عَـلَى العُضْوِ (over the limb) مَـعَ‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ (with water). وَلاَ‮ ‬يُشْـتَرُط (It is not a requirement) مُقَارَنَتُهُ (that the rubbing of the limbs be accompanied) لِلصَّبِّ (by pouring water).

السَّابِـعَةُ‮ ‬الـمُوَالَاةُ (The seventh obligation is continuity of action). وَهَوَ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬يَعْمَلَ‮ ‬الوُضُـوء كُـلِّهِ (It means: to perform all the parts of wuḍuu’), فِـي‮ ‬فَـوْرٍ‮ ‬وَاحِـدٍ (one directly behind the other) بِـغَيْرِ‮ ‬تَفْرِيقٍ‮ ‬مُـتَفَاحِـشٍ‮  ‬(without excessive breaks between each action) مَعَ‮ ‬الذِّكْـرِ‮ ‬وَ القَدْرَةِ (accompanied by mental capacity and physical capability).

6. The Sunnah Actions of Wuḍuu’ from Matn al ʿIzziyah

7. The Meritorious Actions of Wuḍuu’ from Matn al ʿIzziyah

8. الإسْـتِنجَاءُ ([Istinjaa’] Cleansing Oneself of Impurity), الاِسْـتِبْرَاءُ ([Istibraa’] Ridding Oneself of Impurity) from Matn al ʿIzziyah

9. (The Proper [Adaab] Manners for Urinating and Defecating from Matn al ʿIzziyah

10. نَوَاقِضُ الوُضُوء (The Nullification of Wuḍuu’) from Matn al ʿIzziyah

11. The Things That Make Ghusl [Major Ablution] Necessary from Matn al ʿIzziyah

12. التَّيَمُّمُ at-Tayammum (Dry ablution) from Matn al ʿIzziyyah

13. فَصْلٌ فِي الْـمَسْحِ عَلَى الْـخُفَّيْـنِ (Wiping over the Leather Socks) from Matn al ʿIzziyah

14. الْـحَيْضُ (The Blood of Menstruation) and النَّفَاسُ (The Blood of Parturition [Childbirth]) from Matn al ʿIzziyah

Chapter 2 – Concerning الصَّلاةِ (Prayer) – Section:

  1. الصَّلاَةُ‮ ‬الْـمَفْرُوضةُ‮ ‬ (The Obligatory Prayers) from Matnu-l-ʿIzziyah

This is not the complete text, but rather, its a work in progress. In shaa’a-l-laah, there will be more sections add over time.  

Get full Arabic text by clicking on link: Arabic Text

 Explanation of Matn Al īzziyyah click link: Audio


Chapter 16 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning the Person Whose Wuḍuu’ is Deficient or He Forgets of His Wuḍuu’ or Ghusl

فِي‮ ‬الَّذِي‮ ‬يَعَجَزَهُ‮ ‬عَنْهُ‮ ‬الْوُضُوءُ‮ ‬أَوْ‮ ‬ينَسِيَ‮ ‬بَعْضَ‮ ‬وُضُوئِهِ‮ ‬أَوْ‮ ‬غُسْلِهِ‮ ‬

The Chapter Concerning the Person Whose Wuḍuu’ is Deficient or He Forgets Some of His Wuḍuu’ or Ghusl

قَالَ‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬فِيمَنْ‮ ‬تَوَضَّأَ‮ ‬فَفَرَغَ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬بَعْضِ‮ ‬الْوُضُوءِ‮ ‬وَبَقِيَ‮ ‬بَعْضُهُ‮ ‬فَقَامَ‮ ‬لأَِخْذِ‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ‮ ‬فَقَالَ‮ ‬إنْ‮ ‬كَانَ‮ ‬قَرِيبًا فَأَرَى أَنْ‮ ‬يَبْنِيَ‮ ‬عَلَى وُضُوئِهِ‮ ‬وَإِنْ‮ ‬تَطَاوَلَ‮ ‬ذَلِكَ‮ ‬وَتَبَاعَدَ‮ ‬أَخْذُهُ‮ ‬الْـمَاءَ‮ ‬وَجَفَّ‮ ‬وُضُوءُهُ‮ ‬فَأَرَى أَنْ‮ ‬يُعِيدَ‮ ‬الْوُضُوءَ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬أَوَّلِهِ‮ ‬

Ibn al-Qaasim said Maalik said concerning the person who performs wuḍuu’ and then part of the wuḍuu’ becomes lost and part of it is preserved, and so he goes to get water, he (Maalik said), “If it (the wuḍuu’) has been performed recently, I am of the opinion that he should restore what was lost to his wuḍuu’, however if a long time has passed when he goes to use the water and the wuḍuu which he has performed has become dry, then I am of the opinion that he should repeat the wuḍuu’ from the beginning. ”


