Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 19 – (The Chapter About Al-Haal [The Circumstantial Noun])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الْحَالِ

19 – (The Chapter About Al-Haal  [The Circumstantial Noun])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬الـْحَالُ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفَسِّرُ‏‮ ‬‬لـِمَا انْبَهَمَ‏‮ ‬‬مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الْهَيْئَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِبًا وَرَكِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬مُسْرَجًا وَلَقِيتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَبْدَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهِ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِبًا وَمَا أَشْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬الْحَالُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬بَعْدَ‏‮ ‬‬تَمَامِ‏‮ ‬‬الْكلاَمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬صَاحِِبُهُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬مَعْرِفَةً‏‮)‬‬

‏‮ ‬‬English Translation:

الـْحَالُ (The circumstantial noun) هُوَ (is)الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬ (the noun in the case of naṣb) الـْمُفَسِّرُ (which clarifies) لـِمَا انْبَهَم (what is unclear) مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الْهَيْئَاتِ (about the circumstances [of الْفَاعِـل (the doer) or الـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ (the receiver of the action) or الـْمَجْـرُور (the noun in the case of jarr]) – (like when you say):  جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِـبًا (Zayd came riding) وَرَكِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬مُسْرَجًا and (I rode the mare with a saddle) وَلَقِيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَبْـدُ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهِ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِـــــبًا and (I met Abdullaahi riding) وَمَا أَشْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِــكَ‏‮ ‬‬ (and what is similar to these).  وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَــكُونُ الـْـحَالُ (The circumstantial noun must not be anything) إِلاّ (other than) نَكِـرَةً‏‮ ‬‬ (an indefinite noun) وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُــــــونُ (nor  does  it  occur) إِلاّ (other  than) بَـعْدَ‏‮ ‬‬تمَـامِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـكلاَمِ (after the completion of the statement) وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَـكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬صَاحِِـبُهُ (and it is not accompanied [by another noun] إِلاّ (unless) مَعْرِفَةً (it is definite).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الحال نكرة مُشْتَقَّة واقعة بعد تمام الكلام تبين هيئَة الفاعل والـمفعول و كقولك جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِبًا ورَكِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬مُسْرَجًا ومَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِعُمْرٍو جَالِسًا فراكبًا ومُسْرَجًا وجالسًا نكرات لأنّه‏‮ ‬‬يصلح دخول‏‮ ((‬‬ال‏‮)) ‬‬على كلّ‏‮ ‬‬منها ومشتقات لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬كُلاّ‏‮ ‬‬منها‏‮ ‬‬يدلّ‏‮ ‬‬على معنى وصاحبه وواقعات بعد تمام الكلام لأنّه‏‮ ‬‬يصح الاستغناءُ‏‮ ‬‬عنها‏‮ ‬‬

وراكبًا‏‮ ‬‬يبين هيئة الفاعل‏‮ ((‬‬زيد‏‮)) ‬‬ومسرحًا‏‮ ‬‬يبين هيئة الـمفعول‏‮ ((‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮)) ‬‬وجالسًا‏‮ ‬‬يبين هيئة المجرور‏‮ ((‬‬عمرو‏‮)) ‬‬وكلها متضمّنة معنى‏‮ ((‬‬في‏‮)) ‬‬دود لفظها لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬التّقدير في‏‮ ‬‬حال ركوبه إلى آخره شروط الحال ثلاثة أوّلها أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون نكرة ثانيها أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون فضلة ثالثها أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون صاحبه معرفة وهذه الشّروط تجدها في‏‮ ‬‬راكبًا من قولك جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِبًا لأنّه نكرة واقع بعد تمام الكلام وصاحبه معرفة وهو زيد

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـحَالُ (The circumstantial noun) is a separate indefinite noun which occurs after the completion of a statement and which clarifies the circumstance of الفَاعِل (the doer), الـْـمَفْعُول (the object of the verb) and الـْمَجْـرُور (the object of the preposition) – like when you say: جَـاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِـبــًا (Zayd came riding) and رَكَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬مُسْرَجـــــًا (I rode the saddled horse) and  مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِعَمْرٍو جَالِسَا (I passed by ʿAmr while he was sitting). And so رَاكِـبًا , مُسْرَجًـا and جَـالِـسًا are indefinite because the prefixing of اَلْـ is not permissible for any of them. They are separate from the rest of the statement, because each of them gives meaning to what accompanies it and they occur after the completion of the statement, because it is (grammatically) permissible to leave or drop them from the statement.  And so رَاكِبًا clarifies the circumstances of زَيْدٌ (Zayd) – the doer – (that is to say, how he performed a particular act) and مُسْرَجًـا clarifies the situation or condition in which الْفَرَسَ the object of the verb was found (when it received the action of the verb) and جَـاِلسًا clarifies the situation ofعَـمْرٍو (‘Amr) – the object of the preposition (during the occurrence of the action being carried out by the doer).

The determinate conditions of الْـحَالُ (The circumstantial noun) are three.  First it must be نَـكِرَةٌ (indefinite), second it must be فُـضْلَةً (more than what is needed to complete the statement – (that is to say, it would be [grammatically] permissible to leave or drop it from the statement), and third ‏‮ ‬‬صَـاحِبُهُ‏‮ ‬‬مَـعْرِفَـةٌ(a definite noun must accompany it).‏‮ ‬‬ These conditions can be found in the noun راكبًا like when you say:  جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِـبًا, because it is نَـكِرَة (an indefinite noun) وَاقِـعُ‏‮ ‬‬بَـعْدَ‏‮ ‬‬تَـمَامِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـكَلاَمِ (which occurs after the completion of the statement) and صَاحِبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعْرِفَةٌ (a definite noun accompanies it) and that noun is Zayd.

Published in: on December 27, 2011 at 12:50  Leave a Comment  
Tags: , ,

Matn Al Ajurruumiyyah (Audio) – Quick Recitation and Slow Recitation

Matn Al Ajurruumiyyah (Audio) – Quick Recitation and Slow Recitation  

Click here for the: Matn Al Ajurruumiyyah (Arabic Text)

Click here for the: 1. Complete Audio Quick Recitation

Click here for the: 3. Complete Audio Slower Recitation

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 18 – (The Chapter About Ḍharfu-z-Zamaan [The Adverb Of Time] and Ḍharful-Makaan [The Adverb Of Place])

 بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬ظَرْفِ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬ظَرْفِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ 

18 – (The Chapter About harfu-z-Zamaan  [The Adverb Of Time] and harfu-l-Makaan  [The Adverb Of Place])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬اسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِتَقْدِيرِ‏‮ ‬‬فيِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللَّيْلَةَ‏‮ ‬‬وَغُدْوَةً‏‮ ‬‬وَبُكْرَةً‏‮ ‬‬وَسَحَرًا وَغَدًا وَعَتَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬وَصَبَاحًا وَمَسَاءً‏‮ ‬‬وَأَبَدًا وَأَمَدًا وَحِينًا وَمَا أَشْبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ‏‮ ‬‬هَوَ‏‮ ‬‬اسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِتَقْدِيرِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬أَمَامَ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَلْفَ‏‮ ‬‬وَقُدَّامَ‏‮ ‬‬وَوَرَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وَفَوْقَ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَحْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَعِنْدَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَعَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِزَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وَحِذَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وَتِلْقَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُنَا وَثَمَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا أَشَْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ (The adverb of time) هُوَ (is) اسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ (the noun of time) الـْمَنْصُوبُ (in the case of naṣb) بِتَقْديرِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي (it is expressed with [the preposition] فِي being implied) –  (like when you say): الْيَوْمَ (today) وَاللَّيْلَةَ and (tonight) وَغُدْوَةً and (in the morning) وَبُكْرَةً and (at dawn) وَسَحَرًا and (at dawn) وَغَدًا and (tomorrow) وَعَتَمًا and (in the first third of the night) وَصَبَاحًا and (in the morning) وَمَسَاءً and (in the evening) وَأَبَدًا and (always / never) وَأَمَدًا and (briefly) وَحِينًا and (sometimes) وَمَا أَشْبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ (and what is similar to these).

وَظَـــرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَـــانِ‏‮ ‬‬ (And the adverb of place) هُو (is)   اسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ the noun of location) الـْمَنْصُوبُ (in the case of naṣb) بِتَقْديرِ‏‮ ‬‬في (it is expressed with [the preposition] فِي being implied)  – like when you say: أَمَامَ (across from / in front of) وَخَلْفَ and (behind), وَقُدَّامَ and (in front of)  وَوَرَاءَ and (behind) وَفَوْقَ and (above) وَتَحْتَ and (below) وَعِنْدَ and (with) وَمَعَ and (with) وَإِزَاءَ and (face to face / opposite someone or something) وَحِذَاءَ and (opposite / face to face with) وَتِلْقَاءَ and (opposite /in  front  of) وَهُنَــا  and  (here) ‏‮ ‬‬وَثَـــمَّand  (there)  وَمَا أَشَْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِك (and what is similar to these).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَان وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَان هما الإسمان الـمنصوبان الواقع فيهما الفعل متضمِّنًا معنى في‏‮ ‬‬دون لفظها كقولك خَرَجْتُ‏‮ ‬‬يَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعِيدِ‏‮ ‬‬ومَشَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَرَآءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمِ‏‮ ‬‬فيوم وورآء مفعول فيهما لأنّه قد وقع فيهما الفعل وهو الخروج والـمشِي‏‮ ‬‬وكلاهما متضمّن معنى في‏‮ ‬‬دون‏‮  ‬‬لفظها لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬التّقدير في‏‮ ‬‬اليوم والورآء ومثل جِئْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَذْهَبُ‏‮ ‬‬غَدًا‏‮ ‬‬وقُمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬صَبَاحًا ونِمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬مَسَـاءً‏‮ ‬‬وجَـلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬حِذَاءَكَ‏‮ ‬‬ووَقَفْتُ‏‮ ‬‬قُدَّامَكَ‏‮ ‬‬إلى آخره‏‮ ‬‬

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَان هو الإسم الدّالّ‏‮ ‬‬على الزّمان نحو الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬واللَّيْلَةَ‏‮ ‬‬وغُدْوَةً‏‮ ‬‬وبُكْرَةً وسَحَرًا وغَدًا وعَتَمًا وصَبَاحًا ومَسَاءً‏‮ ‬‬وأَبَدًا وأَمَدًا ووَقْتًآ وحِينًا وما أشبه ذلك فهذه‏‮  ‬‬جميعًا تُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬على الظَّرْفيَّةِ‏‮ ‬‬تقول أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬وذَهَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بُكْرَةً‏‮ ‬‬

وظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَان هو الاسم الدّال على الـمكان نحو أَمَامَ‏‮ ‬‬وخَــلْفَ‏‮ ‬‬وقُدَّامَ‏‮ ‬‬ووَرَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وفَوْقَ‏‮ ‬‬وتَحْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وعِنْدَ‏‮ ‬‬ومَعَ‏‮ ‬‬وإِزَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وتِلْقَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وحِذَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وهُنَا وثَمَّ‏‮ ‬‬ومَا أشبه ذلك تقول جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬أَمَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬أو حِذَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٍو أو تِلْقَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَيْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وقس الباقي

Explanation of Text in English:

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ  (the adverb of time and the adverb of place) are the nouns in the case of naṣb wherein their verb [is expressed] with an implied meaning  [which includes] the preposition  فِي   –  like when you say: خَرَجْــــتُ‏‮ ‬‬يَـوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعِيــــدِ  (I  left  on  the  feast  day) and  مَشَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَرَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمِ (I walked behind the people); and so يَوْمَ and وَرَاءَ are adverbial objects for both of the verbs  (خَرَجْتُ‏‮ ‬‬ and مَشَيْتُ), because the action falls on both of these objects which is the action of  الْـخُرُوجُ (leaving) and the action of الْـمَشِي (walking).  Both contain the meaning of the preposition فِي without the expression of it, because it is implied by الْيوْمَ and الْوَرَاءَ.  Similar examples are: جِئْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَذْهَبُ‏‮ ‬‬غَدًا‏‮ ‬‬(I came today and I am leaving tomorrow), قُمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬صَبَاحًا ونِمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬مَسَـآءً (I arose in the morning and slept in the evening), جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬حِذَاءَكَ‏‮ ‬‬ووَقَفْتُ‏‮ ‬‬قُدَّامَكَ (I sat across from you and I stood in front of you) and so forth

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَان (the adverb of time) is the noun which demonstrates time  – like when you say: الْيَوْمَ (today), اللَّيْلَةَ (tonight), غُدْوَةً (in the morning), بُكْرَةً (at dawn), سَحَرًا (at dawn), غَدًا (tomorrow/on the morrow), عَتَمًا (in the first third of the night), صَبَاحًا (in the morning), مَسَاءً (in the evening), أَبَدًا (always / never), أَمَدًا (briefly), and حِينًا (sometimes) and what is similar to these.  All of these nouns are in the case of naṣb because they are in the adverbial condition.  And so you say:‏‮ ‬‬أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَهَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بُكْرَةً (I came in the day and left in the evening).

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَان (the adverb of place) is the noun which demonstrates location  – like when you say:  أَمَــــامَ (across from / in front of), خَلْفَ (behind), قُدَّامَ (in front of), وَرَاءَ (behind), فَوْقَ (above), تَحْتَ (below), عِنْدَ (with), مَعَ (with), إِزَاءَ (face to face / opposite someone or something), حِذَاءَ (opposite / face to face with), تِلْقَاء (opposite / in front of), هُنَا (here),‏‮ ‬‬ثَمَّ (there) and what is similar to these.  And so you say: جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬أَمَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (I sat across from Zayd) and حِذَا عَمْرٍو (opposite ʿAmr) and تِلْقَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَيْتِ (in front of the house).  The rest of the adverbs of time are use in a similar manner.

(*note in ʿArabic)

الظرف هو الـمسمَّى الـمفعول فيه أيضًا فهو الـمـنصوب الواقع فيه الفعل متضمنًا معنى في‏‮ ‬‬دون لفظها فهكذا قلنا ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَان وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَان‏‮ ((‬‬منصوب على تقدير في‏‮ ‬‬دون لفظها‏‮)) ‬‬لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬معنى قولك أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيوْمَ‏‮ ((‬‬أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمِ‏‮))‬‬ ومعنى قولك جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ((‬‬جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَرِيبِ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْهُ‏‮)) ‬‬فلو لم‏‮ ‬‬يكن على معني‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬نحو انْتَطَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬يَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعِيدِ‏‮ ‬‬أو كانت‏‮ ((‬‬في‏‮)) ‬‬ظاهرةً‏‮ ‬‬نحو أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الصَّبَاحِ‏‮ ‬‬كان الأوّل منصوبًا على انه مفعولٌ‏‮ ‬‬به والثَّانِي‏‮ ‬‬مجرورًا بالحرف‏‮   ‬‬

(*note in English)

الظَّرْفُ (The adverb) is also known as الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬فِيهِ (the adverbial object).  It is the noun in the case of naṣb upon which the action of the verb falls and implies the meaning of the preposition فِي (in) without expressing it. Therefore, we  have  said, “ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِِ (the adverb of time) and ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِِِ (the adverb of place) are in the case of naṣb because of the implication of [the harf] فِي”. It means that what is being implied is the prepositions فِي (in) without it being expressed, because when you say: أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ (I came today) what you mean is أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمِ (I came in the day) and when you say:  جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (I sat with Zayd) what you mean is  جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَرَيبِ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْهُ (I sat in a place near him).  The preposition فِي is not implied however, if you say: أَنْتَطَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬يَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعِيدِ (I await the day of ‘Iid)  or when the word فِي comes in (a sentence) like:أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الصَّبَاحِ‏‮ ‬‬(I came in the morning). The word يَوْمَ in the first example is in the case of naṣb because it is the object of the verb and the word الصَّبَاحِ in the second example in the case of khafḍ because it is the object of the preposition.

Published in: on October 30, 2011 at 23:56  Comments (1)  

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 17 – (The Chapter About Al-Maṣdar [The Verbal Noun])

    بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَصْدَرِ

17 – (The Chapter About Al-Maṣdar [The Verbal Noun])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬الـْمَصْدَرُ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬الذِي‏‮ ‬‬يَجِىءُ‏‮ ‬‬ثَالِثًا فِي‏‮ ‬‬تَصْرِيفِ‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْلِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبًا وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬قِسْمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬لَفْظِيٌّ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَعْنَوِيٌّ‏‮ ‬‬فَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَافَقَ‏‮ ‬‬لَفْظُهُ‏‮ ‬‬لَفْظَ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلِهِ‏‮ ‬‬فََهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬لَفْظِيٌّ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَتَلَهُ‏‮ ‬‬قَتْلاً‏‮ ‬‬وَإَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَافَقَ‏‮ ‬‬مَعْنَى فِعْلِهِ‏‮ ‬‬دُونَ‏‮ ‬‬لَفْظِهِ‏‮ ‬‬فَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬مَعْنَوِيٌّ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬قُعُودًا وَقُمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَقُوفًا وَمَا أَشَْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮)‬‬

 English Translation:

