The Chapter About صَلاَةِ الْـجُمُعَةِ (The Friday Prayer) from Matn al Ashmaawiyyah

The Chapter About صَلاَةِ‮ ‬الْـجُمُعَةِ (The Friday Prayer)

صَـلاَةُ‮ ‬الْـجُـمْعَةِ‮ ‬فَـرْضٌ (Ṣalaatu-l-Jumuʿah is an obligation) عَـلَى الأَعْـيَانِ (which has been placed upon each individual Muslim), وَلَـهَا شُـرُوطُ‮ ‬وُجُـوبٍ (and it has required conditions), وَأَرْكَـانٌ‮ ‬ (rules), وَآدَبٌ (manners),‮ ‬وَأَعْـذَارَ‮ ‬تُـبِيحُ‮ ‬التَّخَـلَّف(and excuses which allow [the worshipper] not to attend it).

فَـأَمَّا شُـرُوطُ‮ ‬وُجُـوبِـهَا (As for the condition of its necessity), فَسَـبْعَةٌ (they are seven): وَالإسْـلاَمُ ‬(Islam), وَالْـبُـلُوغُ (legal maturity), وَالْـعَقْلُ (intellect), وَالذُّكُـورِيَّةِ (masculinity), وَالْـحُـرِّيَـةُ (freedom), وَالإقَامَةُ (residence), وَالصِّحَةِ (and health).

وَأَمَّا (As for its rules), فَخَمْسَةٌ (they are five):

الأَوَّلُ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬الْـَمَسْجِـدُ (The first element is the masjid) الَّذِي‮ ‬يَـكُونُ‮ ‬جَـامِـعًا (that is used the central congregational masjid);

الثَّانِـيُّ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬الْـجَـمََاعَـةُ (The second is the congregation). وَلَـيْسَ‮ ‬لَـهُمْ‮ ‬حَدٌّ‮ ‬عِنْدَمَالِك (There is no limit for them with Maalik). بَـلْ‮ ‬أَنْ (On the contrary),‮ ‬لاَبُدَّ (without  doubt), تَـكُونَ‮ ‬جَـمَاعَةً‮   ‬(it is a group of people) تَـتَقَرَّى بِـهِ‮ ‬قَـرِيَةٌ (wherein a village can be established by them). وَرَجَّحَ‮ ‬بَـعْضُ‮ ‬أَئِـمَّتِنَا (Some of our imāms support the opinion) أَنَّهَا تَجُـوزُ‮ ‬بِـاثْـنَىْ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬رَجُلاً (that Jumuʿah is permitted to be established with twelve men) بَـاقِـيِينَ‮ ‬لِسَـلاَمِـهَا (who remain for the closing salaam).

الثَّالِـثُ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬الْـخُـطْبَةُ‮ ‬الأُلًـَـى (The third element is the first khuṭbah) رُكُـنُ‮ ‬عَـلَى الصَّحِيحِ (and that it is an essential part [of Jumuʿah] according to what is sound), وَ كَـذَالِـكَ الْـخُـطْبَةُ الثَّانِـيَّةُ‬ (similarly, so is the second khuṭbah) عَـلَى مَـشْهُورٌ (according to what is well known [in the Madh-hab]), وَلاَ‮ ‬بُـدَّ (and undoubtedly), أَنْ‮ ‬تَـكُونَ‮ ‬بَـعَدَ‮ ‬الزَّوالِ‮ ‬ (it occurs at end of the first khuṭbah) وَقَـبلَ‮ ‬الصَّلاَةِ (and before the prayer). وَلَـيْسَ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬الْـخُـطْبَة حَـدٌّ‮ ‬ (There is also no limit place upon the khuṭbah) عِـنْدَ  مَـالِـكٍ  أَيْـضًا (also according to Maalik), وَلاَ‮ ‬بُـدَّ (and undoubtedly), أَنْ‮ ‬تَـكُونَ‮ ‬مِـمَّا تُـسَّمِيهِ‮ ‬الْـعَربُ‮ ‬خُـطْبَةً (it is what has been called by the Arabs a khuṭbah). وَيَسْـتَحَبُّ  الطَّهَارَةُ  فِـيهِمَا (Ritual purity is recmmended for both khuṭbahs), وَفِـي‮ ‬وُجُوبِ‮ ‬الْقِيَامِ‮ ‬تَرَدُّدٍ (and the necessity of the repetition of Qiyaam [standing position]).

