Chapter 2 – Concerning الصَّلاةِ (Prayer) – Part 1 الصَّلاَةُ‮ ‬الْـمَفْرُوضةُ‮ ‬ (The Obligatory Prayers) from Matnu-l-ʿIzziyah

 بَابُ‮ ‬الثَّانِي‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الصَّلاةِ‮ ‬

Chapter 2 – Concerning الصَّلاةِ (Prayer)

Part 1 الصَّلاَةُ‮ ‬الْـمَفْرُوضةُ‮ ‬ (The Obligatory Prayers) 

وَهِيَ (It [Prayer] ) أَحَـدُ‮ ‬أَرْكَانِ‮ ‬الإسلاَمِ‮ ‬الْـخَـمْسَةِ (is one of the five pillars of Islam) التِّي (which)  بُـنِيَ‮ ‬عَـلَيهَا (is also built on) شَـهَادَتِ (witnessing) أَنْ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬إِلَـاـهَ‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬اللهُ (that there is no god except Allah) وَ‮ ‬أَنَّ‮ ‬مُحَـمَّدًا (And that Muhammad) عَبْدُهُ (is His slave) وَرَسُولُـهُ (and Messenger), وَإِقَامِ‮ ‬الصَّلاةِ (and standing for prayer), وَإتَـاءِ‮ ‬الزَّكَاةِ (and giving alms tax), وَصَـومِ (and the fast of Ramadan), وَحَجِّ‮ ‬بَيْتِ‮ ‬اللهِ‮ ‬الْـحَرَامِ (and the pilgrimage to the House of Allah) لِـمَنْ‮ ‬اسْـتَطَاعَ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬سَـبِيلا (for he who is able to find a way to).

 وَالصَّّلاَةُ‮ ‬(Prayer)أَعْـظَمُهَا‮ ‬(is the most important of them [the pillars of Islam]) بَعْدَ‮ ‬الشَّهَادَتَيْـنِ (after the two Shahādahs). مَنْ‮ ‬أَقَامَـهَا (Whoever upholds it), أَقَامَ‮ ‬الدِّينَ (upholds the Diin), ومَنْ‮ ‬تَـرَكَـهَا (and whoever neglects it), فَـقَدْ‮ ‬تَـرَكَ‮ ‬الدِّينَ (neglects the Diin). وَلِـوُجُـوبِـهَا (Its requirements) ‮ ‬خَـمْسَةُ‮ ‬شُـرُوطٍ (are [base on] five conditions): الإسلاَمُ (Islam), وَالْبُلُوغُ (maturity), وَالْـعَقْلُ (intelligence), ‮ ‬وَارْتِفَاعُ‮ ‬دَمِ‮ ‬الْـحَيْضِ (cessation of menstrual bleeding) وَالنِّفَاسِ (and the blood parturition [childbirth]), وَحُضُورِ‮ ‬وَقْتِ‮ ‬الصَّلاَتِ (the arrival of the time of the prayer).

تَـجِبُ‮ ‬بِأَوَّلِ‮ ‬الْوَقْتِ (It becomes obligatory at the beginning of the time) وُجُوبًا مُوَسَّعًا (though the span of time of the obligation is wide).فَمَنْ‮ ‬جَهَدَ‮ ‬وُجُوبَهَا (He who forsakes it as an  obligation) أَوْ‮ ‬شَيْئًا مِنْ‮ ‬وَجَبَاتِهَا (and anything of its requirements) أَوْ‮ ‬شَـيْئًا مِنْ‮ ‬أَرْكَانِ‮ ‬الإسلاَمِ‮ ‬الْـخَمْسَةِ (or anything from the five pillars of Islam) فَهُوَ‮ ‬كَافِرٌ‮ ‬مُرْتَدُّ (is an apostatizing  disbeliever). يَستَتَابُ (He should be called upon to repent) ‮ ‬ثَلاَثَةَ‮ ‬أَيَّامٍ‮ ‬ (for three days) فَـإِنْ‮ ‬تَـابَ to see if he repents) ,‮ ‬وَإِلاَّ‮ ‬قُـتِلَ , otherwise he should be killed ). وَمَـنْ‮ ‬أَقَـرَّ‮ ‬بِـوُجُـوبِـهَا (Whoever affirms the obligation of pray) وَامْـتَنَعَ‮ ‬مِـنْ‮ ‬فِـعْلِهَا (and stops doing it), انتُظِرَ‮ ‬إِلَى‮ ‬ (will be observed until) أَنْ‮ ‬يَـبْقَى مِـنْ‮ ‬وَقْـتِهَا الضُّرُورِيِّ (what remains of its [the prayer’s] necessary time) مِقْدَارُ‮ ‬رَكْعَةٍ‮ ‬كَامِلَةٍ‮ ‬ (equal to the measure of a complete rakʿah). فَإِنْ‮ ‬لَـمْ‮ ‬يُـصَلِّ (If he still hasn’t prayed), قُـتِلَ‮ ‬بِـالسَـيفِ (he should be killed by the sword) حَـدًّا (in accordance with the prescribed penalty);