الْـمَصْدَرُ (The verbal noun) هُـوَ (is) الإِسْـمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْـمَنْصُوبُ (the noun in the case of naṣb) الذِي‏‮ ‬‬يَـجِىءُ (which occurs as) ثَـالِـثًا (the third form) فِي‏‮ ‬‬تَـصْرِيفِ (in the conjugation of) الْـفِعْـــلِِ (the verb)  – نَـحْـــوُ (like when you say):  ضَـرَبَ (He beat…), يَضْرِبُ (He is beating…), ضَرْبًا (a beating).  وَهُـو (And it is) قِسْمَانِ (of two  kinds): لَـفْظِيّ (a noun that has a pronunciation that is similar [to the verb]) وَمَـعْنَوِيّ (and a noun that has a similar meaning [to the verb]). فَـإِنْ (If) وَافَقَ‏‮ ‬‬لَفْظُهُ (its pronunciation corresponds) لَفْظَ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلِهِ (to the pronunciation of its verb), فََـهُوُ (then it is) لَـفْظِيٌّ (a noun that sounds like the verb in its pronunciation)  – نَـحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬ (like when you say):  قَتَلَهُ‏‮ ‬‬قَـتْلاً (I killed him a killing)1 فَـإِنْ (but if), وَافَـقَ (it [the maṣdar’s meaning] corresponds) مَعْنَى فِعْلِهِ (with the meaning of its verb) دُونَ‏‮ ‬‬لَـفْظِهِ (but not its pronunciation), فَـهُوَ (then it is) معنـــويّ (a noun possessing a similar meaning [to the verb]) – نَـحْوُ (like when you say): جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬قُعُودًا (I sat a sitting)2  وَقُمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وُقُوفًا and (I stood a standing)3 وَمَا أَشَْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ (and what is similar to these).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الـمصدر هو الذي‏‮ ‬‬يقع ثالثًا فِي‏‮ ‬‬تصريف فعله وهو منصوب لأنَّه الـمفعول الـمطلق وهو الإسم الـمُسَـلِّط عليه عاملٌ‏‮ ‬‬وهو فعل مذكور معه والـمصدر قسمان لفظيّ‏‮ ‬‬ومعنويّ‏‮ ‬‬فالـمصدر اللّفظي‏‮ ‬‬نحو ضَرَبْتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبًا فضربًا مصدر منصوب وضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬هو عامله وهو موافق له في‏‮ ‬‬لفظه ومعناه وأمّا الـمصدر الـمعنويّ‏‮ ‬‬هو من ذات معنى عامله فقط نحو قَعَدْتُ‏‮ ‬‬جُلُوسًا فجلوسًا مصدر منصوب ومسّلط عليه عامله من معناه ولا من لفظه وهو قَعَدَ‏‮ ‬‬فإن جلوسًا موافق معنى‏‮ ((‬‬قعد‏‮)) ‬‬دون لفظه،‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـمَصْدَرُ (The verbal noun) is the noun which occurs as the third form in the conjugation of its verb.  It is in the case  of  naṣb, because  it  is  الْـمَفْعُول الْـمُطْـلَق (the unrestricted object) which is influenced by  عَـامِــــــلٌ (a governor).   Its governor is  فِعْــلٌ مَذْكُورٌ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَهُ (a verb that is mentioned with it).

الـمَصْدَر (The verbal noun) is of two kinds: لَـفْظِيُّ (a noun that has a similar pronunciation to the pronunciation verb) and مَـعْنَوِيٌّ (a noun having a similar meaning to the meaning of the verb).  الْـمَصْدَرُ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّفْظِيُّ (the noun having a similar pronunciation to the verb) is like when you say: ضَـرَبْـتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَـرْبًـا (I beat him a beating – that is to say: I beat him intensely).   And so ضَرْبًـا is a مَصْدَرٌ (a verbal noun) in the case of naṣb and the verb ضَـرَبَ is عَـامِـلُهُ (its governor) and that which agrees with it in its pronunciation and its meaning.

As for الْـمَصْدَرُ‏‮ ‬‬الـمَعْنَوِيُّ (a noun having a similar meaning to the verb), it is from the essence of the meaning of عَـامِـلُهُ (its governing verb).  It is like when you  say: قَـعَدْتُ‏‮ ‬‬جُـلُوسًـا (I sat a sitting [that is to say: I sat for a long time]).  And so, جُـلُوسًـا (sitting) is a مَـصْدَرٌ in the case of naṣb and عَـامّـلُهُ (its governor) has influenced its meaning but not its pronunciation.  It (الْـعَامِـلُ [the governor]) is قَـعَدَ (sat).  And so جُـلُوسًـا agrees in meaning with قَـعَدَ without having its pronunciation.

(*note in ʿArabic)

الـمصدر ما‏‮ ‬‬يؤكد عامله كضَرْبَتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبًا أو ما‏‮ ‬‬يبيّن نوعه كنَظَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَيْهِ‏‮ ‬‬نَظَرًا أو ما‏‮ ‬‬يبيّن عدده كضَرَبْتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبَتَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬

يسمّى الـمصدر مفعولاً‏‮ ‬‬مطلقًا أيضًا فسمّى مطلقًا لأنّه مفعولاً‏‮ ‬‬بدون قَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬إذْ‏‮ ‬‬تقول‏‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬‬ضَرَبْتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبًا فيكن ضَرْبًا نفس الفعل الذي‏‮ ‬‬فعلته وتقول‏‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬‬ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬خَالِدًا فإنّ‏‮ ‬‬خَالِدًا ليس نفس الفعل الذي‏‮ ‬‬فعلته بل فَعَلْتَ‏‮ ‬‬بِخَالِدٍ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلا وهو ضرْبًا ولذلك‏‮ ‬‬يسمّى خالِدًا مفعولاً‏‮ ‬‬به وإنّ‏‮ ‬‬الـمفعول الـْمُطْلَق فهو نفس ما فعله الفاعل‏‮ ‬‬

وقيل أيضًا‏‮ ‬‬يسمّى الـمصدر مطلقًا لانّه الـمفعول الذي‏‮ ‬‬لم‏‮ ‬‬يتقيد بحرف جرّ‏‮ ‬‬نحو الـمفعول‏‮ (( ‬‬به‏‮)) ‬‬والـمفعول‏‮ (( ‬‬معه‏‮ )) ‬‬والـمفعول‏‮ (( ‬‬فيه‏‮ )) ‬‬وقِسْ‏‮ ‬‬علي‏‮ ‬‬مُقَيِّدِ‏‮ ‬‬الـمفعول‏‮ ‬‬

(*note in English)

الَـمَصْدَرَُ (The verbal noun) can emphasizes عَامِله (its governing verb) like: ضَرَبْتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبًا (I beat him a beating – that is to say: “I beat him intensely”) or clarify (the kind of action) – like: نَـظَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَـيْهِ‏‮ ‬‬نَـظَرًا‏‮ ‬‬(I look at him a looking – that is to say: “I stared at him”) or show the number of times the action occurred like: ضَـرَبْـتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبَتَيْنِ (I beat him two beatings – that is to say: “I beat him twice”).

الْـمَصْدَرُ (The verbal noun) is also called الْـمَفْعُول الْـمُطْـلَق (the unrestricted object).  It is said to be مُـطْلَقًا (unrestricted), because it is an object without restriction.  When you say, ضَرَبْتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبًا (I beat him a beating), it is ضَرْبًا which is the essence of the action which you did.  Whereas if you say: ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬خَالِدًا (I beat Khaalid), خَالِدًا (Khaalidan) is not the essence of the action you did.  On the contrary, فَعَلْتَ‏‮ ‬‬بِخَالِدٍ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلاً (you did an action to خَالِدًا [Khaalid])  –  and that action is ضَرْبًا (a beating).  Therefore, it is for this reason Khaalid is called مَفْعُول بِهِ (a receiver of it) or an object.  الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُظْلَقُ (the unrestricted object), it is the essence of the action done to him by the doer.

It has also been said, that الْـمَصْدَرُ (The verbal noun) is called مُـطْلَقًا (unrestricted), because it is the object that is not restricted by حَـرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬جَرٍّ (a preposition) like when you say:الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬‏‮ ‬‬بِـهِ‏‮ ‬‬ِ‏‬  and  الـْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬مَـعْهُ‏‮ ‬ and ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬فِيهِ‏‬ and so forth which restricts the objects.

Footnotes:

1  قَتَلَهُ‏‮ ‬‬قَتْلاً I killed him a killing – meaning: I slaughtered him. 
2  جَلَسْتُ‏‮‬‬ قُعُودًا I sat a sitting – meaning: I sat for a very long time. 
3  قُمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وُقُوفًا I stood a standing – meaning: I stood for a long time.