الرَّابِـعْ  : الإمَامُ (The fourth element is the imām). وَمِنْ‮ ‬صِـفتِهِ (Among his characteristics) أَنْ‮ ‬يَـكُونُ‮ ‬مِـمَّنْ‮ ‬تَـجِبُ‮ ‬عَـلَيْهِ‮ ‬ (is that he is among those people for whom Jumuʿah is incumbent). احْـتِرَازًا مِـنْ  الصَّبِيِّ (The imāmate should not be given to the young boy), الْـمُسَافِـرُ (the traveler), وَغَـيْرِهِِـهَا (nor anyone else besides the two above-mentioned persons) مِـمَّنْ‮ ‬لَـمْ‮ ‬تَـجِبُ‮ ‬عَـلَيْهِ (who is not obligated to perform Jumuʿah  upon).

يَشْـتَرَطَ (It is a condition) أَنْ‮ ‬يَـكُونَ‮ ‬الْـمُصَلِّي‮ ‬بِالْـجَمَاعَةِ that the person leading the prayer for the Jamaaʿah) هُـوَ‮ ‬الْـخَاطِـبُ (must be the one who gives the khuṭbah), إِلاَّ  لِـعُذْرٍ (except for an excuse) يَـمْنَعَهُ‮ ‬مِـنْ‮ ‬ذَالِـكَ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬مَرْضٍ (which prevents him from leading the prayer like illness) أَوْ‮ ‬جُـنُونٍ (or insanity)أَوْ‮ ‬نَـحْوِ‮ ‬ذَالِـكَ‮ ‬ (or what is similar to that). وَيَـجِبُ‮ ‬انْتِظَارُهُ (Waiting for him [the imām] is obligatory) لِـلْعُذْرِ‮ ‬الْقَرِيبِ (if the excuse that does take long),عَـلَى الأَصَـحِّ (according to what is most sound).

الْـخَامِـسُ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬مَـوْضِـعُ‮ ‬الاِسْـتِيطَانِ (The fifth element is place of settlement [residence]). فَـلاَ‮ ‬تُـقَامُ‮ ‬الْـجُـمُعَةُ‮ ‬ (Jumuʿah cannot be established), إِلاَّ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬مَـوْضِـعٍ‮ ‬يُسْـتِوْطَنُ (except in a place which has been settled), وَيَـكُونُ‮ ‬مَـحَلاً‮ ‬لِـلإقَـامَـة (there is a place for the iqaamah), وَيُـمْكِنُ‮ ‬الْـمَشْوى فِيهِ‮ ‬ (and the habitation is possible whether it is town or a village).

وَأَمَّا آدَابُ‮ ‬الْـجُـمُعَةِ (As for the correct manners with regards to Jumuʿah), فَثَمَانِـيةٌ (they are eight):

الأَوَّلُ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬الْغُسْـلُ‮ ‬لَـهَا (The first of them is major ablution for it) وَهُـوَ‮ ‬سُـنَّة عِـنْدَ‮ ‬الْـجَـمْهُورِ (and it is a sunnah with the people of knowledge) وَمِنْ‮ ‬شُرُوطِهِ (and its conditions are) أَنْ‮ ‬يَكُونَ‮ ‬مُـتَّصِلاً‮ ‬بِـالرّوَاحِ (that it is connected to starting out [for the masjid]), فَـإنِ‮ ‬اغْتَسََـلَ (and if the worshipper made ablution) واشْـتَغَلَ‮ ‬بِغَدَاءٍ‮ ‬أَوْ‮ ‬نَوْمٍ (and then becomes pre-occupied by eating or sleep), أَعَادَ‮ ‬الْغُسْلَ (he should repeat the ablution) عَـلَى الْـمَشْهُورِ (according to what is well known);

الثَّانِـيُّ  : السِّوَاكُ (The second is the toothbrush);

الثَّالِثُ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬حَلْقُ‮ ‬الشَّعْرِ (the third is trimming the hair]);

الرّابِعُ  :  تَقْلِيمُ  الأَظَافِرِ (the fourth is trimming the fingernails);

الْـخَامِسُ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬تَـجَنَّبُ‮ ‬مَـا‮ ‬يَـتَوَلَّدُ‮ ‬مِنْهُ‮ ‬الرّائِـحَةُ‮ ‬الْكَرِيهَةُ‮ ‬ (the fifth is to avoid those things that cause bad breath);