قَالَ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬الْقَاسِمِ‮ ‬أَيُّمَا رَجُلٍ‮ ‬اغْتَسَلَ‮ ‬مَنْ‮ ‬جَنَابَةٍ‮ ‬أَوْ‮ ‬حَائِضٌ‮ ‬اغْتَسَلَتْ‮ ‬فَبَقِيَتْ‮ ‬لُـمْعَةٌ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬أَجْسَادِهِمَا لَمْ‮ ‬يُصِبْهَا الْـمَاءُ‮ ‬أَوْ‮ ‬تَوَضَّأَ‮ ‬فَبَقِيَتْ‮ ‬لُـمْعَةٌ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬مَوَاضِعِ‮ ‬الْوُضُوءِ‮ ‬حَتَّى صَلَّيَا وَمَضَى الْوَقْتُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬إنْ‮ ‬كَانَ‮ ‬إنَّمَا تَرَكَ‮ ‬اللُّمْعَةَ‮ ‬عَامِدًا أَعَادَ‮ ‬الَّذِي‮ ‬اغْتَسَلَ‮ ‬غُسْلَهُ‮ ‬وَاَلَّذِي‮ ‬تَوَضَّأَ‮ ‬وُضُوءَهُ‮ ‬وَأَعَادُوا‮ ‬الصَّلاَةَ‮ ‬وَإِنْ‮ ‬كَانُوا إنَّمَا تَرَكُوا ذَلِكَ‮ ‬سَهْوًا فَلْيَغْسِلُوا تِلْكَ‮ ‬اللُّمْعَةَ‮ ‬وَلْيُعِيدُوا الصَّلاَةَ‮ ‬،‮ ‬فَإِنْ‮ ‬لَمْ‮ ‬يَغْسِلُوا ذَلِكَ‮ ‬حِينَ‮ ‬ذَكَرُوا ذَلِكَ‮ ‬فَلْيُعِيدُوا الْوُضُوءَ‮ ‬وَالْغُسْلَ‮ ‬وَهُوَ‮ ‬قَوْلُ‮ ‬مَالِكٍ‮ ‬

Ibn al-Qaasim said, “Whenever a man performs ghusl because of جَـنَابَـةٍ (major impurity) or حَـائِـضٌ (menstruating woman) performs ghusl and a part of their body remains without water being poured over it or they performed wuḍuu’ and some of the places of wuḍuu’ remains untouched until after ṣalaah and the time has passed,”  he said, “if he left out the area intentionally, he should rewash the areas which he washed when he performed his ghusl and the areas he washed when he performed wuḍuu’, and they should repeat the salaah; if it is the case that they left it undone out of forgetfulness, they should wash the area and repeat the ṣalaah; if they don’t wash the area until the time they remember, then they should repeat wuḍuu’ and ghusl. ” This is what Maalik said.

قَالَ‮ ‬سَحْنُونٌ‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬رَبِيعَةُ‮ ‬بْنُ‮ ‬أَبِي‮ ‬عَبْدِ‮ ‬الرَّحْمَنِ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬تَبْعِيضِ‮ ‬الْغُسْلِ‮ ‬مِثْلَ‮ ‬ذَلِكَ‮ . ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬الْـمُسَيِّبِ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الَّذِي‮ ‬تَرَكَ‮ ‬رَأْسَهُ‮ ‬نَاسِيًا فِي‮ ‬الْغُسْلِ‮ ‬،‮ ‬مِثْلَ‮ ‬ذَلِكَ

Saḥnuun said Rabiiʿah bin Abū Abdur Rahmān said  the same thing concerning the division of ghusl into portions.  Ibn Musayyib said the same thing in regards to the person who leaves out his head forgetfully in ghusl.


وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الَّذِي‮ ‬يَنْسَى أَنْ‮ ‬يَـمْسَحَ‮ ‬بِرَأْسِهِ‮ ‬فَذَكَرَهُ‮ ‬وَهُوَ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الصَّلاَةِ‮ ‬وَفِي‮ ‬لِـحْيَتِهِ‮ ‬بَلَلٌ‮ ‬،‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬يُجْزِئُهُ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬يَـمْسَحَ‮ ‬بِذَلِكَ‮ ‬الْبَلَلِ‮ ‬،‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬وَلَكِنْ‮ ‬لِيَأْخُذْ‮ ‬الْـمَاءَ‮ ‬لِرَأْسِهِ‮ ‬وَلْيَبْتَدِئْ‮ ‬الصَّلاَةَ‮ ‬بَعْدَمَا‮ ‬يَـمْسَحُ‮ ‬بِرَأْسِهِ


Maalik said in regards to the person who forgets to wipe over his head and remembers it during ṣalaah and his beard is wet, he said, “he is not permitted to wipe over the moisture.”  He said, “But he should get water for his head and should start the prayer after wiping over his head.”