Published in: on October 24, 2011 at 22:13  Leave a Comment  

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 16 – (The Chapter About Al – Mafʿuul Bihi [The Object of the Verb])

     بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَفْعُول بِهِ‏‮ ‬‬

16 – (The Chapter About Al – Mafʿuul Bihi [The Object of the Verb])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَهُو الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬الذِي‏‮ ‬‬يَقَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَرَكَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬قِسْمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬ظَاهِرٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَمُضْمَرٌ‏‮ ‬‬فَالظَّاهِرُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا تَقَدَّمَ‏‮ ‬‬ذِكْرُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـمُضْمَرُ‏‮ ‬‬قِسْمانِ‏‮ ‬‬مُتَّصِلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَمُنْفَصِلٌ‏‮ ‬‬فَالـْمُتَّصِلُ‏‮ ‬‬إِثْنَا عَشَرَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَنِي‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَنَا وَضَرَبَكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكِ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكمُا وَضَرَبَكُم‏‮ ‬‬ْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهَا وَضَرَبَهُمَا وَضَرَبَهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَهُنُّ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُنْفِصِلُ‏‮ ‬‬إِثْنَا عَشَرَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬إِيَّايَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬إِيَّانَا وَ‏‮ ‬‬إِيَّاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكِ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكُمَا وَإِيَّاكُمْ‏‮  ‬‬وَإِيَّاكُنَّ‏‮  ‬‬وَإِيَّاهُ‏‮  ‬‬وَإِيَّاهَا وَإِيَّاهُمَا وَإِيَّاهُمْ‏‮  ‬‬وَإِيَّاهُنَّ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَهُـــو (And it [الـْمَفْعُــــولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِـــهِ (the direct object)] is)  الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُـوبُ (the  noun  in  the  case  of naṣb)  الذِي‏‮ ‬‬يَقَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ (upon which falls) الْفِعْلُ (the action of the verb) – نَحْو (like  when  you  say): ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـــدًا (I beat Zayd) وَرَكَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ and (I mounted the mare).  وَهُو (It is) قِسْمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬ (of two kinds): ظَاهِرٌ (a distinct noun) وَمُضْمَرً (and a pronoun).   فَالظَّاهِرُ (And so the clearly distinct noun), مَا تَقَدَّمَ‏‮ ‬‬ذِكْرُهُ (is that which has already been mentioned previously) وَالْـمُضْمَرُ (and the   pronoun is) قِسْمَانِِِ (of two kind): مُـتَّصِلٌ (attached) and وَمُـنْفَصِلٌ (and detached).   فَالـْمُتَّصِــــلُ (And so the attached pronouns are) إِثْنَا عَشَرَ (twelve kinds): وَهِيَ (They are): ضَرَبَني (he beat me), وَضَرَبَنَا and (he beat us) وَضَرَبَكَ and (he beat you [masc. singular]) وَضَرَبَكِ and (he beat you [fem. singular]), ضَرَبَكُمَا and (he beat the two of you [two males or two females]) وَضَرَبَكُمْ and (he beat you  [three or more males]) وَضَرَبَكُنَّ and (he beat you [three or more females]) وَضَرَبَهُ and (he beat him) وَضَرَبَهَا  and (he beat her) وَضَرَبَهُمَا and (he beat the two of them) وَضَرَبَهُمْ and (he beat them – three or more males) وَضَرَبَهُنَّ and (he beat them [three or more females]).  وَالـْمُنْفِصِلُ (And the detached pronouns are) إِثْنَا عَشَر (twelve).  وَهِيَ (And they are): إِيَّايَ (I) وَإِيَّانَا and (we) وَإِيَّكَ and (you [masc. sing.]) وَإِيَّاكِّ and (you [fem. sing.]) وَإِيَّاكُمَا and (you [two males or two females]) وَإِيَّاكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬and (you [three or more males]) وَإِيَّاكُنَّ and (you [three or more females]) وَإِيَّاهُ and‏‮ ‬‬(he) وَإِيَّاهَا and (she) وَإِيَّاهُمَا and (they [two males or two females]) وَإِيَّاهُمْ and (they [three or more males]) وَإِيَّاهُنَّ and (they three or more females]).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

الـمفعول به هو الإسم الذي‏‮ ‬‬يقع عليه فعل الفاعل كقولك ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا ورَكَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬فزيدًا والْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬مفعولان بهما لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬قد وقع عليهما فعل الفاعل وهو الضَرْبُ‏‮ ‬‬والرُّكُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬فالـمفعول به قسمان ظاهر كزيد والفرس في‏‮ ‬‬الـمثالين الـمتقدمين ومضمر وهو‏‮ ‬‬ينقسم إلى متّصل ومنفصل وفالـمتّصل هو الياء ونا والكافات الخمسة وهي‏‮ ‬‬كَ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬كِ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬كُمَا‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬كُمْ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬كُن و الْهَاءاتُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَة وهي‏‮ ‬‬هُ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬هَا‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬هُمَا‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬هُمْ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬هُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬نحو قولك ضَرَبَنِي‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَنَا وَضَرَبَكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكِ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكُمَا وَضَرَبَكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهَا وَضَرَبَهُمَا وَضَرَبَهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهُنُّ‏‮ ‬‬فأما الضَّمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُنْفَصِل‏‮ ‬‬يدخله إِيَّا كقولك إِيَّايَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّانَا وَإِيَّاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكِ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكُمَا وَإِيَّاكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاهَا وَإِيَّاهُمَا وَإِيَّاهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاهُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬

فالياء ونا في‏‮ ‬‬إياى وإيانا حرفان دالاّن على الـمتكلِّم في‏‮ ‬‬الاول وعلى الـمتكلمين في‏‮ ‬‬الثّانى والكاف في‏‮ ‬‬ما بعد حرف خطاب والهاء في‏‮ ‬‬الخمسة الأخيرة حرف‏‮ ‬‬غيبة‏‮ ‬‬

وأمّا الأحرف اللاحقة للضمير متصلاً‏‮ ‬‬ومنفصلاً‏‮ ‬‬فهي‏‮ ‬‬للدلالة على معان مثلاً‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬الالف في‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَها وإِيَّاهَا للدلالة على الثّانيث في‏‮ ‬‬الـمفرد واالـميم والالف‏‮  ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبكُمَا وإِيَّاكُمَا وضَرَبَهُمَا وإِيَّاهُمَا للدلالة على التثنية مطلقًا في‏‮ ‬‬الـمذكّر والـمؤنّث والـميم في‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَكم وإِيَّاكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وضَرَبَهُمْ‏‮  ‬‬وإِيَّاهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬للدلالة على جمع‏‮     ‬‬الـمـذّكر والنّون الـمشدّدة في‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَكُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وإِيَّاكُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وضَرَبَهُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وإِيَّاهُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬لدلالة على جمع الإناث

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ (The direct object) is the noun upon which the action of الْفَاعِـــل (the doer) falls – like when you say: ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا (I beat Zayd) and  رَكَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ (I rode the mare). زَيْــدًا (Zayd) and الْفَـــرَسَ (the mare) are the الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬به of ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬ ‬(I beat) and رَكَبْتُ (I rode) because فِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَاعِلِ (the action of the doer) has fallen upon them, and it is the ‏‮ ‬‬الضَرْبُ (the beating) and‏‮ ‬‬الرُّكُوبُ (the riding).‏‮ ‬‬

الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ (The direct object) is of two kinds: ظَاهِرٌ (a clearly distinct noun) – like زَيْدٌ and الْفَرَسُ in the two previous examples and مُضْمَرٌ ( a pronoun) which is (also) divided between two kinds: مُتَّصِلٌ (attached) and مُنْفَصِلٌ (detached).  الـمُتَّصِلُ (The attached pronouns) are: الْيَاء = يَ and نَا and الْكَافَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْخَمَسَة (the five kaafs of the person being spoken to) and they are: كَ،‏‮ ‬‬كِِ،‏‮ ‬‬كُمَا،‏‮ ‬‬كُمْ،‏‮ ‬‬كُنَّ  and الْهَاءَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْخَمْسَة (the five haas of the person being spoken about) and they are: هُ،‏‮ ‬‬هَا،‏‮ ‬‬هَمَا،‏‮ ‬‬هُمْ،‏‮ ‬‬هُنَّ،. – like when you say:

 ضَرَبَنِي‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَنَا وَضَرَبَكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكِ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكُمَا وَضَرَبَكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهَا وَضَرَبَهُمَا وَضَرَبَهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهُنُّ‏‮     ‬‬

As for الضَّمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُنْفَصِلُ (the detached pronouns), they are prefixed with إِيَّ  – like when you say:

إِيَّايَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّانَا وَإِيَّاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكِ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكُمَا وَإِيَّاكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاهَا وَإِيَّاهُمَا وَإِيَّاهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاهُنَّ.

The yaa ( يَ ) and naa ( نَا ) in إيَّايَ and إِيَّانَا are two letters which are signs of الـْمُتَكَلِّم (the first person singular – the person speaking) in the first case and الـْمُتَكَلِّمُونَ (the first person plural) in the second..  الْكَافُ (The kaaf) in the next five (detached pronouns) is  حَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬اـْخِطَابِ (the letter for addressing the second person – the person being spoken to) and الْهَاءُ (the haa) in the last five is حَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْغَيْبَة (the letter for addressing the third person – the person absent from the conversation).

As for the affixed letters which belong to الْـمُتَّصِل (the attached pronouns) and الْـمُنْفَصِلُ (detached pronouns),   they are signs with meaning also.  For example, الأَلِفُ (the alif) in ضَرَبَهَا and إِيَّاهَا belongs to the signs of التَّأْنِيث (the feminine) in الْـمُفْرَد (the singular) pronoun; and الـْمِيم(the miim) and الأَلِفُ (alif) in ضَرَبكُمَا and إِيَّاكُمَا and ضَرَبَهُمَا and إيّاهما are all signs for التَّثْنِيَة (the dual) unrestricted in both الْـمُذَكِّر (the male) and الْـمُؤَنِّث (the female) pronoun; and  الْـمِيمُ in ضَرَبَكُمْ and إِيَّاكُــمْ and ضَرَبَهُــــمْ and إِيَّاهُــــمْ belong to the signs of  جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُذَكِّر (the masculine plural); and النُّونُ (the nuun bearing shaddah نّ) in ضَرَبَكُنَّ and إِيَّاكُنَّ and ضَرَبَهُنَّ and إِيَّاهُنَّ belong to the signs of جَمْع الإِنُاث (the feminine plural).