السَّادِسُ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬التَّجَمُّلُ‮ ‬بِالثِّيَابِ‮ ‬الْـحُسَـنَةِ (the sixth is to dress in the the best clothes);

السَّابِعُ  : التَّطَيِّبُ لَهَا (the seventh is putting on perfume for Jumuʿah);

الثَّامِنُ  : المَشْيُ لَهَا دُونَ الرُّكُوبِ  (the eighth is walking to Jumuʿah not riding), إِلاَّ‮ ‬لِـعْذْرِ‮ ‬ (except if there are excuse) يَـمْنَعُهُ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬ذَالِكَ (which prevents the worshipper from doing that).

الثَّامِـنُ‮ ‬‭:‬ الْـمَشِـي‮ ‬دُونَ‮ ‬الرُّكُـوبِ‮ ‬(the eighth is walking to Jumuʿah not riding), إِلاَّ‮ ‬لِـعْذْرِ‮ ‬ (except if there are excuse) يَـمْنَعُهُ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬ذَالِكَ (which prevents the worshipper from doing that).

وَأَمَّا الأَعْـذَارُ (As for the excuses) ‮ ‬الْـمُبِيحَةُ‮ ‬لِلتَّخَـلُّفِ‮ ‬عَـنْهَا (that causes one to stay away from Jumuʿah), فَـمِنْ‮ ‬ذَالكَ‮ ‬الْـمَطَرُ‮ ‬الشَّدِيدُ (they include heavy rain), وَالوَحْـلُ‮ ‬الكَثِيرُ (an overwhelming amount of mud), الْـمُجَـذَّمُ‮ ‬الَّـذِي‮ ‬تَـضُرُّ‮ ‬رَائِـحَتُهُ (and smells that are harmful),   بِـالْـجَـمَاعَـةِ‮ ‬(according to all of the scholars), الْـمَرَضُ (illness) وَالتَّمْرِيضُ‮ ‬(and tending to the sick), بِأَنْ‮ ‬يَـكُونَ‮ ‬عِـنْدَهُ‮ ‬مِـنْ‮ ‬أَهْـلِهِ (because someone in his family is sick), كَالزَّوْجَةِ (like the wife)  وَالْـوَلَـدِ‮ ‬(and the child) وَأَحَدَ‮ ‬الأَبَوَيْنِ (and one of the parents), وَلَـيْسَ‮ ‬عِـنْدَهُ‮ ‬مَنْ‮ ‬يَعُولُهُ (and there is no one who can care for them), فَـيَحْتَاجُ‮ ‬إِلَـى التَّخَـلُّفِ (then he should stay behind) لِتَمْرِيضِهِ (in order to care for his sick family member), مِـنْ‮ ‬ذَالِـكَ (similarly), إِذَا احْتُضِرُ‮ ‬أَحَـدٌ‮ ‬مِـن أَقَـارِبِـهِ‮ ‬أَوْ‮ ‬إِخْوَانِهِ (if one of his relatives or his brother dies.)

قَـالَ‮ ‬مَـالِـك (Maalik said) فِـي‮ ‬الرَّجُـلِ‮ ‬يُهْلِكُ‮ ‬يَوْمَ‮ ‬الْـجُمُعَةِ (concerning the man who dies on the day of Jumuʿah), فَيَتَخَـلَّفُ‮ ‬عِـنْدَهُ‮ ‬رَجُلٌ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬إِخْـوَانِـهِ (a man who is with him from among his brothers can stay away from Jumuʿah) (to attend to his affairs). لاَ‮ ‬بَـأْسَ‮ ‬بِـذَالِـكَ (There is no objection to that).