قُلْتُ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬فَهَلْ‮ ‬كَانَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬يَأْمُرُ‮ ‬بِأَنْ‮ ‬يَغْسِلَ‮ ‬رِجْلَيْهِ‮ ‬بَعْدَمَا‮ ‬يَـمْسَحُ‮ ‬بِرَأْسِهِ‮ ‬؟ قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬إنْ‮ ‬كَانَ‮ ‬نَاسِيًا وَخَفَّ‮ ‬وُضُوءُهُ‮ ‬فَلاَ‮ ‬يَكُونُ‮ ‬عَلَيْهِ‮ ‬إلاَّ‮ ‬مَسْحُ‮ ‬رَأْسِهِ


I (Saḥnuun) said, “Did Maalik used to order the washing of one’s feet after wiping the head?”  He said, “If it was forgotten and his wuḍuu’ has become dry, he only has to wipe over his head.”

The Chapter Concerning فَـرَائِضِ الْـوُضُـوءِ (The Obligatory Actions of Wuḍuu’), سُـنَـنِهِ (It’s Actions Derived From Prophet Muhammad]) and فَـضَائِـلِهِ (the Meritorious Acts of Wuḍuu’) from the Matn al Ashmaawiyyah

The Chapter Concerning فَـرَائِضِ‮ ‬الْـوُضُـوءِ (The Obligatory Actions of Wuḍuu’), سُـنَـنِهِ (It’s Actions  Derived  From Prophet Muhammad]) and فَـضَائِـلِهِ (the Meritorious Acts of Wuḍuu’).

فَـأَمَّا فَـرَائِضِ‮ ‬الْـوُضُـوء (As for the obligatory actions  of wuḍuu’), فَسَبْعَةٌ (they are seven): 1) النِّيَّة (the intention)  عِـنْدَ‮ ‬غَسْلِ‮ ‬الْوَجْهِ (which is made in conjunction with the washing of the face), 2) وَغَـسْـلُ‮ ‬الْـوَجْـه (washing of the face), 3) وَغَـسْـلُ‮ ‬يَـدَيْـنِ (washing the hands) إِلَـى مَـرفَـقَيْن (up to the elbows), 4) وَمَـسْحُ‮ ‬جَـمِيع الرَّأْس (wiping over the entire head), 5) وَغَـسْـلُ‮ ‬الرِّجْـلَيْـن (washing the feet) إلَـى الْـكَعْبَيْـنِ (up to the ankles), 6) وَالْـفَوْرُ (washing each limb one immediately after the other), 7) وَالتَّدْلِـيك (and rubbing each limb vigorously).

فَـهَـذِهِ‮ ‬سَـبْعَةٌ (These are the seven obligatory actions), لَـكِنْ‮ ‬يَـجِبُ‮ ‬عَـليْكَ (but you are required) فِي‮ ‬غَسْل وَجْهِ (when washing your face),  أَنْ‮ ‬تُخَـلَّلَ‮ ‬شَـعْرَ‮ ‬لِحْـيَتِكَ (to comb through the hair of your beard with your fingers). إِنْ‮ ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬شَـعْرُ‮ ‬الِـحْـيَةِ‮ ‬خََـفِيفًا‮ ‬(If the hair of the beard is thin)  إِنْ‮ ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬شَـعْرُ‮ ‬اللِّحْيَةِ‮ ‬خَفِيفًا تَظْهَرُ‮ ‬الْبَشَرَةُ (the skin beneath it will show). وَإِنْ‮ ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬كَـثيفًا (If the hair of the beard is thick thin),  ‮ ‬فَـلاَ‮ ‬يَـجِبُ‮ ‬عَـلَيْكَ‮ ‬تَخْـلِيلُهَا (it is not necessary for you to comb through it with the fingers). وَكَـذَالِـكَ (Similarly), يَـجِبُ‮ ‬عَـلَيْكَ (you are required) فِـي‮ ‬غَسْـلِ‮ ‬يَـدَيك (while washing your hands) تُخَـلَّلَ‮ ‬أَصَـا بِـعَكَ (to comb through the fingers of your hand with the fingers of the other). عَـلَى الْـمَشْهُورِ (This is in accord with what is well known in the madh-hab of Imām Mālik).