Published in: on September 24, 2011 at 18:26  Leave a Comment  

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 15 – (The Chapter About Al-Manṣuubaatu-l-Asmaa’i [The Nouns In The Case Of Naṣb])

   بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬مَنْصوُبَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَسْمَاءِ  

15 – (The Chapter About Al-Manṣuubaatu-l-Asmaa’i [The Nouns In The Case Of Naṣb])

ʿArabic Text: 

‏‮(‬‬الْـمَنْصُوبَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬خَمْسَةَ‏‮ ‬‬عَشَرَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمَصْدَرُ‏‮ ‬‬وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْحَالُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّمْيِيزُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـمُسْتَثْنَى وَاسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُـنَادَى وَالْـمَـفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْلِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـمَفْعُول مَعَهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَخََبَرُ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا وَاسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أخْوَاتِها وَالتَّابِعُ‏‮ ‬‬لِلْمَنْصُوبِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْبَعَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشْيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّعْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْعَطْفُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّوْكِيدُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْبَدَلُ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

الْـمَنْصُوبَاتُ (The nouns in the case of naṣb) خَمْسَةَ‏‮ ‬‬عَشَرَ‏‮ ‬‬ (are fifteen).  وَهِيَ (They are): الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ (the direct object) وَالْـمَصْدَرُ (and the verbal  noun), وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزّمَانِ (and the adverb time) وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ (and the adverb of place) وَالْـحَالُ (and the circumstantial noun) وَالتَّمْيِيزُ (and the accusative of specification) وَالْـمُسْتَـثْـنَى‏‮‬‬ (and the excluded noun) وَاسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ (and the noun of the laa [of negation for generic nouns]) وَالْـمُنَادَى (and the one who is addressed), وَالْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْلِهِ  (and the causative object)  وَالْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَهُ  (and the  object  that  accompanies the subject in the execution of an action) وَخَبْرُ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاِتهَا (and the predicate of kaana and its sisters) وَاسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا (the noun of inna and  its  sisters) وَالتَّابِعُ‏‮ ‬‬لِلْمَنْصُوبِ (and the  appositive for the nouns in the case of naṣb) وَهِي (and they are) أَرْبَعَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشْيَاءَ (four  things): النَّعْتُ (the adjective) الْعَطْفُ (the noun linked by the conjunction) التَّْوكِيدُ (the noun use for  emphasis) ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَدَلُ (and the noun used as the substitute).


Published in: on September 24, 2011 at 18:08  Leave a Comment  

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 14 – (The Chapter About Al-Badal [The Substitute])

   بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَدَلِ 

14 – (The Chapter About Al-Badal [The Substitute])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮ (‬‬إِذَا أُبْدِلَ‏‮ ‬‬اسْمٌ‏‮ ‬‬مِنِ‏‮ ‬‬اسْمٍ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلٌٌ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلٍ‏‮ ‬‬تَبِعَهُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬جَمِيعِ‏‮ ‬‬إِعَرَابِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْبَعَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَقْسَامٍ‏‮ ‬‬بَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّيءِ‏‮ ‬‬مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّيءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَبَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬البَعَضِ‏‮ ‬‬مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الْكُلِّ‏‮ ‬‬وَبَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِشْتِمَالِ‏‮ ‬‬وَبَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬الْغَلَطِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَخُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَكَلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّغِيفَ‏‮ ‬‬ثُلُثَهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَنَفَعَنِي‏‮ ‬‬زَيُدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عِلْمُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَرَأَيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬أَرَدْتَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَقُولَ‏‮ ‬‬رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬فَغَلَطْتَ‏‮ ‬‬فَاَبْدَلْتَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا مِنْهُ‏‮)‏‮

English Translation:

إِذَا أُبْدِلَ‏‮ ‬‬اسْم (When a noun is substituted) مِنِ‏‮ ‬‬اسْمٍ‏ (for a noun) أَوْ (or) ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْل (a verb [is substituted]) مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلٍ‏ (for a verb), تَبِعَهِ (it agrees with it [the word for which it has been substituted])  فِي‏  جَمِيعِ‏ (in all [aspects] of) إِعَرَابِهِ‏ (its inflection)وَهُوَ (And  it  [الْبَدَلُ – the substitute]  is) ‏أَرْبَعَةُ‏  أَقْسَامٍ (four kinds): بَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّيءِ (the substitute of something) مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّيءِ ([for its equivalent] from something) وَبَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬البَعَض (and the  substitute for  some) مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الْكُلِّ (from all) وَبَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِشْتِمَالِ (and the substitute for containment – [that is to say, the substitute of a thing for what it contains]) وَبَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬الْغَلَطِ (and the substitute for the mistake)  – ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلــِكَ‏‮ ‬‬(like when you say): ‏ قَامَ‏  زَيْدٌ‏  أَخُــــوكَ(Zayd  your  brother  stood)  and  وَأَكَلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّغِيفَ‏‮ ‬‬ثُلُثَهُ (I ate the bread a third of it) وَنَفْعَنِي‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عِلْمُهُ and (Zayd, his knowledge was beneficial for me)  رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا الْفَرَسَ  (I saw Zayd the mare)  and أَرَدْتَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَقُــولَ (you  wanted to say): رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الفَرَسَ I saw the mare),‏‮ ‬‬فَغَلَطْت (but you made a mistake)فَاَبْدَلْتَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا (and substituted زَيْدًا (Zayd) مِنْهُ (for it).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

 إن البدل هو التابع الـمقصود بالواسطة نحو جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَخُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬فأخوك بدل من زيد وهو الـمقصود في‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَجِيءِ‏‮ ‬‬والبدل‏‮ ‬‬يتبع الـمُبْدَل منه في‏‮ ‬‬جميع إعرابه وأقسامُهُ‏‮ ‬‬أربعة الأول بدلُ‏‮ ‬‬كلٍ‏‮ ‬‬من كلٍ‏‮ ‬‬أي‏‮ ‬‬مساوٍ‏‮ ‬‬من مساوٍ‏‮ ‬‬له كما في‏‮ ‬‬المثال الـمتقدم الثاني‏‮ ‬‬بدل بعض من كل أي‏‮ ‬‬بدل شيء بعض الْـمُبدَل منه نحو أَكَلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّغِيف ثُلُثَهُ‏‮ ‬‬الثالث بدل الاشتمال أي‏‮ ‬‬بدل شيء مما هو مشتمل عليه نحو‏‮ ‬‬ نَفَعَنِي‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عِلْمُهُ  الرّابع بدل الغَلَط أي‏‮ ‬‬بدل من الذي‏‮ ‬‬ذُكِرَ‏‮ ‬‬غلطًا نحو‏‮ ‬‬رَكبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬أردت أن تقول ركبْت الفَرَسَ فغلطت

Explanation in  English:

الْبَدَلُ (the substitute) is a تَابِعٌ‏‮ ‬‬مَقْصُودٌ (noun for whom the statement is indirectly (intended – [that is to say an intended noun which is mentioned as a substitute for the noun which precedes it)] – like when you say: جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أخُوكَ‏ (Zayd your brother has come). And so أَخُوكَ (your brother) is a substitute for ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْد(Zayd) and is the noun for which the verb ‏‮ ‬‬جَاء(he came) was intended.

الْبَدَلٌ (The substitute) agrees with it الْـمُبْدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْهُ (the noun for which it has been substituted) in all (aspects) of إِعْرَابِــــهِ (its  i’raab).   It (الْبَدَلٌ [The substitute]) is of four kinds.   The first is: بَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬كُلٍ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كُلٍّ (a substitution of each for each) – that is to say: ‏مُسَاوٍ‏  مِنْ‏  مُسَاوٍ‏  لَهُ (a substitution of one thing for its equivalent) – like what occurred in the above mentioned example.  The second is بَدَلٌ‏‮ ‬‬بَعْضٍ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كُلٍ (a substitution for some a whole amount) – that is to say: بَدَلٌ‏  شَيْءٍ‏  بَعْضِ‏  الـْمُبْدَلِ‏  مِنْهُ (a substitution of a thing which is part of what it was exchanged for)  –  like when you say:  أَكَلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّغِيفَ ثُلُثَهُ ( I ate the bread a third of it).  The third is بَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِشْتِمَالِ (the substitute for containment) that is to say: بَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬شَيْءٍ‏‮ ‬‬مِمَا هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬مُشْتَمَلٌ‏‮ ‬‬عليه (the substitution of a thing  for  what  it  contains)  –  like when you say:    نَفَعَنِي‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عِلْمُهُ (Zayd – his knowledge has been beneficial to me). The fourth is بدل الغَلَط (the substitution of a mistake) – that is to say:بدل من الذي‏‮ ‬‬ذُُكِرَ‏‮ ‬‬غلطًا (the substitution of the expression which was mentioned by mistake) – like when you say: ركبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا الْفَرَسَ (I rode Zayd the mare) and you wanted to say: ركبْتُ الفَرَسَ (I rode the mare), but you made a mistake (and substituted زيد for الفرس).