وَيُصَلِّي‮ ‬عَلَيهِ‮ ‬(and [the people who pray] over him) ‮ ‬غَيْرُ‮ ‬أَهْلِ‮ ‬الْفَضْلِ‮ ‬وَالصَّلاَحِ‮ ‬(should be other than the people of virtue and piety). وَيُدْفَنُ (He should be buried) فِي‮ ‬مُقَابِرِ‮ ‬الْـمُسْلِمِيـنَ (in the grave yard of the Muslims),‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬يُـطْمَسُ‮ ‬قَـبْرُهُ (and his grave should not be destroyed).‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬يُـقْتَلُ (He should not be kill)‮ ‬بِالْفَائِتَةِ (for letting the time of prayer elapse).

‮ ‬وَيُـؤْمَـرُ‮ ‬الصَّبِيُّ‮ ‬(The youth should be commanded) بِهَا لِسَبْعِ‮ ‬سَنِيـنَ (to perform it [prayer] at seven) يَضْرَبُ‮ ‬عَلَى تَرْكِهَا ضَرْبًا (and should be spanked),غَيْرَ‮ ‬مُبَرِّحٍ (but not severely) ‮ ‬إِذَا بَلَغَ‮ ‬عَشْرَ‮ ‬سَنِيـنَ (if he has reached the age of ten).

فصْلٌ (Section about the obligatory prayers)