وَأَمَّا سُـنَـنُ‮ ‬الْـوُضُـوء (As for the Sunnah actions of wuḍuu’), فَثَمَانِيَةٌ (they are eight): (1) غَـسْـلُ‮ ‬يَـدَيْـنِ‮ ‬أَوْلاً (washing the hands first) إِلَـى الْـكَوْعَـيْن (up to the wrist bone), (2) وَالْـمَضْمَـضَة (rinsing the mouth with water), (3) وَالاِسْـتتِنْـشَاق (inhaling water into the nostril), (4) وَالاِسْـتِنْـثَار ( exhalation); وهُـوَ‮ ‬جَـذْبُ‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ‮ ‬مِـنَ‮ ‬الأَنْـفِ (it is forceful blowing water from the nostril), (5) وَرَدُّ‮ ‬مَـسْحِ‮ ‬الرَّأْس (repeating the wiping of the head), (6) وَمَـسْحُ‮ ‬الأُذُنَـيْـن (wiping the two ears both وَبَـاطِـنِهِـمَا (on the outside of them) and ظَـاهِـرِهِـمَا (the inside of them), (7) وَتَـجْـدِيدُ‮ ‬الْـمَاء (renewing the water) for both ears, (8) وَتَـرْتِـيبُ‮ ‬فَرَائِـدِهِ (maintaining correct order in performing the farḍ actions of wuḍuu’).

وَأَمَّا  فَـضَائِـلِهِ (As for the meritorious actions of wuḍuu’) فَسَـبْعَةٌ (they are seven): 1) التَّسْمِيَّةُ (Basmalah – Bismi-l-laahi-r-Rahmaani-r-Rahiim which said at the beginning of wuḍuu’, 2)   وَالْـمَوْضِـعُ‮ ‬الطَاهِـرُ‮ ‬(a clean area) for performing prayer, 3) وَقِـلَّةُ‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ‮ ‬بِـلاَ‮ ‬حَدٍّ (using a small amount of water without a limit), 4) وَوَضْـعُ‮ ‬الإنَـاءِ‮ ‬عَـلَى الْـيَمِين (placing  the  water  container  on  the  right) إِنْ‮ ‬كَانَ‮ ‬مَفْتُوحًا (if  it  is  open), 5) وَالْغَسْـلَةُ‮ ‬الثَّانِـيَّة والثَّالِـثَة ( the second and third washing of the limbs) إِذَا أَوْعَبَ‮ ‬بِالأُولَ (after having done it once), 6) وَالْـبَدْءُ‮ ‬بِـمُقَدَّمِ‮ ‬الرَّأْسِ (beginning at the front of the head), 7) وَالسِّوَاك (the siwaak). وَاللَّهُ‮ ‬أَعْلَمُ (Allah is the Best Knower).

The Chapter About أَقْسَام الْـمِيَاهِ (the Kinds of Water) That Can Be Used To Perform Wuḍuu’ from Matn Al Ashmaawiyyah

The Chapter About أَقْسَام الْـمِيَاهِ (the Kinds of Water) That Can Be Used To Perform Wuḍuu’

اعْـلَمْ (Know) – وَفََّـقَكَ‮ ‬اللَّهُ (May Allah, Exalted is He grant you success) – أَنَّ‮ ‬الْـمَاءَ‮ ‬عَـلَى قِـسْمَيْـنِ (that water is of two kinds): مَـخْـلُوطٍ (mixed)   وَغَـيرِ مَـخْـلُوطٍ‮ ‬(and unmixed). فَـأَمَّا‮ ‬غَـيرُ مَـخْـلُوط (As for   unmixed)   فَهُوَ‮ ‬طُـهُورٌ (it is pure)  وَهُوَ‮ ‬الْـمَاء الـمُطْلَق (and it is valid water free from impurities); ‮ ‬يَـجُوزُ‮ ‬مِـنْهُ‮ ‬الْـوُضُـوءُ (wuḍuu’ can be performed with it), سَـوَاءً (equally whether) نَـزَلَ‮ ‬مِنَ‮ ‬السَّمَاء (it has fallen from the sky) أَوْ‮ ‬نَـبَعَ‮ ‬مِـنَ‮ ‬الأَرْضِ (or it has sprung out of the ground).