Published in: on June 15, 2011 at 18:19  Leave a Comment  

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 13 – (The Chapter About At-Tawkiid [The Emphasizing of the Noun])

 بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬التَّوْكِيدِ 

13 – (The Chapter About At-Tawkiid [The Emphasizing of  the Noun])

ʿArabic Text: 

(‬‬التَّوْكِيدُ‏‮ ‬‬تَابِعٌ‏‮ ‬‬لِلْمُؤَكَّدِ‏‮ ‬‬وَنَصْبِهِِ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَفْضِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَعْرِيفِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَيَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬بِاَلْفَاظٍ‏‮ ‬‬مَعْلُومَََةٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّفْسُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْعَيْنُ‏‮ ‬‬وَكُلٌّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَجْمَعُ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَوَابِعُ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْمَعَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬أَكْتَعُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَبْتَعُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَبْصَعُ‏‮ ‬‬تَقُولُ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬نَفْسُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَرَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬كُلَّهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْقَوْمِ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْمَعِينَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

التَّوْكِيدُ (The emphasis placed on a noun is) تَابِِعُ (a noun which comes after [and agrees with]) الـْمُؤَكِّدِ (the noun being emphasized) فِي‏‮ ‬‬رَفْعِهِ in (its rafʿ case) وَنَصْبِهِِ, (its naṣb case), وَخَفْضِهِ (its khafḍ case) وَتَعْرِيفِهِ and (its definiteness). وَيَكُونُ‏ (And it [التَّوْكِيدُ the  emphasizing of nouns]) is [done] بِاَلْفَاظٍ‏‮ ‬‬مَعْلُومَََةٍ (with well known expressions). وَهِي (And they are): النّفْسُ (self), وَاْلعَيْنُ, (self),‮ ‬‬وَكُلّ (each / all)  وَأَجْمَـــعُ and (all) وَتَوَابِعُ‏‮ ‬‬أَجمع (and the equivalent nouns for Ajmaʿu). وَهِي (And they are): أَكْتَعُ (altogether) وَأَبْتَعُ and (altogether) وَأََبْصَعُ and (altogether). تَقُولُ‏  (You say):  قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬نَفْسُهُ (Zayd stood himself) وَرَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬كُلَّهُمْ and (I saw the kinfolks – all of them) وَمَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْقَوْمِ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْمَعِينَ and (I passed by the kinfolks – all of them).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

‏التوكيد تابع‏‮ ‬‬يُذكَرَ‏‮ ‬‬توكيدًا لـما قبله ويكون تابعًا له في‏‮ ‬‬رفعه إن كان مرفوعًا وفي‏‮ ‬‬نصبه إن كان منصوبًا وفي‏‮ ‬‬خفضه إن كان مخفوضًا وفي‏‮ ‬‬تعريفه إن كان مَعْرِفَةً‏‮ ‬‬نحو جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬نَفْسُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬كُلُّهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬ورَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا نَفْسَهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْقَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬كُلَّهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬نَفْسِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَبِالْقَوْمِ‏‮ ‬‬كُلِّهِمْ‏‮ ‬‬فإن نَفْسُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وكُـلُّهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬تبعان لزيد والقوم في‏‮ ‬‬إعرابهما وفي‏‮ ‬‬تعريفهما وزيدًا والقوم معرفتان بالعلمية وال ونفسه وكلّهم معرفتان بإضافتهما إلى الضمير ومثله جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو عَيْنُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُومِنُونَ‏‮ ‬‬اَجْمَعُونَ‏‮ ‬‬ورَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عُمْرًا عَيْنَهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُومِنِينَ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْمَعِينَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِعَمْرٍو وَالـْمُومِنِينَ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْمَعِينَ‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

التَّوْكِيــدُ (the emphasis placed on a noun) is تَابِـــعٌ (s a noun expressed as emphasis for what is coming before it and it agrees with it (the noun) in رَفْعِهِ (its rafʿcase), نَصْبِـــهِ (its naṣb case) and خَفْضِهِ (its khafḍ case) and (تَعْرِيفِهِ) its definiteness – like when you say: جَاءَ‏  زَيْدٌ‏  نَفْسُهُ‏  وَالْقَوْمُ‏  كُلُّهُمْ‏  ([Zayd stood himself] and [the people – all of them]) and  رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا نَفْسَهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْقَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬كُـلَّهُمْ ([I saw Zayd himself] and [the kinfolks – all of them]) and مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬نَفْسِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْقَومِ‏‮ ‬‬كُلِّهِمْ ([I passed by Zayd himself] and [the kinfolks – all of them]). The words نَفْسُهُ and كُـلُّهُمْ agree with the words زَيْد and الْقَوْم in إِعْرَابِهمَاِ (their inflection) and تَغْرِيفِهِمَا (their definiteness). زَيْدٌ and الْقَوْمُ have been made definite by the fact that زَيْدٌ is عَـلَمِيَّة (a proper noun) and الْقَوْمُ has been made definite by  ‬اَلْ, while نَفْسُهُ and كُـلُّهُمْ are both definite, بِإِضَافِتهِمَا (because they have been placed in construct) with the pronoun – like when you say: جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو عَيْنُهُ‏‮  ‬‬وَالـْمُومِنونَ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْمَعُون ([ʿAmr came himself] and [all of the believers]), رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا عَيْنََهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُومِنِينَ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْمَعِينَ (I saw ʿAmr himself and all of the believers), and  مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِعَمْرٍ‏‮ ‬‬عَيْنِِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُومِنِينَ أَجْمَعِينَ ([I pass by ʿAmr himself] and [all of the believers]).

(*note in ʿArabic)

‏‬فأمّا أَكْتَعُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَبْتَعُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَبْصَعُ‏‮ ‬‬فمعناها أجمع وتتبع بناءه وتجيء بعده نحو جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ أَجْمَعُونَ‏‮ ‬‬أَكْتَعُونَ‏‮ ‬‬أو أَبْتَعُونَ‏‮ ‬‬أَو أَبْصَعُون‏‮ ‬‬

(*note in English)

As for أَكْتَعُ and أَبْتَعُ and أَبْصَعُ, they all mean أَجْمَعُ, they resemble أَجْمَعُ in their construction and they follow أجمع – like when  you say: جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ  أَجْمَعُونَ‏‮ ‬‬أَكْتَعُونَ‏‮ ‬‬أو أَبْتَعُونَ‏‮ ‬‬أو أَبْصَعُونَ (The kinfolks came, all of them).

Published in: on April 15, 2011 at 13:35  Leave a Comment  

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 12 – (The Chapter About Al-ʿAṭf [The Conjoining Of Words])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَطْفِ

12 – (The Chapter About Al-ʿAṭf  [The Conjoining Of Words])

ʿArabic Text:

( وَحُرُوُفُ‏  الْعَطْفِ‏  عَشَرَةٌ‏  وَهِيَ‏ الْوَاوُ‏  وَالْفَاءُ‏  وَثُمَّ‏  وَأََوْ‏  وَأََمْ‏  وَإِِمَّا وَبَلْ‏  وَلاَ‏ وَلَــكِنْ‏  وَحَتَّى فِي‏ بَعْضِ‏ الـْمَوَاضِعِ‏  فَإِنْ‏  عَطَفْتَ‏  بِهَا عَلَى مَرْفُوعٍ‏  رَفَعْتَ‏  أَوْ‏  عَلَى مَنْصُوبٍ‏  نَصَبْتَ‏  أَوْ‏  عَلَى مَخْفُوضٍ‏  خَفَضْتَ‏  اَوْ‏  عَلَى مَجْزُومٍ‏  جَزَمْتَ‏  تَقُولُ‏  قَامَ‏  زَيْدٌ‏  وَعَمْرٌو وَرَأَيْتُ‏  زَيْدًا وَعَمْرًا وَمَرَرْتُ‏  بِزيْدٍ‏  وَعَمْرٍو وَزَيْدٌ‏  لَمْ‏  يَقُمْ‏  وَلَمْ‏  يَقْعُدْ‏ )‏

English Translation:

وَحُرُوُفُ‏ ‬الْعَطْــفِ‏ ‬(And the conjoining particles are) عَشَرَةٌ (ten): وَهِيَ (They are): الْوَاوُ (and), وَالْفَاءُ (and so), وَثُمَّ (then), وَأَوْ (or), وَأَمْ (or), وَإِمَّا (or), وَبَلْ (but rather / on the contrary), وَلاَ (nor), وَلَـــكِنْ (but), وَحتَّى (until), فِي‏ ‬بَعْضِ‏ ‬الـْمَوَاضِعِ‏ ‬(in some places).  ‏ ‬فَإِنْ‏ ‬عَطَفْتَ‏ ‬بِهَا (And so, when you conjoin [words] with them), عَلَى مَرْفُوعٍ‏ ‬رَفَعْتَ‏ ‬(you apply the rafʿ case to a word that has been [conjoined to] a word in the case of rafʿ) أَوْ (or) عَلَى مَنْصُوبٍ‏ ‬نَصَبْتَ (you apply the naṣb case to a word that has been [conjoined to] a word in the case of naṣb) أَوْ (or) عَلَى مَخْفُوضٍ‏ ‬خَفَضْتَ (you apply the khafḍ case to a word that has been [conjoined to] a word in the case of khafḍ أَوْ (or) عَلَى مَجْزُومٍ‏ ‬جَزَمْتَ (you apply the jazm case to a word that has been [conjoined to] a word in the case of jazm.