الصَّلاَةُ‮ ‬الْـمَفْرُوضةُ‮ ‬ (The obligatory prayers) خَـمْسَةٌ (are five): الظُّهْـرُ (aḍh-Ḍhur), وَالْعَصْرُ (al-ʿAṣr), وَالْـمَغٌرِبُ‮ ‬(al-Maghrib),  وَالُعِشًاءُ‮ ‬(alʿIshaa’) and  وَالصُّبْحُ‮ ‬(aṣ-Ṣubḥ). وَلِكُلِّ‮ ‬وَاحِدَةِ‮ ‬مِنْهَا (For each of them) وَقْـتَانِ‮ ‬اخْـتِيارِيٌّ (is a preferred time) وَضَـرُورِيٌّ (and a necessary time). فَلاِخْتِيَارِيُّ‮ ‬لِلظُّهْرِ (The preferred time for aḍh-Ḍhur)‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬زَوَالِ‮ ‬الشََّمْسِ  (is from when the noon day sun passes the meridian])‮ ‬لآِخِـرِ‮ ‬الْـقَامَـةِ (until the time of when the shadow of a thing is equal to it]) وَهُـوَ‮ ‬أَوَّلُ‮ ‬الْوَقْـتِ‮ ‬الْـعَصْرِ (and it is the time of the beginning of al-ʿAṣr). ‮ ‬وَآخِرُهُ (The end of it [the time of al-ʿAṣr]) ‮ ‬إِلى اصْـفِرَارِ‮ ‬الشَّمْسِ ( is the yellowing of the Sun]). ولِـلْـمَغْرِبِ (The preferred time of al-Maghrib)‮  ‬بِـغُرُوبِ‮ ‬قُرْصِ‮ ‬الشَّمْسِ (is with the setting of the round edge of the sun)‮ ‬وَهُوَ‮ ‬مُضَيِّقٌ (it [the time span] is narrow)  غَـيْرُ‮ ‬مُـمْتَدِّ (not wide). يُـقَدَّرُ (It is limited (to the amount of time) بِـفِعْلِهَا (which will enable you to perform it)  بَـعْدَ‮ ‬تَـحْصِيلِ‮ ‬شُـرُرطِـهَا  ( after having fulfilled its conditions: [that is to say, the adhaan, the iqaamah and the essentials of purification etc.])  وَلِـلعِشَاءِ (The preferred time of alʿIshaa’ is from غَـيْبُوبَةِ‮ ‬الشَّفَقِ‮ ‬الأَحْـمَرِ (the red twilight of the evening]) إِِلَـى ثُـلْثِ‮ ‬اللَّيْلِ‮ ‬الأََوَّلِ‮ ‬(up until the first third of the night). لِلصُّبْحِ (The preferred time of aṣ-Ṣubḥ) طُـلُوعِ‮ ‬الْفَجْـرِ‮ ‬الصَّادِقِ (is from the actual appearance of the (light) of dawn)‮ ‬لِلإِسْفَارِ‮ ‬الأَعْلَى (to brightness of dawn). وَالضَّرُورِيُّ‮ ‬للصُّبْحِ (The necessary time of aṣ-Ṣubḥ) مِن الإِسْفَارِ‮ ‬الأَعْلَى (is from the brightness of dawn) ‮ ‬إلَى طُلُوعِ‮ ‬الشَّمْسِ (the appearance of the sun). وَلِلظَّهْرِ ([The necessary time] for aḍh-Ḍhur) مِنْ‮ ‬أَوَّلِ‮ ‬وَقْتِ‮ ‬الْعَصْرِ‮ ‬الْـمُخْتَارِ (is from the beginning of the preferred time of al-ʿAṣr)  إِلَى‮ ‬غُرُوبِ‮ ‬قُرْصِ‮ ‬الشَّمْسِ (until the setting of the round edge of the sun). ولِـلْعَصْرِ ([The necessary time] for  al-ʿAṣr) مِنَ‮ ‬الأَصْفِرَارِ (is from the yellowing of the Sun) ‮ ‬إِلَى وَقْتِ‮ ‬الْغُرُوبِ (to the time of sunset). وَلِلْمَغْرِبِ ([The necessary time] for  al-Maghrib) ‮ ‬مِـنَ‮ ‬الْـفَرَاغِ‮ ‬مِنْهَا (is from) ‮ ‬إِلَى طُلُوعِ‮ ‬الْفَجرِ (to the appearance of dawn). وَلِلْعِشَاءِ ([The necessary time] for alʿIshaa’)‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬آخِرِ‮ ‬ثُلُثِ‮ ‬اللَّيْلِ‮ ‬الأوَّلِ (is from the end of the first third of the night) ‮ ‬إِلَى طُلُوعِ‮ ‬الْفَجْرِ (to the appearance of dawn).

تَنْبِيهٌ (note):

مَـنْ‮ ‬أَخَّرَ‮ ‬الصَّلاةَ‮ ‬ (Whoever delays the prayer) إِلَى الْوَقْتِ‮ ‬الضُّرُورِيِّ (until the necessary time)‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬غَـيْرِ‮ ‬عُـذْرِ (without a [valid] excuse) أَثِـمَ (commits a sin). وَالْعُدْرُ (The [valid] excuses are): ‮ ‬الْـحَيْضُ (the bleeding of menstruation).‮ ‬وَالنِّفَاسُ (the bleeding of parturition), والْكُفْرُ (disbelief), وَالصِّبَا ( under the age of the obligation to pray), وَالْـجُنُونِ  (insanity),  والإغْـمَاءِ (unconsciousness), وَالنَّومِ (sleep), and وَالنِسْيَانُ (forgetfulness).