وَأَمَّا الْـمَـخْـلُوط (As for mixed water),‮ ‬إذَا تَـغَيَّرَ أَحَـدَ‮ ‬أَوْصَـفِهِ‮ ‬الثَّلاَثَـةِ (one of it’s three characteristics): لَـوْنِـهِ [it’s color] , أَوْ‮ ‬طَـعْمِهِ [it’s taste]  أَوْ‮ ‬رِيحِهِ [or it’s smell] has been altered) بِشَيْءٍ (by something).  وَهُوَ‮ ‬عَـلَى قِـسْمَيْـنِ‮ ‬(Mixed water  is of two kinds):

1) تَـارَةً (Sometimes), يَـخْتَلِطُ (water becomes mixed) بِـنَـجَسٍ (with an impure substance) and فَـيَـتَغَيَّرُ‮ ‬بِـهِ (the water becomes alters by the impure substance). فَـالْـمَاءُ‮ ‬نَـجَسٌ (Water that contains an impure substance) لاَ‮ ‬يَـصِحُّ‮ ‬مِـنْهُ‮ ‬الْـوُضُـوءُ (is not valid for wuḍuu’).  وَإِنْ‮ ‬لَـمْ‮ ‬يَـتَـغَيَّرْ‮ ‬بِهِ  (If the water has not been altered by the impure substance),  فَإِنْ‮ ‬كَانَ‮ ‬الْـمَاءُ‮ ‬قَـلِيلًا (but the water is a small amount),‮  ‬كُـرِهَ‮ ‬الْـوُضُـوءُ‮ ‬مِـنْهُ (the performance of wuḍuu’ with it is disliked). عَـلَى الْـمَشْهُورِ (This is in accord with what is well known in the madh-hab of Imām Mālik).

2)  وَتَـارَةً (Sometimes),‮ ‬يَـخْتَلِطُ (water becomes mixed) بِـالطَّاهِـرِ (with a pure substance) فَـيَـتَغَيَّرُ‮ ‬بِـهِ (and the water becomes alters by the pure substance). فَـإِنْ‮ ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬الطَّاهِـرُ‮ ‬ (If the pure substance is) ‮ ‬مَِـمَّا‮ ‬يُـمْكِنُ‮ ‬الاِحْـتِرَازُ‮ ‬مِـنْه (is a substance  that can be prevented from being mixed with the water), كَـالْـمَاءِ‮ ‬مَخْـلُوطٌ (like water which has been mixed)  بِـالزَّعْـفَرَان (with saffron), وَالْـوَرْد (rose), وَالْـعَجِين (dough)  وَأَشْـبَهُ‮ ‬ذَالِـكَ (and what is similar to these things),  فَهَـذا الْـمَاء (then this water) طَّاهِـرِ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬نَـفْسِهِ (is pure in its essence),  غَـيْرُ‮ ‬مُطَهَـرُ‮ ‬لِـغَيْرِهِ (but not a purifier for anything else).  فَيُسْـتَعْمَلُ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬الْـعَادَاتِ (It can be used for ordinary purposes) مِـن طَبْخٍ (such as cooking), وَعَـجْنٍ (making dough), وَشُرْبٍ (drinking) وَنَحْوِ‮ ‬ذَالِـكَ (and things of that nature). وَلاَ‮ ‬يُسْـتَعْمَلُ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬الْـعِبَادَاتِ (It can not be use for purposes of worship) وَلاَ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬وُضُـوءِ (nor for wuḍuu’)  وَلاَ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬غَـيْرِهِ‮ ‬(nor anything else in that category).

وَإِنْ‮ ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬بِـمـا‮ ‬يُـمْكِنُ‮ ‬الاِحْـتِرَازُ‮ ‬مِـنْهُ (If the water can not be preserved from the pure substance being mixed with it), كَـالْـمَاءِ‮ ‬الْـمُتَغَيَّرِ  (like water that has been changed)  بِـالسَّبْخِ (by salt from the salt marsh),   أَوِ‮ ‬الْـحَـمَأَةِ (or mud),   أَوِ‮ ‬الْـجارِي‮ ‬عَـلَى مَعْدنِ‮ ‬زِرنِـيخٍ‮ ‬أَوْ‮ ‬كِـبْرِيتٍ (or the run off from a source where arsenic or sulfur originates) أَوْ‮ ‬نَـحْوُ‮ ‬ذَالِـكَ  (or what is similar to these things), فَهَـذا كُـلُّهُ‮ ‬طُـهُورٌ (this water in it’s entirety is pure) and يَـصِحُّ‮ ‬مِـنْهُ‮ ‬الْـوُضوءُ (the wuḍuu’ that is perform with it is valid). وَاللَّهُ‮ ‬أَعْلَمُ (Allah is the Best Knower).

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