تَقُولُ (You say): قَامَ‏ ‬زَيْدٌ‏ ‬وَ‏ ‬عَمْرٌو (Zayd and ʿAmr stood) وَرَاَيْتُ‏ ‬زَيْدًا وَ‏ ‬عَمْرًا  and (I saw Zayd and ʿAmr) وَ‏ ‬مَرَرْتُ‏ ‬بِزيْدٍ‏ ‬وَ‏عَمْرٍو and (I passed by Zayd and ʿAmr) زَيْدٌ‏ ‬لَمْ‏ ‬يَقُمْ‏ ‬وَ‏ ‬لَمْ‏ ‬يَقْعُدْ and (Zayd did not stand and he did not sit).

Explanation in ʿArabic:

 

االعطف اتباع الثاني‏‮ ‬‬للاول بواسطة حرف من حروف العطف ان حروف العطف عشرة و هي‏‮ ‬‬الْوَاوُ‏‮  ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬ثُمَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬إِمَّا وَ‏‮ ‬‬بَلْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬لَكِنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬حَتَّى في‏‮ ‬‬بعض المواضع فان عطِفت بها على مرفوع او على منصوب او على مخفوض رفعت المعطوف او نصبته او خفضته فتقول‏‮  ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬العطف على المرفوع جَاَء زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو على المنصوب رَأيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا و على المخفوض مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٍو و كذلك ان عطفت بها على المجزوم جزمت نحو لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَقُمْ‏‮ ‬‬و‏‮ ‬‬يَقْعُدْ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وهكذا احكامها كلها‏‮  ‬‬

 

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـعَطْفُ (The conjoining of words) is the joining of the second word to the first word (which immediately precedes it) by means of حَرْفٌ (a particle) from حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَطْفِ (the conjoining particles).  حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَطْفِ (The conjoining particles) are ten. They  are: الْـوَاوُ (and),  الْفَـــــاءُ (and so),  ثُـمَّ (then), ‏‮ ‬‬أَو(or),  أَمْ (or), إِمَّا (or), بَـلْ (but rather / on the contrary), لاَ (nor), لَــكِنْ (but) and حَـتَّى (until) in some places.  And so if you conjoin by them what is in the case of rafʿ, naṣb and khafḍ you put the conjoined word also in the case of rafʿ or naṣb or khafḍ. And so, you say في‏ العطف when (conjoining words) that  are in the case of rafʿ: جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَمْرُو (Zayd and ʿAmr came) and for what is in the case naṣb رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَعَمْرًا (I saw Zayd and ʿAmr) and for what is in the case of khafḍ مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْروٍ (I passed by Zayd and).  And it is like that if you conjoin by them (حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَطْفِ [the conjoining particles]) words in the case of jazm.  You put them in the case of jazm like when you say: زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬لَـمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَقُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَـمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَـقْعُدْ (Zayd didn’t stand and he didn’t sit) and similar are the rules for each of them.

 

(*note in ʿArabic)

إن حَتَّى لاَ‏‮ ‬‬تكون عاطفة إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬إذا أدخلت ما بعدها في‏‮ ‬‬حكم ما قبلها نحو أَكَـلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬السَّمَكَةَ‏‮ ‬‬حَتَّى رَأَسَهَا أي‏‮ ‬‬إن رَأَسَهَا ما كول أيضًا ونحو مَاتَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّاسُ‏‮ ‬‬حَتَّى الأَنْبِيَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬أي‏‮ ‬‬إن الأَنْبِيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الذين قد مَاتوا أيضًا وقد تكون‏‮ ‬‬غير عاطفة إذا لم تكن كذلك كما اذا خفضت الرّأس أو الأَنْبِيَاء بعدها و تكون حينئذ حرف جرّ‏‮ ‬‬بمعنى‏‮ “‬‬إِلى‏‮” ‬‬ويكون ما بعدها‏‮ ‬‬غير داخل في‏‮ ‬‬الحكم ما قبلها أي‏‮ ‬‬إن رأسها‏‮ ‬‬غير مأكول والأَنْبِيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬غير مِمَّنْ‏‮ ‬‬مات

(*note in English)

حتّى ([hattaa] – until) is not عَاطِف (a conjoining particle) unless it includes what comes after it in الْحُكْم (the decree) for what comes before it, (that is to say what has been decreed for the word preceding حَـتَّى [hattaa] must have also been decreed for the word that follows it) – like when you say: أَكِلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬السَّمَكَةَ‏‮ ‬‬حَـتَّى رَأَسَـهَآ –  (I ate the fish even its head – that is to say that its head was eaten also) and  مَــاتَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّاسُ‏‮ ‬‬حَتَّى الأَنْبِيَاءُ (The people died even the prophets – that is to say: the prophets died also). It is not a conjoining particle if it is not being used like this.  For example, if the word الرَّأْس which came after حَـتَّى was caused to be in the case of  khafḍ, in that case حَـتَّى will be a preposition with its meaning being إِلَـى (up to the time; until) and what comes after it is not included in the decree for what is coming before it – that is to say, that the head was not eaten and the prophets were not among those who died.

 

Published in: on March 22, 2011 at 19:18  Leave a Comment  

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 11 – (The Chapter About An-Naʿt [The Adjective])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬النَّعْتِ

11 – (The Chapter About An-Naʿt [The Adjective])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬النَّعْتُ‏‮ ‬‬تَابِعٌ‏‮ ‬‬لِلْمَنْعُوتِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬رَفْعِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَنَصْبِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَفْضِهِ‏‮  ‬‬وَتَعْرِيفِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَنْكِيرِهِ‏‮ ‬‬تَقُولُ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬العَاقِلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَرَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا الْعَاقِلَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَاقِلِ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

النّعت  تَابِعٌ‏‮ ‬‬لـِ (The adjective agrees with) الـْمَنْعُوت (the noun being described) فِي‏‮ ‬‬رَفْعِهِ (in its rafʿ case) وَنَصْبِهِ (and in its naṣb case) خَفْضِهِ (and in its khafḍ case) وَتَعْرِيفهِ (and in its definiteness) وَتَنْكِِـرهِ (and in its indefiniteness). ‏‮ ‬‬تَقُولُ(You say): قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَاقِلُ (The intelligent Zayd stood) وَرَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا الْعَاقِلَ (and I saw the intelligent Zayd) وَمَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَاقِلِ (and I passed by the intelligent Zayd).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

النعت تابع‏‮ ‬‬يدلّ‏‮ ‬‬على صفة من صفات منعوته وهو‏‮ ‬‬يتبع الـمنعوت في‏‮ ‬‬رفعه إن كان‏‮  ‬‬مرفوعًا وفي‏‮ ‬‬نصبه إن كان منصوبًا وفي‏‮ ‬‬خفضه إن كان مخفوضًا وفي‏‮ ‬‬تعريفه إن كان مَعْرِفَةً‏‮  ‬‬وفي‏‮ ‬‬تنكيره إن كان نكرة مثال ذلك في‏‮ ‬‬الرفع جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَاقِلُ‏‮ ‬‬وفي‏‮ ‬‬النّصب رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا الْعَاقِلَ‏‮  ‬‬وفي‏‮ ‬‬الخفض مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيدٍ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَاقِلِ‏‮ ‬‬ومثل ذلك جَاءَنِي‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬مَومِنٌ‏‮ ‬‬وفي‏‮ ‬‬النّصب أَكْرَمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلاً‏‮ ‬‬مُومِنًا ومَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬ِ‏‮ ‬‬بِرَجُلٍ‏‮ ‬‬مُومِنٍ‏‮  ‬‬فالعاقل ومومن نعت لزيد ورجل‏‮ ‬‬يتبعانهما في‏‮ ‬‬إعرابهما رفعًا ونصبًا وخفضًا والعاقل تابع لزيد في‏‮ ‬‬تعريفه ومومن تابع لرجل في‏‮ ‬‬تنكيره وقس على ذلك‏‮ ‬

Explanation of Text in English:

النَّعْتُ (the adjective) تَابِعٌ (is an appositive) which demonstrates صِفَــةٌ (a characteristic) from the صِفَاتٌ (characteristics) of مَنْعُوتِهِ (the noun it characterizes).  It follows the الْـمَنْعُوت (the characterized noun) in its  rafʿ case, if it is in the case of rafʿ, and in its naṣb case if it is in the case of naṣb, and in its khafḍ if it is in the case of khafḍ, and in its definiteness if it is definite,  and in its indefiniteness if it is  indefinite.   The example of this in the case of raf’ is: جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَاقِلُ (The intelligent Zayd has come);‏‮ ‬‬and in the case of naṣb: رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا الْعَاقِلَ (I saw the intelligent  Zayd);  `and  in  the  case  of   khafḍ:    مَـــرَرْتُ بِزَيــــــدٍ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَــــاقِلِ (I passed by the intelligent Zayd).  And similar to these you say:  جَاءَنِي‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬مَومِنٌ (a believing man came to me) in the case of rafʿ, and in the case of naṣb: أَكْرَمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلاً‏‮ ‬‬مُومِنًا (I honored a believing man) and in the case of khafḍ: مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِرَجُلٍ‏‮ ‬‬مُومِنٍ (I passed by a believing man) and so الْعَاقِل and مُومِن are attributes of زَيْدٍ and رَجُلٌ which agree with them in their iʿraab, in the case of rafʿ, naṣb and khafḍ and الْعَاقِل agrees with زَيْد  in its definiteness  and  مُومِـن  agrees  with رَجُل  in  its  indefiniteness and so forth.