وَمِـنْهَا (Among other the excuses which prevent the worshipper from attending Jumuʿah) لَـوْ‮ ‬خَـافَ‮ ‬عَـلَى نَـفْسِهِ‮ ‬مِـنْْ‮ ‬ضَـرْبِ‮  ‬ظَـالِـمٍ (is that he fears being beaten by a tyrant), أَوْ‮ ‬حَـبْسِهِ (or his imprisonment)  أَوْ‮ ‬أَخْـدِ‮ ‬مَـالِـهِ (or his money being taken). وَكَـذَالِـكَ‮ ‬الْـمُعْسِرُ (It is similar with the poor person), يُـخَـافُ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬يَـحْبِسَ‮ ‬غَـرِيـمُهُ (who fears that his creditor will imprison him), عَـلَى الأَصَـحُّ (according to what is more sound). وَمِـنْ‮ ‬ذَالكَ‮ ‬الأَعْـمَى (Another excuse is is that of the blind person) الَّذِي‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬قَـائِـدَ (who does not have help). أَمَّا لَـوْ (However), كَانَ‮ ‬لَـهُ‮ ‬قَـائِـدٌ (if he has someone to guide him) مِـمَّنْ‮ ‬يَهْـتَدِي‮ ‬لِلْـجَامِعِ‮ ‬بِلاَ‮ ‬قَئِدٍ (or is able to find his way the masjid without a guide), فلاَ‮ ‬يَـجُوزُ‮ ‬لَـهُ‮ ‬التُّخَلُّفُ‮ ‬عَـنْهَا‮ ‬ (then he is not permitted to stay away from it (the Jumuʿah prayer).

وَيَحْْـرُمُ  السَّفَرُ (Travel is prohibited)  عِـنْدَ‮ ‬الزَّوَالِ‮ ‬مِـنْ‮ ‬يَـوْمِ‮ ‬الـْجُـمُعَةِ (at noon time of the day of Jumuʿah) عَـلَى مَـنْ‮ ‬تَـجِبُ‮ ‬عَـلَيْه الْـجُـمُعَةُ (for the one who has to attend Jumuʿah prayer).  وَكذَالِـكَ‮ ‬يَحْْـرُمُ‮ ‬عَـلَيْهِ‮ ‬الْـكَلاَمُ‮ ‬وَالنَّافِلَةُ (Similarly, talking and performing naafilah prayers is not permitted) وَلإمَامُ‮ ‬يَخْـطُبُ (while the imām is giving the khuṭbah) سِـواءٌ‮ ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬الْـخُطْبَةِ‮ ‬الأُولَـى أَوْ‮ ‬الثَّانِـيَّةِ (whether it is the first or the second khuṭbah ). وَيَجْـلِسُ‮ ‬الرَّجُـلُ‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬يُصَلِّي (The man must sit and does not pray), إِلاَّ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬يَـكُونُ‮ ‬تَـلْبِسَ‮ ‬بِـنَقْلٍ (unless he is doing nafilah prayer) قَـبْلَ‮ ‬دُخُـولِ‮ ‬الإمَـامِ‮ ‬(before the entry of the imām) فَـيُتِمَّ‮ ‬ذَالِـكَ (and completes that prayer).  وَيَحْْـرُمُ الْـبَيْعُ‮ ‬وَالشُّـرَاءُ‮ ‬(Buying and selling is prohibited) عِـنْدَ‮ ‬الأَذَانِ‮ ‬الثَّانِـي (after the second call to prayer) وَيُـفْسَخُ‮ ‬إِنْ‮ ‬وَقَعَ (and it should be terminated when it the call to prayer starts).

وَيُـكْرَهُ  تَـرْكُ  الْـعَمَلِ  يَوْمَ  الْـجُـمُعَةِ (Omitting traditional behavior on the day the Jumuʿah Prayer is highly disliked), وَتَـنَقُّلُ‮ ‬الإمَـامِ‮ ‬قَـبْلَ‮ ‬الْـخُـطْبَةِ (as well as the imām performing naafilah prayers before the khuṭbah), وَكذَالِـكَ‮ ‬يُـكْرَهُ‮ ‬ (and similarly it is disliked) لِـلْجَالِـسِ (for those who are sitting) أَنْ‮ ‬يَـتَقََّلَ (to perform naafilah prayers) عِـنْدَ‮ ‬الأَذَانِ‮ ‬الأُوَّلِ (after the first adh-dhaan). وَيُـكْرَهُ‮ ‬حُـضُورُ‮ ‬الشَّائَـة لِـلْجُـمْعَةِ (It is also disliked for the young girl to attend Jumuʿah), وَكذَالِـكَ‮ ‬السَّفَرُ‮ ‬بَـعْدَ‮ ‬الْفَجْـرِ (and likewise, traveling after Fajr).   وَاللَّهُ‮ ‬أَعْـلَمُ (And Allah is the Best Knower).

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