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The Section About الأَوْقَاتُ‏ الصَّلاَةِ Al-Awqaatu-ṣ-Salaah [The Times Of Prayer] from Matn al-Akhḍarii

فَصْلٌ فِي الأَوْقَاتِ

Section:The Times Of Prayer

اَلْوَقْتُ الْـمُخْتَارُ لِلظَّهْرِ مِنْ زَوَالِ الشَّمْسِ إِلَى آخِرِ الْقَامَةِ .

الْـوَقْـتُ‏ ‬الْـمُخْتَار (The preferred time) لِلظَّهْـرِ (for the midday prayer)  مِـنْ زَوَالِ الشَّمْسِ (is from when the noon day sun passes the meridian)  إِلَـى آخِـرِ الْـقَامَـةِ (until the time of when the shadow of a thing is twice it’s height).

وَالْـمُخْتَارُ لِلْعَصْرِ مِنَ الْقَامَةِ إِلَى الاِصْفِرَارِ وَضَرُورِيُّهُمَا إِلَى الْغُرُوبِ

وَالْـمُخْتَارُ (The preferred time) لِـلْعَصْرِ (for the mid-afternoon prayer) مِـنَ الْـقَامَـةِ (is from the time when the shadow of a thing is twice it’s height)  إِلَـى الاِصْـفِرَارِ (until the  yellowing of the Sun).  وَضَـرُورِيُّهُمَا  (The necessary time for both them [Ḍhur and ʿAṣr)]) إِلَـى الْـغُرُوبِ (lasts until the setting of the Sun).

والْـمُخْتَارُ لِـلْمَغْرِبِ قَدْرَ مَا تُصَلِّى فِيهِ بَعْدَ شُرُوطِهَا .

والْـمُخْتَارُ (The Preferred time) لِـلْمَغْرِبِ (for the prayer after sunset) قَـدْرَ مَـا تُـصَلِّى (is [limited] to the amount of time which will enable you to perform it) بَـعْدَ شُـرُوطِـهَا (after having fulfilled its conditions).

وَالـْمُخْتَارِ لِلْعِشَاءِ مِنْ مَغِيبِ الشَّفَقِ إِِلَى ثُلْثِ اللَّيْلِ الأََوَّلِ ، وَضُرُورِيُّهُمَا إِلَى طُلُوعِ الْفَجْرِ .

وَالـْـمُخْتَارِ (The preferred time) لِـلْعِشَاءِ (for the evening prayer) مِـنْ مَغِيبِ الشَّفَقِ (is from dusk or twilight of the evening)  إِِلَى ثُلْثِ اللَّيْلِ الأََوَّلِ (up until the first third of the night).  وَضُرُورِيُّهُمَا (the necessary time for both of them [Maghrib and ʿIshaa’]) إِلَـى طُـلُوعِ الْفَجْـرِ (lasts until the appearance of the light of dawn).

وَالـْمُخْتَارِ لِلصُّبْحِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ إِلَى الإِسفار الأَعْلَى وَضَرُورِيُّهُ إِلَى طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ .

وَالـْـمُخْتَارِ (The preferred time) لِـلصُّبْحِ (for the morning prayer) مِـنَ الْفَجْـرِ (is from [the beginning of] dawn) إِلَـى الإِسفار الأَعْـلَى (until the brightness of dawn). وَضَـرُورِيُّهُ (Its necessary time) إِلَـى طُـلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ (lasts until the appearance of the sun).

وَالْقَضَاءُ فِي الْـجَمِيعِ مَا وَرَاءَ ذالِكَ .

وَالْـقَضَاءُ (Make up prayers to compensate) فِـي الْـجَـمِيعِ (for all of) مَـا وَرَاءَ ذالِـكَ (what falls short of that [praying in the prescribed times for the obligatory prayers] [are required]).

وَمَنْ أَخَّرَ الصَّلاَةَ حَتَّى خَرَجَ وَقْتُهَا فَعَلَيْهِ ذَنْبٌ عَظِيمٌ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَكُونَ نَاسِيًا أَوْ نَائِمًا .

وَمَـنْ أَخَّرَ الصَّلاَةَ (Whoever delays an obligatory prayer) حَتَّى خَرَجَ وَقْتُهَا (until it has gone out of its prescribed time) فَعَلَيْهِ ذَنْبٌ عَظِيمٌ (brings a great sin upon himself),  إِلاَّ أَنْ يَـكُونَ نَـاسِـيًا (unless he has forgotten) أَوْ نَـائِـمًا (or has over-slept).

وَلَا تُصَلَّى نَافِلَةٌ بَعْدَ صَلَاةِ الصُّبْحِ إِلَى ارْتِفَاعِ الشَّمْسِ وَبَعْدَ صَلَاِة الْعَصْرِ إِلَى صَلَاةِ الْـمَغْرِبِ ، وَبَعْدَ طُلُوعِ الْفَجْرِ إِلّاَ الِْورْدَ لِنَائِمٍ عَنْهُ وَعِنْدَ جُلُوسِ إِمَامِ الْـجُمُعَةِ عَلَى الْـمِنبَرِ وَبَعْدَ الْـجُمُعَةِ حَتَّى يَخْرُجَ مِنَ الْـمَسْجِدِ.

وَلَا تُـصَلَّى نَـافِـلَةٌ (supererogatory prayers are not prayed) بَـعْدَ صَـلَاةِ الصُّبْحِ (after the morning prayer) إِلَى ارْتِفَاعِ الشَّمْسِ (until the Sun has [fully] risen), وَبَـعْدَ صَـلَاِة الْـعَصْرِ (nor are they prayed after Ṣalaat-ul-Aṣr) إِلَى صَلَاةِ الْـمَغْرِبِ (until Ṣalaat-ul-Maghrib [has come in]),  وَبَعْدَ طُـلُوعِ الْفَجْـرِ (nor are they prayed after al-Fajr [dawn] has come in), إِلّاَ الِْـورْدَ  (except for the wird [personal invocation and supplications to Allah]) لِـنَائِـمٍ عَـنْهُ (of the one who has overslept [and missed his wird]), وَعِـنْدَ جُـلُوسِ إِمَـامِ الْـجُـمُعَةِ (nor when the Imām of the Friday prayer sits on the mimbar [the place from where the sermon is given] )  وَبَـعْدَ الْـجُـمُعَةِ (nor after Jumuʿah) حَـتَّى يَخْـرُجَ مِـنَ الْـمَسْجِدِ (until he [the imām] has left the masjid).

مُقَدِّمَةُ الْكِتَابِ (The Introductory Chapter) from Matn al-Akhdarii

The Section about الطَّهَارَة – At-Ṭahaarah (Purity) from Matn al-Akhdarii

Sections About the Obligatory, Prophetic and Meritorious Acts of Wuḍuu’ from Matn al-Akhḍarii

Section: نَـوَاقـضُ‏ الْـوُضُـوء (Nawaaqiḍu-l-Wuḍuu’ [The Nullification of Wuḍuu’]) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

Section About Ghusl: Its Obligatory, Sunnah and Meritorious Actions from Matn al-Akhḍarii

The Section About التَّيَمُّم At-Tayammum (Dry Ablution) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

The Sections About الْـحَيْض Al-Ḥayḍ (Menstruation) and النَّفَاس An-Nafaas (The Blood Of Parturition [Child Birth]) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

The Section Concerning شُرُوطُ‏ الصَّلاَة (The Conditions of Ṣalaah) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

Section الصَّلاَّةُ‏ الـْـمَفْرُوضَـة (Aṣ-Ṣalaatu-l-Mafruuḍah [The Obligatory Prayer]) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

Section فصل قُـضَاءُ‏ مَـا فِـي‏ الذِّمَّةِ‏ مِـنَ‏ الصَّلَوَات (Making Up What is Owed from Prayers [That Have Passed]) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

A Chapter About السَّهْو (as-Sahw [Forgetfulness During Prayer] from Matn al-Akhḍarii

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