(*note in ʿArabic)

التّوابع هي‏‮ ‬‬كل ثان تبع ما قبله في‏‮ ‬‬إعرابه وهي‏‮ ‬‬أربعة النّعت والعطف والتوكيد والبدل

(*note in English)

التَّوَابِعُ (The appositives) are every second noun which agrees with what comes before it in its iʿraab.  They are four (kinds): النَّعْتُ (the descriptive word),‏‮ ‬‬الْعَطْفُ (the conjoining word , التَّوْكِيدُ (the emphasizing word), and الْبدَلُ (the substitute word).

ʿArabic Text:

‮(‬‬وَالـْمَعْرِفَةُ‏‮ ‬‬خَمْسَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشَيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضْمَرُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنَا وَأَنْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَلَمُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَكَّةَ‏‮ ‬‬وَالإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُبْهَمُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬هَذَا وَهَذِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهَؤُلاَءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الِذي‏‮ ‬‬فِيهِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَلِفُ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللاَّمُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬الْغُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا أُضِيفَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَى وَاحِدٍ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬هَذِهِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَرْبَعَةِ‏‮)‬

English Translation:

وَالْـمُعْرِفَةُ (And the definite noun is) خَمْسَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشَيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬(five things): الْـمُضْمَرُ (the pronoun) – نَحْوُ (like) أَنَا (I) وَأَنْتَ and (you)‏‮ ‬‬وَالإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَلَمُ (and the proper noun) – نَحْوُ (like): زَيْدٌ (Zayd) وَمَكَّة and (Makkah) وَالإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُبْهَمُ (and the demonstrative pronoun) – نَحْوُ  (like): هَذَا (this – masc.), وَهَذِهِ and (this – fem.) وَهَؤُلاَءِ and (these – masc. & fem. pl.) وَالإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الِذي‏‮ ‬‬فِيهِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَلِفُ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَمُ (and the definite noun to which اَلْ has been prefixed) – نَحْوُ (like): الرَّجُلُ (the man) وَالْغُلاَمُ and (the servant)وَمَا أُضِيفَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَى (and that which has been constructed to) وَاحِدٍ‏‮ ‬‬(one) مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬هَذِهِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَرْبَعَةِ (of these four [above mentioned kinds]).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الـمَعْرِفَة هي‏‮ ‬‬ما وُضِعَ‏‮ ‬‬لِيدلّ‏‮ ‬‬علي‏‮ ‬‬شيء بعينه وأنواعها خمسة الأوّل‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬الإسم الـمضمر مثل أَنَا وأَنْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وهُوَ‏‮  ‬‬الثّاني‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬الإسم العلَم مثل زَْيد و فَاطِمَة ومَكَّة الثّالث‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬إسم الإشارة مثل هذا وهذه وهؤلآء الرّابع‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬الإسم الـمعرَّف بأَلْ‏‮ ‬‬مثل الفرس والفارس الخامس‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬ما أُضِيف الى كلٍ‏‮ ‬‬من هذه الأنواع الأربعة مثل‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِي‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وغُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬هذا وغُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَْجُلِ‏‮ ‬‬وهكذا النّكرة الـمضافة الى ما أُضِيف إلى أحد هذه الأنواع الأربعة نحو اِبْنُ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِي‏‮ ‬‬وابْنُ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وإلى آخره

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـمَعْرِفَةُ (the definite noun) is that word which has been constructed to indicate the individuality of a thing.  Its kind is five.  The first is  الْـمُضْمَــــرُ  (the pronoun) – like:  أَنَا وَأَنْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُوَ.  The second is الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬اْلعَلَمُ (the proper noun) – like زَيْد (Zayd) and فَاطِمَةُ (Faatimah) and  مَكَّةُ (Makkah).  The third is إِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الإِشَارَةِ (the demonstrative pronoun) – like: هَذَا وَهَذِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهَؤُلاَءِ.  The fourth is الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُعَرَّفُ‏‮ ‬‬بِال  (the definite noun prefixed with ال) like: الْفَرَسُ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَارِسُ.  The fifth is the noun which is joined to any of the other above mentioned four kinds  like: غُلاَمِي  (my servant)  and   غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (the servant of Zayd) and غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬هَذَا (the servant of this [one]) and غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلِ‏‮ ‬‬(the servant of the man). Thus the case is similar with the indefinite noun that has been constructed to a noun which has been joined to one of the four above mentioned  kinds: like اِبْنُ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِي ( The son of my servant) and اِبْنُ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (The son of the servant of Zayd) and so forth.

(*note in ʿArabic)

ن كل نكرة أُضِيفَت إلى أحد هذه الأنواع الأربعة تصير مَعْرِفَةً‏‮ ‬‬بإِضافتها إليها فغلام مثلاً‏‮ ‬‬نكِرة فإن أضفته إلى الضّمير فقلت‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِي‏‮ ‬‬صار معرفة و كذا إن اضفته إلى العَلَم الباقي‏‮

(*note in English)

Every indefinite noun that is constructed to one of the four kinds of definite nouns (mentioned above) becomes definite as a result of its construction to it (the definite noun).  And so غُلاَمٌ for example is indefinite, however if you construct it to the pronoun and say غُلاَمِي it becomes definite.  And similarly, if you construct it to the rest of the definite words (mentioned above it becomes definite).

ʿArabic Text:

‮(‬‬وَالنَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬كُلُّ‏‮ ‬‬اسْمٍ‏‮ ‬‬شَائِعٍ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬جِنْسِهِ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْتَصُّ‏‮  ‬‬بِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَاحِدٌ‏‮ ‬‬دُونَ‏‮ ‬‬ءَاخَرَ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَقْرِيبُهُ‏‮ ‬‬كُلُّ‏‮ ‬‬مَا صَلُحَ‏‮ ‬‬دُخُولُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَلِفِ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللاَّمِ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَيْهِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْفَرَسُ‏‮)‬

English Translation:

وَالنَّكِرَةُ (And the indefinite noun is) كُلُّ‏‮ ‬‬اسْمٍ‏‮ ‬‬شَائِعٍ (every common  noun) [wherein] ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬جِنْسِــهِ (in  its  class), ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْتَصّ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَاحِدٌ (one noun is not distinguishable) دُونَ‏‮ ‬‬آخَرَ (from another). وَتَقْرِيبُهُ (One of its characteristics is) [that]‏‮ ‬‬كُلُّ‏‮ ‬‬مَا صَلُحَ‏‮ ‬‬دُخُولُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَلِفِ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللاَّمِ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَيْهِ‏‮ ‬‬ (it is every noun for which the prefixing of اَلْ is allowed) – نَحْوُ (like when you say): الرَّجُلُ (the man) وَالْفَرَسُ (and t he mare).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن النّكرة هي‏‮ ‬‬كل اسم شائع في‏‮ ‬‬جنسه لا‏‮ ‬‬يختص به واحد دون‏‮ ‬‬غيره مثل رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬فإنه إسم شائع في‏‮ ‬‬جنس الرّجال لأنّه‏‮ ‬‬يطلق على كل فرد منهم و لا‏‮ ‬‬يختص به واحد دون‏‮ ‬‬غيره و علامة النكرة أن‏‮ ‬‬يصلح دخول أَلْ‏‮ ‬‬عليها نحو‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمٌ‏‮ ‬‬و فَرَسٌ‏‮ ‬‬فإنّهما‏‮ ‬‬يصلح دخول أَلْ‏‮ ‬‬عليهما فتقول الْغُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬و الْفَرَسُ‏‮ ‬

Explanation of Text in English:

النَّكِرَةِ (the indefinite noun) is every common noun among its kind.  One thing is not distinguished by it from another like رُجُلٌ.  And so it (رُجُلٌ) is a noun common to the species of men, because it applies to everyone of them while one is not distinguished from another.  The sign of the indefinite noun is that the prefixing of اَلْ is permissible for it – like (the words) غُلاَمٌ  and فَرَسٌ; the prefixing of اَلْ is permissible for them and so you say: الْغُلاَمُ and اَلْفَرَسُ.

Published in: on March 3, 2011 at 01:01  Leave a Comment  
%d bloggers like this: