Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 24 – (The Chapter About Al-Mafʿuul Min-Ajlih [Causative Object])

     بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَفْعُول مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْلِهِ

24 – (The Chapter About Al-Mafʿuul Min-Ajlih [Causative Object])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬الِذي‏‮ ‬‬يُذْكَرُ‏‮ ‬‬بَيَانًا لِسَبَبِ‏‮ ‬‬وُقُوعِ‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْلِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِجْلاَلاً‏‮ ‬‬لِعَمْرٍو وَقَصَدْتُكَ‏‮ ‬‬ابْتِغَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مَعْرُوفِكَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَهُوَ (It [al-mafʿuul min-ajlih – the causative object]) الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَنْصُوبُ (is the noun in the case of naṣb) الِـذي (which) يُـذْكَرُ‏‮ ‬‬بَـيَانًـا (is mentioned to clarify) لِسَبَبِ‏‮ ‬‬وُقُوعِ (the reason for the occurrence of an action) – ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‬(like when you say): قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِجْـلاَلاً‏‮ ‬‬لِـعَمْرٍو (Zayd stood respectfully for ʿAmr) وَقَـصَدْتُـكَ‏‮ ‬‬ابْـتِغَـــاءَ‏‮ ‬‬معَْرُوفِـكَ and (I came to you seeking your kindness).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

الـمفعول من أجله هو ما وفعه الفعل كقولك قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِجْلاَلاً‏‮ ‬‬لِعَمْرٍو وَذَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬شَوْقًا إِلَيْكَ‏‮ ‬‬وهو الإسم الـمنصوب الذي‏‮ ‬‬يُذكر بيانًا لسبب وقوع الفعل الصادر من الفاعل فإن إِجلالاً‏‮ ‬‬قد ذُكِر بيانًا لسبب الْقِيَام وشوقًـــا‏‮ ‬‬ذُكِر بيانًا لسبب الذَّوْب و لذلك سُمِّي‏‮ ‬‬الـمفعول لأجله أي‏‮ ‬‬الإسم الذي‏‮ ‬‬فُعِل الفعل لأجله لأن القيام في‏‮ ‬‬الـمثال الأوّل إنّما صدر من زيد لأجل إجلال عَمْرٍو و الذَّوْب في‏‮ ‬‬الـمثال الثّاني‏‮ ‬‬صدر لسبب الشّوق‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْلِهِ (The causative object) is the noun upon which the action falls – like when you say: قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬إِجْـلاَلاً‏‮ ‬‬لِـعَمْرٍو‏‮ ‬‬‏‮ ‬‬ (Zayd stood respectfully for ʿAmr and ذَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬شَوْقًا إِلَيْك (I am pining away with longing for you); and it is the noun in the case of naṣb which is mentioned to clarify, the reason for the occurrence of an action which emanates/originates from the doer. And so إِجْـلاَلاً [respectfully] has been mentioned to clarify the reason for الْـقِيَام [the standing].  While شوقًـــا‏‮ ‬‬ [longing] has been mentioned to clarify the reason for الذَّوْب (the pining).  It is for this reason it is called الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬مِـنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْـلِه (the causative object) – that is to say that the noun which has the action done لأَِجْـلِه (because of it), because القيام [the standing] which has been mentioned in the first example emanated from Zayd due to إجْـلالُ‏‮ ‬‬عَـمْرٍو (respect for Amr) and الذَّوْب [the pining] mentioned in the second example occurred as a result of الشَّوْق [the longing]).

Arabic Grammar – Chapter 1 – الْفِعْلُ (The Verb) and وأَقسَامُهُ (and Its Parts) Section 2

Section 2 – الْـمْتَعدِّي‮ ‬ (The Transitive Verb) ‮ ‬واللاَّزِم(and Intransitive Verb)

The Arabic verb in respect to its meaning is divided betweenالْفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬ (The transitive verb) and اللازِم (the   intransitive verb).

الْفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬ (The Transitive Verb)

The action of الْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬ (The transitive verb) is traced back to فاعْـله (its doer) and directed towards الْـمَفْعول بِهِ (it’s direct object), like when you say:فَتَحَ‮ ‬طَارِقٌ‮ ‬الأَنْدَلُسَ‮ ‬ (Tāriq conquered al-Andalus). And so the verb needs the doer to do the action and the direct object to receive it.

الْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬(The transitive verb) is also called الْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـوَاقِـعُ‮ ‬(The  verb of occurrence or happening) because its action falls upon or happens to الْـمَفْعول بِـهِ (the direct object for it).

الْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬(The transitive verb) is also referred to as الْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمُجَاوَزَةُ‮ ‬(The crossing verb) because the action of its doer crosses over to الْـمَفْعول بِـهِ (the direct object). One of its signs is that it comes in contact‮ ‬with هَـاء of the attached pronoun which replaces الْـمَفْعول بِـهِ (the direct object). اجْتِهَادُ‮ ‬الطَّالبِ‮ ‬فأَكْرََمَهُ‮ ‬أُسْتَاذُهُ (The student worked hard, and so his professor honored him).

As for the هَـاء of the attached pronoun which replaces الْـظَّرْفُ (the adverb) and الْـمَصْدَر (the verbal noun), it is not a sign of الْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬ (the transitive verb) when it is affixed to the end of the verb.  The example of the هَـاء of the attached pronoun which replaces الْـظَّرْفُ (the adverb) is like when you say: يَومُ‮ ‬الْـجُمُعَةِ‮ ‬زُرْتُهُ‮ ‬(The Day of Jumuʿah is when I visited him). تَـجَـمَّلْ‮ ‬بِـالْـفَضِيلَةِ‮ ‬تـَجَـمُّلاً‮ ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬يَتَجَـمَّلُهُ‮ ‬سَـلَفُكَ‮ ‬الصَّالِـحُ (adorned yourself greatly with moral excellence,  which your righteous predecessor used to adorned himself with). And so,  in the first example the هَـاء of the attached pronoun is standing in the place of a noun in the case of naṣb which is  الْـمَفْعول بِـهِ (the direct object), while in the second example the هَـاء of the attached pronoun is standing in the place of a noun in the case of naṣb which is مَفْعولُ‮ ‬مُطْلَقٍ (the unrestricted object) also called الْـمَصْدَر (the verbal noun).

‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬بِنَفْسِهِ‮ ‬(The Transitive Verb That Comes by Itself) وَالْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬بِغَيْرهِ‮ ‬ (and the Transitive Verb that Comes with Something Else)

‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬بِنَفْسِهِ‮ ‬(The transitive verb that comes by itself) is the verb that comes in direct contact with الْـمَفْعول بِـهِ (the direct object) without a حَـرْفُ‮ ‬الْـجَـرُّ (preposition) standing in between the verb and the object, like when you say: بَـرَيْـتُ‮ ‬الْـقَلَمَ‮ ‬ (I made the pen), and its object is said to be صَـرِيـحًا (clear, unambiguous).

‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬بِـغَيْرِهِ‮ ‬(The transitive verb that is accompanied) is the verb that comes in contact with الْـمَفْعول بِـهِ (the direct object) by means of حَـرْفُ‮ ‬الْـجَـرُّ (the preposition) which stands between the verb and the object, like when you say: ذَهَـبْتُ‮ ‬بِـكَ‮ ‬ (I went away with you),  meaning أَذْهَـبْتُكَ‮ ‬ (I took you away with me) and its object is said to be  غَيْرُ صَـرِيـحٍ (unclear).

There isالْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬ (the transitive verb) that has two direct objects. One of them is  صَـرِيـحًا (clear, unambiguous) and the other is  غَـيْرُ صَـرِيـحٍ (unclear, ambiguous), like when you say: أَدُّوا الأمَانَاتِ‮ ‬إِلَى أَهْلِهَا ‬ (They took/delivered what they were entrusted with to its owner). الأمَـانَـاتِ is مَـفْعول بِـهِ (a direct object) صَـرِيـحٌ (which is clear, unambiguous), while أَهْلِ is a direct object which  غَيْرُ صَـرِيـحٍ (is not clear). It is is clearly expressed in the case of jarr due to حَـرْفُ‮ ‬الْـجَـرُّ (the preposition), and it’s standing in the place of a noun in the case of naṣb, because the fact that it is مَـفْعول بِـهِ (a direct object) غَيْرُ صَـرِيـحٍ (is not clear).

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 1 – Letters, Words and Sentences
 
 
 
 
 
 
and The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ(Speech) in the Arabic Language
 



Arabic Grammar – Chapter 1 – الْفِعْلُ (The Verb) and وأَقسَامُهُ (and Its Parts) Section 1

Section 1 – The Discussion Aboutالْـمَاضِـي‮ ‬(The Past Tense Verb), الْـمُضَارِعُ‮ ‬(The Present Tense Verb), الأَمْرُ‮ ‬ (The Command Tense Verb)

With respect to time, the verb is divided into: the الْـمَاضِـي‮ ‬ (the present tense verb), الْـمُضَارِعُ‮ ‬ (the past tense verb), الأَمْرُ‮ ‬ (the command tense verb).

 الْـمَاضِـي‮ ‬ (The past tense verb) is a word which in itself shows the meaning of something which has occurred in past time, like the words: اِجْتَحَـدَ‮ ‬,‮ ‬جَـاءَ and تَـعَلَّمَ. The signs that distinguish the past tense verbs are: تَـاء التَّأنِـيثِ‮ ‬السَّاكِـنَةِ‮ ‬ (the feminine taa which bears sukuun), like when you say:كَتَـتْ‮ ‬ or تَـاء الضَّمير‮ ‬ (the taa of the pronoun doer), like when you say:‮ ‬كَتَـبْـتُمْ‮ ‬,كَتَبْـتُمَا‮ ‬,كَتَـبْـتِ‮ ‬,كَتَـبْـتَ‮  ‬,كَتَبَـتْ‮ ‬and كَتَبْـتُـنَّ.

الْـمُضَارِعُ‮ ‬ (The Present Tense Verb) is that which in itself shows the meaning of something which most likely will occur in the present or in the future, like the words: يَجْتَحِـدُ‮ ‬,‮ ‬يَـجِـيءَُ and يَـتَـعَلَّمُ. Among the signs that distinguish the present tense verbs are: لَنْ  , لَمْ , سَوفَ , سَ , like when you say: لَنْ‮ ‬أَتَأَخَّرْ  , لَمْ‮ ‬أَكْسِلْ , سَوفَ‮ ‬يَـجِـيءَُ.

الأَمْـرُ‮ ‬ (The Command Tense Verb) is the verb which demonstrates that an action is sought from the second person doer (you) by way of a command or order, like when you say: اِجْتَحِـدْ‮ ‬,‮ ‬جِـيءَْ and تَـعَلَّمْ. The signs that distinguish the command tense verbs depends on the form pattern of the verb, and in addition, the affixing of ي to the end of the verb to denote the second person feminine doer, like when you say: اِجْتَحِـدي.

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 1 – Letters, Words and Sentences
and The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ(Speech) in the Arabic Language

Arabic Grammar – Chapter 1 – الْفِعْلُ (The Verb) and وأَقسَامُهُ (and Its Parts) Section  2 – الْـمْتَعَدِّي‮ ‬ (The Transitive Verb) ‮ ‬واللاَّزِم(and Intransitive Verb)

‮ ‬ Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 6 -أحْكَام ‬الإعْرَاب ‬ (Rules of Inflection)

أحْكَام ‬الإعْرَاب ‬ (Rules of Inflection)

الْـمُعْرَبُ‮ ‬بالْـحَرَكَة ‬ (The Word  That is Inflected with the Vowel) and الْـمُعْرَبُ‮ ‬بِالْـحَرْف (The Word That is Inflected with the Letter)

 There are two kinds of الْـمُعْرَبَـات (Inflected words): words that are inflected with vowels and words that are inflected with letters. There are four kinds of words that are inflected with vowels: الْإِسْمُ الْـمُفْرَدُ (the singular noun), جَمْعُ التَّكْسِيرِ (the broken plural noun), جَمْعُ الْـمُؤَنِثِ السَّالِمِ  (the sound feminine plural noun), and الْفِعْلُ الْـمُضَارُ الَّذِي لَمْ يَتَّصِلْ بِآخَرِهِ شَيْءٌ (the present tense verb which does not have anything affixed to its end [that is necessary for its construction]).

All of the above mentioned words are in the case of rafʿ by ḍammah, in the case of naṣb by fatḥah, in the case of jarr by kasrah and in the case of jazm by sukuun. The exception to this rule is: the noun which is not fully inflective which is in the case of jarr by fatḥah, like when you say: صَـلَّى اللهُ‮ ‬عَـلَى إِبْرَاهِمَ; and the sound feminine plural which is in the case of naṣb by kasrah, like when you say: أَكْرِمْتُ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَحِدَاتِ‮ ‬, and‮ ‬the present tense verb which has a weak letter affixed to its end. It is caused to be in the case of jazm by dropping the weak letter, like when you say لَمْ‮ ‬يَخْشَ‮  (‬يَخْشَــى‮)‬ ‮ ‬ولَمْ‮ ‬يَـمْشِ‮  (‬يَـمْشِــي‮)‬  ولَمْ يَغْزُ)‮ (‬يَغْزُو‮)‬ا.

There are also four kinds words which are inflected with letters: الْـمُثَنّى وَالْـمُلْحَق بِهِ (the dual noun and what is annexed to [follows] it), جَمْعُ‮ ‬الْـمُذَكِّرِ‮ ‬السَّالِمِ‮ ‬وَالْـمُلْحَقُ بِهِ (the sound masculine plural and what is annexed to [follows] it), الْأَسْـمَاءُ‮ ‬الْـخَـمْسَةُ (the five nouns) and الأَفْعَالُ‮ ‬الْـخَـمْسَةُ  (the five verbs).  The five nouns are: أَبُو وَأخُو وَحَمُو وَفُو وَذُو. The five verbs are: يَذْهَبَانِ‮ ‬وَتَذْهَبْانِ‮ ‬وَيَذْهَبُونَ‮ ‬وَتَذْهَبُونَ‮ ‬وَتَذْهَبِينَ. More explanation of all of these in the sections that explain the inflection of verbs and nouns.

  The Divisions of الإعْرَابُ‮ ‬ (the Inflection of Words)

There are three types ofالإعْـرَابُ‮ ‬ (word inflection): اللَـفْظِيّ ‬(expressed inflection), تَـقْدِيريّ‮ ‬ (implied inflection) and ‮ ‬مَحَـلْيّ (inflection due to the word’s location).

 الإعْـرَابُ‮ ‬اللَـفْظِيّ‮ ‬ (Expressed Inflection)

 الإعْـرَابُ‮ ‬اللَـفْظِيّ‮ ‬ (Expressed inflection) is a clear signed placed at the end of the word due to the governor that precedes it. Expressed inflection is found in inflective words that are not weak at the end.  For example: يُكْرِمُ‮ ‬الأُسْتَاذُ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَحهِدَ.

 الإعْـرَابُ‮ ‬التَّـقْدِيريّ‮ ‬ (Implied Inflection)

 الإعْـرَابُ‮ ‬التَّـقْدِيريّ‮ ‬ (Implied inflection) is a sign not clearly seen at the end of the word due to the governor that precedes it. The vowel at the end of the word is implied because it can’t be expressed. They are words which are weak because they have alif, waaw or yaa affixed to their end. andالإعْـرَابُ‮ ‬التَّـقْدِيريّ‮ ‬ (implied inflection) is also found in the nouns that are in iḍaafah with the yaa of the first person masculine pronoun, and in a word used for illustration or example when  not a sentence.الإعْـرَابُ‮ ‬التَّـقْدِيريّ‮ ‬(Implied inflection) is also found in any fixed word or sentence that is said to haveالإعْـرَابُ‮ ‬التَّـقْدِيريّ‮ ‬(implied inflection).

‮ ‬إعْرَابُ‮ ‬الْـمُعْتِلِّ‮ ‬الآخَرِ‮ ‬(Inflection of Words That are Weak at the End)

It is not possible to affix any of the three vowels to alif maqsuurah, for example: يَقْضِي‮ ‬الْقَاضِي‮ ‬عَلَى الّهُدَى لِلعُلَى. The meaning of not possible is that it is not possible for the three signs of inflection: ḍammah, fatḥah, and kasrah, to be affixed to alif maqṣuurah.

As for the case of jazm, alif maqṣuurah is  dropped as a sign of jazm, like when you say: لَمْ‮ ‬يَخْشَ‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬اللهَ.

As for waaw and yaa, ḍammah and kasrah are impicit for them because they are burdensome on the tongue if expressed, and so you say: يَقْضِي‮ ‬الْقَاضِي‮ ‬عَلَى الْـجَانِي‮ ‬ and ‮ ‬يَدْعُو الدَّاعِي‮ ‬إِلَى النَّادِي

What is meant by the term burdensome on the tongue is that the affixing of ḍammah and kasrah to waaw and yaa is possible, like  if you say: يَقْضِيُ‮ ‬الْقَاضِيُ‮ ‬عَلَى الْـجَانِي‮ ‬ and‮ ‬يَدْعُوُ‮ ‬الدَّاعِيُ‮ ‬إِلَى النَّادِي‮ ‬but it is a burden on the tongue  that is greatly disliked. This is the reason why both ḍammah and kasrah are implied rather than expressed. That is to say, that the possibility of their expression is understood, but not done.

إعْرَابُ‮ ‬الْـمُضَافِ‮ ‬إِلَى‮ ‬يَاءِ‮ ‬الْـمُتَكَلَّمِ‮ ‬ (The Inflection of the Noun That is in an Iḍaafah Construction with the Yaa First Person Pronoun)

The noun that is in an iḍaafah construction with the first person pronoun is inflected (as long as it doesn’t end with alif maqṣuurah, or  it is not a defective noun, or a dual noun or a sound masculine plural noun). It is in the case of rafʿ or naṣb by either an implied ḍammah or fatḥah the end which cannot appear at the end of the nouns in the case of rafʿ or naṣb, because the kasrah (which is the vowel that corresponds with yaa)  must be used, like when you say: ‮ ‬رَبِّيَ‮ ‬اللهُ and أَطَعْتُ‮ ‬رَبِّي.

As for the case of jarr, it is known by placing kasrah clearly at the end of a noun according to what is most correct, like when you say:  الزِّمْتُ‮ ‬طَاعَةَ رَبِّي. This is the opinion/view of a group of the recognized/competent grammarians, among whom is Ibnu Mālik, while The majority of them agree that it is inflected, and also in the case of jarr at the end by an implied kasrah. This is because they are of the opinion that the kasrah which appears at the end is not a sign of jarr, but rather, it is the kasrah which accompanies the yaa of the first person singular pronoun when it is affixed to a noun, while the kasrah of the case of jarr is implied.

If the noun in an iḍaafah with the yaa of the first person singular pronoun is affixed with alif maqṣuurah as a final vowel, the alif remains in its condition, and is inflected with implied vowels on the alif maqsuurah in the same manner it would have been inflected before the yaa of the first person singular pronoun would have been affixed to it, and so you say: هَـذِه عَـصَايَ‮ ‬ and تَـوَكَّأَْتُ‮ ‬عَـلى عَـصَايَ. If the noun is defective, then its yaa is assimilated into the yaa of the first person singular pronoun.

The noun in the case of naṣb is inflected with an implied fatḥah because the sukuun of assimilation is prevented from appearing on it, and so you say: حَـمِدْتُ‮ ‬اللهَ‮ ‬مُـعْطِيّ‮ ‬الرِزْقَ

The noun in the case of rafʿ and jarr is inflected by implied ḍammah and kasrah on its yaa, which are prevented from appearing on either of them because the first is heavy on the tongue and the second is the sukuun of assimilation, and so you say: ‮ ‬اللهَ‮ ‬مُـعْطِيّ‮ ‬الرِزْقَ and ‮ ‬شَكَرْتُ‮ ‬لِـمُـعْطِيّ‮ ‬الرِزْقَ.

Some of the recognized/competent grammarians are of the opinion/view that the appearance of ḍammah and kasrah on the defective letters that are in an iḍaafah with the yaa of the first person singular pronoun are prohibited whenever it is the sukuun of assimilation, and  it’s a similar case when it is the case of naṣb.

Aṣ-Ṣibaan has said in the chapter about the yaa of the first person singular pronoun, according to the one explaining the point of grammar about هَـذَا رَامِـي, that رَامِـي is in the case of rafʿ by an implied ḍammah on the the letter that precedes the yaa of the first person singular pronoun which is prevented from appearing on letter, because its place is occupied by the sukuun that is required because of assimilation and not because of the weightiness of expression. It would be same even if this wasn’t the case. This is due to the fact that prosody necessitates sukuun in this case with what is stronger than the burdensome vowels, which is the assimilation of the letters.

 It would be same even if this weren’t the case, due to the fact that prosody necessitates sukuun in this case, with of what is stronger than burdensome vowels, which is the assimilation of the letters.

As for the dual noun, its alif remains in its condition, like when you say: هَـذَانِ‮ ‬كِتَابَايَ,  the yaa of the dual noun, it is assimilated into the yaa of the first person singular pronoun like when you say: عَلَّمْتُ‮ ‬وَلَدَىَّ.

If is the sound masculine plural, its waaw [like in the word مُـعَلِّمُــونَ] is converted to a yaa which is assimilate into the yaa of the first person singular pronoun, like when you say: مُـعَلِّمِــيَّ‮ ‬يُـحِبُّونَ‮ ‬أَدَبِـي.

As for its yaa,  [like in the word مُـعَلِّمـيــنَ], it is also assimilated into the yaa of the first person singular pronoun also. like when you say: أَكْرِمْتُ‮ ‬مُـعَلِّمِـيَّ.

The dual noun and the sound masculine plural noun are inflected when they are in an iḍaafah construction with the yaa of the first person singular pronoun by the letters in the same manner they were inflected before they were put in an iḍaafah construction with it. As you saw.

إعْرَابُ‮ ‬الْـمَحْكِيِّ‮  ‬ (The Inflection of The Exact Quotation)

الـحِـكَايَـة (The exact quotation) is the quotation of what you have heard or read. It is the exact quotation of a word or a sentence, and the speech from either of these is repeated exactly as it has been expressed, even if it’s a grammatical mistake and the exact quotation of it is necessary in order to point out the mistake.

 الـحِـكَايَـة (The exact quotation) is like when some has said: كَـتَبْتُ‮  ‬يَـعلَمُ‮ ‬(I wrote, “يَـعلَمُ”), meaning I wrote this word.

يَـعلَمُ  is  normally a present tense verb in the case of rafʿ, and therefore ungoverned  by the particles of naṣb and jazm.  In the above example يَـعلَمُ is a exact quotation and therefore it is the object of the verb  كَـتَبْتُ, but its inflection is implied because the real vowels of inflection cannot appear on a exact quotation.

If you say: كَـتَبَ‮ ‬فِـعْلٌ‮ ‬مَاضِـي, the word كَـتَبَ in this case is a exact quotation, and it is the subject of the sentence in the case of rafʿ by an implied ḍammah which cannot appear on a exact quotation.

If it is said to you  give an explanation of the inflection of the word سَـعِيدًا ‬ when you have said: رَأَيْـتُ سَـعِيدًا, in turn you say:‮ ‬سَـعِيدًا الْـمَفْعُولُ‮ ‬بِـهِ, you quote the expression exactly in the case of naṣb, even though in your statement سَـعِيدًا is the subject of the sentence and الْـمَفْعُولُ‮ ‬بِـهِ is the predicate, except that سَـعِيدًا has an implied ḍammah at its end, because a vowel of inflection cannot appear at the end of a exact quotation, That is to say, whatever is exactly quoted by you remains fixed in the construction on the way it was quoted.

The word is quoted exactly  after  من الإستفهامية‮ ‬ (man which is used for clarification) if it is not preceded by a conjunction like when you say: رَأَيْتُ‮ ‬خَالِدًا and someone says: مَـن خَـالِـدًا, however if it preceded by a conjunction the exact quotation of it is not permitted, rather you should say: وَمَن خَالِدٌ؟

The sentence that is exactly quoted is like when you say: قُـلْتُ‭:‬‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬إِلـاـه إِلاَّ‮ ‬الله‮ ‬(I said),‮ ‬, سَمِعْتُ‭:‬حَيِّ‮ ‬عَلَى الصَّلاةِ‮ ‬(I heard), قَرَأْتُ‭:‬قُلْ‮ ‬هُوَ‮ ‬اللهُ‮ ‬أَحَدٌ (I read), كَتَبْتُ‭:‬اسْتَقِمْ‮ ‬كَمَا أُمِـرْتَ(I wrote). These sentences are exact quotations standing in the place of a noun in the case of naṣb due to the verbs that precede them, and therefore they are inflected according to their position in the sentence.

The rule regarding a sentence is that it is fixed in its construction, and if it is governed by a governor, then it is standing in the place of a noun that is either in the case of rafʿ, naṣb or jarr, depending on the governor, unless it can’t be inflected.

إعْرَابُ‮ ‬الْـمَسَمَى بِهِ‮  ‬ (The Inflection of a Word That Has Been Given a Name)

When you mention a word that is fixed in its construction, then you should leave it in its case, and its inflection is implied for all three cases.

If you name a man رُبَّ or مَنْ or حَيْثُ, and so you say: جَاء رُبَّ‮ . ‬أَكْرِمْتُ‮ ‬حَيْثُ‮ . ‬أَحْسَنْتُ‮ ‬إِلَـى مَـنْ, the vowels of inflection are implied at the end of them. A vowel of inflection is prohibited from appearing  on a word that has a fixed vowel as part of its root construction.

It is similar if you name a sentence like: تَأْبِطَ‮ ‬شَرًا‮ ‬and جَادُ‮ ‬الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬ you‮ ‬didn’t change it because of the unusual inflection and so you say: جَاءَ‮ ‬تَأْبِطَ‮ ‬شَرًا‮ . ‬أَكْرِمْتُ‮ ‬جَادَ‮ ‬الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬the inflection of the unusual construction is implied. A vowel of inflection is prohibited from appearing  on a word that has a fixed vowel as part of its root construction.‮ ‬

إعْرَابُ‮ ‬الْـمَحَلِّي‮ ‬ (The Inflection of a  Part of Speech By Virtue of its Location in the Grammatical Construction)

The inflection of a part of speech by virtue of its location in the grammatical construction is a relative change due to the governor that proceeds that part of speech, but this change is neither expressed or implied, because it is found in words fixed in their construction, like when you say:  جَاءَ‮ ‬هَؤُلاَءِ‮ ‬التِّلْمِيذُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬وأَكْرَمْتُ‮ ‬مَنْ‮ ‬تَعَلَّمَ‮ ‬وَأَحْسَنْتُ‮ ‬إِلَى الذِينَ‮ ‬احْتَهَدُوا لَمْ‮ ‬يَنْحَجّنَّ‮ ‬الْكَسْلاَنُ.

It is also found in sentences that are exactly quoted. There has already been a discussion about it. The vowels of inflection do not appear at the end of the fixed construction because they are fixed in a specific case.

When word fixed in its construction is in the case of rafʿ, naṣb, jarr, or jazm, its case of rafʿ, naṣb, jarr, or jazm is in consideration of its location.  It’s inflection is called the inflection of location in view of the fact that the word is standing in the place of a word that would either be in the case of rafʿ, naṣb, jarr, or jazm. and therefore it is said that the case of rafʿ, naṣb, jarr, or jazm is due to the location. That is to say, with respect to its location in the sentence), in as much as if its location is permitted to be inflected in the case of rafʿ, naṣb, jarr, or jazm.

The particles, the command tense verb, the past tense verb which is not preceded by a conditional sign of the case of jasm, the verbal nouns and the interjections do not have an expressed, implied or locational change at their end, and it is for this reason, it is said, that there is no form of inflection for them.

As for the present tense verb which is fixed in its construction, its inflection  which is based on its location is either rafʿ, naṣb or jazm, like when you say: هَـلْ‮  ‬يَكْتُبَنَّ‮ ‬وَيَكْتُبْنَ‮ ‬وَاللهُ‮ ‬لَنْ‮ ‬يَكْتُبَنَّ‮ ‬وَلَنْ‮ ‬يَكْتُبْنَ‮ ‬لَمْ‮ ‬يَكْتُبَنَّ‮ ‬وَلَمْ‮ ‬يَكْتُبْنَ.

As for the past tense verb which is preceded by a conditional sign of the case of jasm, it is in the case of jasm due to its location, like when you say: إِنَ‮ ‬اجْتَهَدَ‮ ‬عَـلِيٌّ‮  ‬اكْرَمَهُ‮ ‬مُعَلِّمُهُ.

Inflection Summary

There are four kinds of inflectional words: مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (subject), مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (predicate), فَـضْلَة‮ ‬ (The word that is used in addition to words normally used), and أَدَاة‮ ‬ (particle).

مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (Subject) and مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (predicate) have been previously discussed. Each of them is called a support word because it is one of the parts of speech which cannot under any condition stand independently from it, nor is a sentence complete without it. the example of مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (predicate) and مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (subject) is like when you say: الصِّدْقُ‮ ‬أَمَانَة.

مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (The predicate) is always a noun, like the word: نَافِعٌ‮ ‬ when you say: الْعِلْمُ‮ ‬نَافِعٌ‮ ‬ and the verbal noun, like when say: هيَهَاتَ‮ ‬الْـمَزَارُ‮ ‬ and a verb: جَاء الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬وَزَهَقَ‮ ‬الْبَاطِلُ.

إعْرَابُ‮ ‬الْـمُسْنَدِ‮ ‬إِلَيّهِ‮ ‬  (Inflection of the Subject)

The rule for مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (subject) is that it is always in the case of rafʿ if occurs without a governor, like when you say: فَازَ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَهِدُ‮ . ‬الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬مَـنْصُورُ‮ . ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬عُـمْرُ‮ ‬عَـادِلاً, unless it occurs after the particle إِنَّ and its sisters. As for when that occurs, the rule is that مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (subject) should be in the case of naṣb, like when you say: إِنَّ‮ ‬عُمْرَ‮ ‬عَادِلٌ‮ .‬

إعْرَابُ‮ ‬الْـمُسْنَدِ‮ ‬ (Inflection of the Predicate)

The rule for مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬(predicate) is that it is always in the case of rafʿ also, like when you say: السَّبِقُ‮ ‬فَائِزٌ‮ . ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬الْحَقَّ‮ ‬غَالِبٌ, ‮ ‬unless it occurs after the particle كَـانَ and its sisters.‮ ‬As for when that occurs, the rule is that مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬(subject) should be in the case of naṣb, like when you say:‮  ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬عَلِيٌّ‮ ‬بَابَ‮ ‬مَدِينَةِ‮ ‬الْعِلْمِ.

If the مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (predicate) is a past tense verb, then it is always fixed in its construction on the vowel fatḥah, like: انْـتَصَرَ, unless the waaw of the of the third person plural, fixed in its construction on ḍammah is affixed to the end of it, like: انْـتَصَرُوا‮ ‬or when the past tense verb has affixed to its end, a doer pronoun fixed in its construction on sukuun, like: انْـتَصَرْتُ‮ . ‬انْـتَصَرْتُمْ‮ . ‬انْـتَصَرْنَا.

If the مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (predicate) is a present tense verb, then it is always in the case of rafʿ, like: يَـنْـصُرُ, unless it is preceded by a particle of naṣb, in which case it will be in the case of naṣb, like when you say: لَـنْ‮ ‬تَـبْلُغَ‮ ‬الْـمَجْدَ‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬بِالْـجِدِّ,‮ ‬or it is preceded by a particle of jazm, in which case it will be in the case of  jazm, like when you say:  ((لَـمْ‮ ‬يَلدْ‮ ‬وَلَمْ‮ ‬يُولَدْ)), and if it is preceded by one of the nuuns used for emphasis, it is constructed on fatḥah, like  when you say: يَجْتَحِـدْنَ‮ ‬and‮ ‬يَجْتَحِـدَنَّ, or if it is preceded by the nuun of femininity, it is constructed on sukuun, like when you say: الْفَتيَاتُ‮ ‬يَجْتَحِدْنَ.

If the مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (predicate) is a command tense verb, it is always constructed on sukuun, like: أُكْـتُبْ, unless it is weak at the end, then is fixed in its construction on the dropping of the last letter, like when you say: إِسْـعَ‮ ‬and أَدْعُ‮ ‬and إِمّـشِ, or if the alif of the dual doer or the waaw of the plural doer or yaa of the second person doer is affixed to it, then the command tense verb is constructed with the dropping of nuun, like when you say:  أُكْـتُبَا‮ ‬ and‮ ‬أُكْـتُبُوا‮ ‬and‮ ‬أُكْـتُبِي.

الْفَضْلَةُ‮ ‬وَإعْرَابُهَا‮ ‬ (The Additional/Surplus Word in a Sentence and the Inflection of It )

الْـفَـضْلَة‮ ‬ (The word that is used in addition to the words normally used) is any noun that is used to complete the meaning of a sentence, and it is not a principle or support word for the sentence. That is to say, it is not مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (predicate) or مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (subject), like  أُكْـتُبْ‮ ‬ when you say:  آَرْشَـدَ‮ ‬الأَنبِيَاءُ‮ ‬النَّاسَ, and so آَرْشَـدَ is مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬(predicate) and الأَنبِيَاءُ is مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (subject)‮ ‬and النَّاسَ is الْـفَـضْلَة‮ ‬ (the word that is used in addition to words normally used). That is because النَّاسَ is noun that is used to complete the meaning of a sentence. This type of noun is referred to as الْـفَـضْلَة (the additional word), because it is an increase of  a word to مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬(predicate) or مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬(subject).  In the Arabic language الْـفَـضْل (surplus /additional amount) means الزِّيَادَة‮ ‬(increase/ addition/more than what is needed).

The rule in regards to الْـفَـضْلَة is that it is always in the case of naṣb when it occurs, like when you say: يَحْتَرَمُ‮ ‬النَّاسُ‮ ‬العُلَمَاءَ‮ . ‬أَحْسَنْتُ‮ ‬إِحْسَانًا‮ . ‬طَلَعْتُ‮ ‬الشَّمْسُ‮ ‬صَفِيَةً‮ . ‬جَاءَ‮  ‬التَّلاَمِيذُ‮ ‬إِلاّ‮ ‬عَلِيًّا‮ . ‬سَفَرْتُ‮ ‬يَوْمَ‮ ‬الْـخَمِيسِ‮ . ‬وَجَلَسْتُ‮ ‬أَمَامَ‮ ‬الْـمِنْـمبَرِ‮ . ‬وَقَفَ‮ ‬النَّاسُ‮ ‬احْتِرَامًا لِلعُلَمَاءِ, unless it occurs after the particle of jarr or as  the second member of an iḍaafah construction, then the rule is that الْـفَـضْلَة is in the case of jarr, like when you say:  كَتَبْتُ‮ ‬بِالْقَلَمِ‮ ‬and‮ ‬قَرَأْتُ‮ ‬كَُتُبَ‮ ‬التَّارِيخِ.

A noun is not permitted to be both فـضْلَة (a surplus word) and عْـمْدَة (a support word). However, it is permitted to be in the case of rafʿ and naṣb, like in the case when الْـمُستَثْنَى (the exclude now) is part of a negative statement in whichالْـمُستَثْنَى مِـنْهُ‮ ‬ ‬(the noun from which another noun is excluded) has been mentioned like when you say:مَـا جَـاءَ‮ ‬أَحَـدٌ‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬سَـعِيدٌ‮ ‬وَإِلاِ‮ ‬سَـعِيدًا.‮ ‬ If you take in to account the meaning of this sentence, you could put what comes after إِلاَّ in the case of rafʿ, in order to trace it back to the action, because there is no arriver if it is traced back to‮ ‬أَحَـدٌ. The arrival is traced to the noun سَـعِيد and connected to it. If you consider the expression another time, you can also put سَـعِيد in the case of naṣb, because when it is expressed it is also فَـضْلَة (a surplus word), because the sentence has a subject and predicate without it.

If الْـمُستَثْنَى مِـنْهُ is mentioned and the statement is affirmative, then the  noun  that comes after إِلاَّ must be in the case of naṣb, because it is فَـضْلَة (an additional word), like when you say: جَـاءَ‮ ‬الْقَوْمُ‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬سَـعِيدًا.

If الْـمُستَثْنَى مِـنْهُ is dropped from the statement, it should be put in the case of rafʿ, like when you say: مَـا جَـاءَ‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬سَـعِيدٌ, because it is مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬(subject), and it should be put in the case of naṣb, like when you say: مَـا رَأَيْتُ‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬سَـعِيدًا, because it is فَـضْلَة (a additional word), and it should be put in the case of jarr like when you say: مَـا مَرَرْتُ‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬بِسَـعِيدٍ, because it is occurs after a particle of jarr.

الأَدَاة‮ ‬ (The Auxiliary Particle)

الأَدَاة‮ ‬ (The auxiliary particle) is a word which is inserted between two parts of a sentence or between the parts and الْـفَـضْلَة (additional words) or between two sentences, like the conditional particle, the interrogative particle, particle of specification, particle of desire, particle of hope/anticipation, the particles that cause the present verb to be in the cases of of naṣb and jazm, and the particles of jarr and others.

The rule for الأَدَاة‮ ‬(the auxiliary particle) is that its end stays in one condition, because it is fixed in its construction at the end.

When الأَدَاة‮ ‬ (the auxiliary particle) it is a noun, it can be the مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (a subject), like when you say: مَـنْ‮ ‬مُجْتَهِـدٌ؟, and  it can be the مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (predicate) ‮ ‬like when you say: خَـيْرُ‮ ‬مَالِـكِ‮ ‬مَا أَنْفَقْتَهُ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬سَـبِيل الْمُصْلَحَة الْعامَة, and  it can be فَـضْلَة (an additional word), like when you say:  احْترِمِ‮ ‬الَّذِي‮ ‬يَطْلُبُ‮ ‬الْعِلمَ،‮ ‬اتق شَرَّ‮ ‬مَنْ‮ ‬أَحْسَنْتَ‮ ‬إِلَيْهِ.

Sometimes, the inflection ofالأَدَاة‮ ‬ (the auxiliary particle) is the case of rafʿ, naṣb and jarr due to its location in the sentence.

and The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ(Speech) in the Arabic Language

Section 2 – الْـمْتَعَدِّي‮ ‬ (The Transitive Verb) ‮ ‬واللاَّزِم(and Intransitive Verb)


Published in: on April 24, 2012 at 14:17  Leave a Comment  
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Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 23 – (The Chapter About Al-Munaadaa [The Noun in Direct Address])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُنَادَى

23 – (The Chapter About Al-Munaadaa [The Noun in Direct Address])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬الـْمُنَادَى خَمْسَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْوَاعٍ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُفْرَدُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَلَمُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالنَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَقْصُودَة وَالنَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُالـْمَقْصُودَةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـمُضَافُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُشَبَّهُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالـمُضَافِ‏‮ ‬‬فَأَمَّاالـْمُفْرَدُ‏‮ ‬‬العَلَمُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالنَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَقْصُودَةُ‏‮ ‬‬فَيُبْنَيَانِ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى الضَّمِّ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرِ‏‮ ‬‬تَنْوِينٍ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬يَا زَيْدُ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬يَا رَجُلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالثَّلاَثَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَاقِيَةُ‏‮ ‬‬مَنْصُوبَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

الْـمُنَادَى (The noun in direct address)خَمْسَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْوَاعٍ‏‮ ‬‬ (is of five kinds) الْـمُفْرَدُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَلَمُ (the singular proper noun) وَالنَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَقْصُودَةُ and (the indefinite noun for whom the call is intended) وَالنَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬غَـيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَقْصُودَةِ and (the designated indefinite‏‮ ‬‬noun for whom the call is not intended)‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـمُضَافُ and (the constructed noun) الـْمُشَّبَه‏‮  ‬‬بِالْـمُضَافِ and (the noun which resembles الـمضاف [the construct noun]).  As for‏‮ ‬‬فَأَمَّاالـْـمُفْرَدُ‏‮ ‬‬العَلَمُ (the singular proper noun) وَالنَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَقْصُـودَةُ‏‮ ‬‬ and (the indefinite noun for whom the call is intended), فَيُبْنَيَانِ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى الضَّـــمِّ (it is constructed on the ḍammah) مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرِ‏‮ ‬‬تَنْوِيـــنٍ (without tanwiin)  –  نَحْوُ (like when you say): يَا زَيْــــــدُ‏‮ ‬‬(Oh Zayd!) وَيَا رَجُلُ. and (Oh man!). وَالثَّلاَثَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَاقِيَةُ (And the remaining three) are in the case of naṣb لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُ (only).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

الـمنادي‏‮ ‬‬هو الـمطلوب إِقباله بِيَا النّداء أو بإحدى أخواتها وهو خمسة أنواع أوّلها الـمفرد العلم نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا زَيْدُ‏‮ ‬‬والثّاني‏‮ ‬‬النّكرة الـمقصودة بالنّداء دون‏‮ ‬‬غيرها وإن كان‏‮ ‬‬يرفع بضمَّة نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا رَجُلُ‏‮  ‬‬تريد به رجلاً‏‮ ‬‬مْعيّـنـًا‏‮  ‬‬و إن كان‏‮ ‬‬يرفع بألاف أو بالواو نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا زَيْدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬و‏‮ ‬‬يَا زَيْدُونَ

‏‬الثّالث النّكرة الغير الـمقصودة بالنّداء نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا رَجُلاً‏‮ ‬‬لغير مُعيَّن والرّابع الـمضاف نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا عَبْدَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهِ‏‮ ‬‬والخامس الـمشَّبه بالـمضاف نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا طَالِعًا جَبَلاً‏‮ ‬‬وهذه الأنواع الخمسة‏‮  ‬‬التي‏‮ ‬‬ذكرت تنقسم إلى قسمين أحدهما‏‮ ‬‬يكون مـبْـنِيّـًا على الضّمّ‏‮ ‬‬بغير تنوين والآخر‏‮ ‬‬يكون منصوبًا فالذي‏‮ ‬‬يبنى على الضم هو الـمفرد العَلَم والنّكرة الـمقصودة نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا زَيْدُ‏‮ ‬‬و يَا رَجُلُ إذا قصدت به رجلاً‏‮ ‬‬مُعَـيَّـنًا والذي‏‮ ‬‬يُنصَب هو النّكرة الغير الـمقصودة نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا رَجُلاً إذا أردت به فردًا من أفراد الرجال‏‮ ‬‬غير معيّن والـمضاف نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا عَبْدَاللَّهِ‏‮ ‬‬والـمشبه بالـمضاف نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا طَالِعًا جَبَلاً‏‮  ‬‬

وأمَّا الـمشبه بالـمضاف فهو ما اتّصل به شيء من تمام معناه نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا حَسَـنًا فِعْـلُهُ‏‮ ‬‬و يَا سَامِيًا بِرُّهُ‏‮ ‬‬فإنَّ‏‮ ‬‬حسنًا وسَامِيًا‏‮ ‬‬يَتَعلَّقُ‏‮ ‬‬معناهما بما بعدهما أي‏‮ ‬‬بفعله وبِرُّهُ‏‮ ‬‬إذ لو لم‏‮ ‬‬يُذكر ما بعدهما لم‏‮ ‬‬يكن معناهما كلامًا بخلاف الـمضاف فإنه ليس كذلك لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬الغلام في‏‮ ‬‬قولك‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬لا‏‮ ‬‬يتعلَّق معناه بما بعده‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English: 

الـْمُنَادَى (The noun in direct address) is the noun which represents someone or something being summoned.  It is precede byحَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬النِّدَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬‏‭:‬‬ (the particle of summoning‏‮ ‬‬= يَا) or أَخْوَاتِه (its sisters).  الْـمُنَادَى (The noun in direct address) is of five kinds: the first is الـْمُفْرَدُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَلَمُ (the singular proper noun) – like when you say: يَا زَيْدُ (Oh Zayd!), the second  is النَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَقْصُودَة (the indefinite noun intended) by the call  /  summoning  and  no  one  else.  If it is in the case of rafʿ by ḍammah,  it like when  you  say: يَا رَجُلُ (Oh Man!) – when you wish to call a particular man, and if it is in the case of rafʿ with alif or waaw, it is like when you say: يَا زَيْدَانِ ( Oh two Zayds!) and يَا زَيْدُونَ (Oh Zayds! – three or more), the third  is النَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الغَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَقْصُودَةُ (the designated  indefinite  noun  unintended) – like when you say: يَا رَجُلاً  – when .you are not calling a particular person, the fourth is الـمضاف (the construct noun) like when you say:  يَا عَبْدَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهِ  (Oh! Abdullaahi), the fifth is that which resembles الـْمُضَاف (the construct noun) like when you say:  يَا طَالِعًا جَبَلاً (Oh! Mountain climber).

These five kinds of الْـمُنَادَى  are (further) divided into two types. One of them is مَـبْـنِيّـًا عَلَى الضَّمِّ‏‮ ‬‬بِغَيْرِ‏‮ ‬‬تَنْوِينٍ  (constructed on a fixed ḍammah without tanwiin at its end) and the other is ‏‮ ‬‬مَنْصُوبًا (in the case of naṣb [without tanwiin].  As for the one that is constructed on ḍammah it is الْـمُفْرَدُ‏‮ ‬‬اْلعَلَمُ (the singular definite noun) and النَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَقْصُودَةُ (the indefinite noun for whom the call is intended) – like when you say: يَا زَيْدُ and يَا رَجُلُ  if you intend to summon a particular man.

As for الـمُنَادَى (noun in direct address) in the case naṣb, they are النَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْغَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَقْصُـــودَةُ (the unspecified indefinite noun) – like when you say: يَا رَجُلاً  if you are summoning any man – no one in particular and  الـْمُضَــــــافُ (the constructed noun)- like when you say: يَا عَبْدَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهِ.

As for الْــمُشْبِه بالْـمُضَــافُ (what resembles the constructed noun), it is like when you say: يَا طَالِعًا جَبَلاً (Oh Climber of a mountain), and  like when you say: يَا حَسَنًا فِعْـلُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ (Oh he whose actions are good) and  يَا سَامِيًا بِرُّهُ (Oh he whose righteousness is high).

And so حَسَنًا and سَامِيًا, their meanings are connected to the nouns that follow them, which are فِعْـلُهُ and بِرُّهُ.  If these words are not mention, then the meaning of what is being stated is not speech. .Unlike الْـمُضَاف, it is not like that, because the word  غُلاَم ( for instance) in the phrase غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ is not linked in meaning to the word coming after it.

Published in: on April 24, 2012 at 01:55  Leave a Comment  
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Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 22 – (The Chapter About Laa)

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ

22 – (The Chapter About Laa)

‏‮ ‬‬ʿArabic Text: 

‏‮(‬‬إِعْلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬أَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬تَنْصِبُ‏‮ ‬‬النَّكِرَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬بِغَيْرِ‏‮ ‬‬تَنْوِينٍ‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا بَاشِرَتِ‏‮ ‬‬النَّكِرَةَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬تَتَكَرَّرْ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬فَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬تُبَاشِرْهَا وَجَبَ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّفْعُ‏‮ ‬‬وَوَجَبَ‏‮ ‬‬تَكْرَارُ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬فَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَكَرَّرَتْ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮  ‬‬جَازَ‏‮ ‬‬إِعْمَالُهَا وَإِلْغَاؤُهَا فَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬شِئْتَ‏‮ ‬‬قُلْتَ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرأَةَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬شِئْتَ‏‮ ‬‬قُلْتَ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةٌ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

إِعْلَمْ (Know), that لاَ (laa) تَنْصِبُ‏‮ ‬‬النَّكَرَاتُ (causes the indefinite nouns to be in the case of naṣb) بِغَيْرِ (without) التَّنْوِيــــنِ (adding the nuun sound to the end of the noun),  إِذَا بَاشِرَتِ (when it [لا – laa] comes in contact with) النّكرة (the indefinite noun) وَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬تَتَكَرَّرْ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ (and is not repeated) – نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬ like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ (there is no man in the house).

‏‮ ‬‬فَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬تُبَاشِرْهَا (If it [لَا – laa]) does not come in contact with it [النّكرة – the indefinite noun]), وَجَبَ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّفْعُ (the case of rafʿ is required) وَوَجَبَ‏‮ ‬‬تَكْرَارُ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ (and لاَ must  be  repeated)  نَحْـــــوُ  (like when you  say): لاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِــي‏‮ ‬‬الــدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةٌ (No man nor woman are in the house).

‏‮ ‬‬ فَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَكَـــرَّرَتْ‏‮ ‬‬لا(If لاَ is repeated),  جَازَ‏‮ ‬‬إِعْمَالُهَا وَإِلْغَاؤُهَا (the use and non-use of [the case of naṣb] is permitted.  فَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬شِئْتَ (So if you wish), قُلْتَ (you can say): لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُـــلَ‏‮ ‬‬فِـي‏‮ ‬‬الــدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرأَةَ (No man nor woman are in the house);  وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬شِئْتَ (and if you wish),  قُلْتَ (you can say): لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأةٌ.

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

لاَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّافِيَة هي‏‮ ‬‬الحرف التي‏‮ ‬‬يُرادَُ‏‮ ‬‬بها نفي‏‮ ‬‬الجنس على سبيل التـنصيص أي‏‮ ‬‬أنها تنفي‏‮ ‬‬الجسم الدّاخلة عليه نفيًا عامًا حتى لا‏‮ ‬‬يجوز أنْ‏‮ ‬‬يُستـثـنى واحد من أفـراده كقولك لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ فإنّ‏‮ ‬‬لا فيه نافية لجسم الرّجال حتى لا‏‮ ‬‬يجوز أنْ‏‮ ‬‬تقول بل رجلان وهي‏‮ ‬‬تعمل عمل إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬فتنصب الـمبتدأ إسمًا لها وترفع الخبر خبرًا لها ولا فرق في‏‮ ‬‬هذا العمل بين الـمفردة وهي‏‮ ‬‬التي‏‮ ‬‬لم تتكرّر نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمَ‏‮ ‬‬سَفَـرٍ‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِرٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬بين الـمُكرَّرة نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرأَةَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬غير أنّها متي‏‮ ‬‬تتكرّرت مع مباشرتها النكرة جاز الغاؤها نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬حَوْلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬قُوَّةٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬بِاللَّهِ‏‮ ‬‬بالرفع في‏‮ ‬‬الحول والقوّة‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English: 

لاَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّافِيَة (The laa of negation) is the particle by which the negation of a specific category of noun is desired according to the way it is quoted – that is to say لاَ (laa) negates the category of noun by preceding it with a total negation of (it) to the point of not allowing anything from it (the category) to be excluded (in the negation) – like when you say:لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ (there is not (one) man in the house).  And so لاَ (laa) negates the category of men in it (the house) until it is impossible for you to (even) say: بلْ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلاَنِ (except two men).  It operates in the same manner as إِنَّ.  It (laa) causes الْــمُبْتَدَأ (the  subject) which is  referred to as إِسْمًا لَهَا (its noun) to be in the case of naṣb and it causes the predicate which is refer to as خَبْرًا لَهَا (its predicate) to be in the case of rafʿ.  There is no differentiation made in this function between the لا that is expressed  only once – which is the لا that is not repeated,  like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمَ‏‮ ‬‬سَفَرٍ‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِــــرٌ (there is no traveling servant here) –  and the لا which is repeated,  like when you say :لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرأَةَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ (there is no man nor woman in the house).  However, if it (لا – [laa)] is repeated, while having the indefinite noun coming in direct contact with it, then the cancellation of the naṣb case is allowed – like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬حَوْلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬قُوَّةٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬بِاللَّهِ (there is no power nor might except with Allah) with حَوْلٌ and قُوَّةٌ being in the case of rafʿ.

Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

يشترط في‏‮ ‬‬عمل لا أمران أحدهما أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون إسمها وخبرها نكرتين والثاني‏‮ ‬‬أنْ‏‮ ‬‬يكون الإسم مقدّمًا والخبر مؤخرًا وذلك كقولك لاَ‏‮ ‬‬صَاحِبَ‏‮ ‬‬عِلْمٍ‏‮ ‬‬مَمْقُوتٌ‏‮ ‬‬ولاَ‏‮ ‬‬طَالِعًا جَبَلاً‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِرٌ‏‮ ‬‬فلو دخلت على معرفة أو على خبر مقدّم وجب إما إِهْمَالِها أو تكرارها فمثال دخولها على الـمعرفة قولك‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـــدٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِـي‏‮ ‬‬الــدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو بِتكرارها ومثال تقدّم خبرها قولك لاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأةٌ‏‮ ‬‬بإِهْمَالِها‏‮ ‬‬

Further Explanation of Text in English:

Two conditions have been made prerequisite for the function of لاَ (laa).  The first of them is that إِسْمُهَا (its noun) and خَبْرُهَا (its predicate) must both be indefinite.  The second condition is that the noun comes first and the predicate comes last – like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬صَاحِبَ‏‮ ‬‬عِلْمٍ‏‮ ‬‬مَمْقُوتٌ‏‮ ‬‬ (no owner of knowledge is hated) and ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬طَالِعًا جَبَلاً‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِرٌ (there is no mountain climber present).  If لاَ (laa) comes in front of a definite noun or a predicate that comes before its noun, either its omission or its repetition is required.  The  example of لاَ (laa) coming in front of the definite noun is like when you   say: ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـــدٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِـي‏‮ ‬‬الــدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو (there is know Zayd nor ʿAmr in the house) with لاَ (laa) being repeated.  The example of the predicate of لاَ coming first is like when you  say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِــي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأةٌ (there is no man nor woman in the house) with لاَ‏‮ ‬‬(laa) being omitted.

Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

أعلم‏‮ ‬‬أوّلاَ‏‮ ‬‬إن لا إنْ‏‮ ‬‬لم تباشر النكرة أي‏‮ ‬‬إنْ‏‮ ‬‬فصل بينهما فاصل فحينئذ لا‏‮ ‬‬يجوز نصب النكرة بها‏‮ ‬‬يجب رفعها ويجب مع ذلك تَكْرار لا نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬ولا امْرَأَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬ثانيا إن لاَ‏‮ ‬‬إنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَكَرَّرَتْ‏‮ ‬‬مع مباشرتها النكرة جَازَ‏‮ ‬‬إعمالها والغاؤها أي‏‮ ‬‬جاز أن تنصب بها النكرة الواقعة بعدها أو تُبْقِيهَا مرفوعة وتُبْطِل عمل لا نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةَ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدّارِ‏‮ ‬‬بفتح الإسمين أو رفعهما

Further Explanation of Text in English: 

Know, firstly, that if لاَ (laa) doesn’t come in direct contact with the indefinite noun  –  that is to say, if something is standing between them, then it is not permissible for the indefinite noun to be in the case of naṣb.  The case of rafʿ is required for it and in addition to that, لاَ must be repeated. – like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةٌ.

Secondly, if لاَ (laa) is repeated due to contact with the النَّكِرَة (the indefinite noun), its application and its omission is permitted. – that is to say, النَّكِرَة (the indefinite noun) which comes after لاَ (laa) can be in the case or naṣb or it can remain in the case of rafʿ and the function of لاَ (laa) will be cancelled – like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُـــــلَ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُـــلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةَ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدّارِ with fat-ḥah placed on both nouns or the case of rafʿ (that is to say, ḍammah is place on the end of the each noun).

Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

فاسم لا‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬إلّا‏‮ ‬‬يخلو من ثلاثة أحوال الأوّل أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون مضافًا نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٍ‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِرٌ‏‮ ‬‬الثّاني‏‮ ‬‬أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون مشابهًا للمضاف والـمراد به كل إسم تعلّق بما بعده إما بعمل نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬طَالِعًا جَبَلاً‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِرٌ‏‮ ‬‬ولاَ‏‮ ‬‬حَسَـنًا فِعْـلُهُ‏‮ ‬‬مَوْجُودٌ‏‮ ‬‬ولاَ‏‮ ‬‬مَارًّا بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬مُقْبِلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وإمّا بعطف نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬ثُـلُـثًا وَثُـلُثَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَنَا وحكم الـمضاف والـمشبّه به النّصب لفظًا كما مُثـّل والحال الثّالث أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون مفردًا والـمراد به هنا ما ليس بمضاف ولا مشبَّه بالـمضاف فيدخل فيه الـمثنى والـمجمع وحكم البناء على ما كان‏‮ ‬‬يُنصب به نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬حال الـمفرد ولاَ‏‮ ‬‬قَمَرَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬السَّمَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬حال الـمثنى ولاَ‏‮ ‬‬مُومِنينَ فِي‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَدِينَةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬مُسْلِمَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْبَلَدِ في‏‮ ‬‬حال الجمع

Further Explanation of Text in English: 

The noun of لاَ (laa) does not function outside of three cases.  The first case is: that it is مُضَافٌ (annexed to another noun) like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٍ‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِرٌ (there is no servant of [any] man present).

The second case is that it is  مُشَابَهًا لِلْمُضَافِ  (what  resembles الْـمُـضَاف).  What is desired is that every noun which is connected to what comes after it is connected either by function – like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬طََالِعًا جَبَلاً‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِرٌ (there is no mountain climber here) and لاَ‏‮ ‬‬حُسَـنًا فِعْـلُهُ‏‮ ‬‬مَوْجُودٌ (there is no good which he has done in existence) and لاَ‏‮ ‬‬مَارّ‏‮ ‬‬ًا بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬مُقْبِلٌ (there is no one who passed by Zayd coming) or connected to what comes after it by a conjunction – like when you say:  لاُ‏‮ ‬‬ثُـلُـثًا وَثُـلُـثَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَنَا (there is not one third nor two thirds with us – that is to say, we do not have one third or two thirds).  The rule for الـمُضَافُ and مُشَابَهًا‏‮ ‬‬ِللْمُضَافِ (what resembles الْـمُـضَاف) is that the case of naṣb is expressed as shown in previous examples.

The third case is that the noun following لاَ (laa) is مُفْـرَدًا (singular) and what is desired here is not مُضَاف or مُشَابَهًا‏‮ ‬‬ِللْمُضَافِ (what resembles الْـمُـضَاف).  And when الـْمُثَـنَّى (the dual) or الـمْجَمْــعُ (the plural) are joined to it (لاَ [laa]), the rule for its construction is in accordance with that for a noun in the a case of naṣb – like when you: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ  (there is no man in the house) in the case of the singular noun; and لاَ‏‮ ‬‬قَمَرَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬السَّمَاءِ (there are not two moons in the sky) in the case of the dual noun and لاَ‏‮ ‬‬مُومِنينَ فِي‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَدِينَةِ (there are no believers in the city) and لاَ‏‮ ‬‬مُسْلِمَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْبَلَدِ (there are no female Muslims in the  country) in the case of the plural noun.

Published in: on April 10, 2012 at 01:50  Leave a Comment  
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Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 5 – الإِعْرَاب (Inflection) and الْبنَاء (The Fixed Construction)

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 5 – الإِعْرَاب (Inflection)

and الْبنَاء (The Fixed Construction)

When words are arranged in a sentence, you will find among them words which change at the end due to their different roles in the sentence, and because of the different types of governors which precede them or the governing factors that affect them. You will also find among words in a sentence, words which do not change at the end because of the different types of governors which precede them or the governing factors that affect them.  The first type of word mentioned above is said to be‮ ‬مُـعْرَب‮ ‬(inflectional) and the second type is مَـبْنِيًا‮ ‬(non-inflectional). Changing the end of a word because of the different types of governors or governing factors is called إِعْـرَاب‮ ‬(inflection), while not changing the end of a word because of the different types of governors or governing factors is called بنَاء (fixed construction).

الإِعْـرَاب (Inflection) is a marked change which a governor causes to occur at the end of the word, and so the in of the word can be in the case of rafʿ, naṣb, jarr or jazm, depending on the purpose for the governor.

الْـبنَاء (The Fixed Construction) requires that the end of a word remains in one  unchanged condition even when the governors that precede it are different.

الْـمُعْرَب (The Inflected Word) and الْـمَبْنِي (The Word Fixed in its Construction)

الْـمُعْرَب (The Inflected Word) is the word which is changed at its end because of the different types of governors that precede it or the governing factors that affect it, like:

الأََسْمَاءُ‮ ‬وَالأَرْضُ‮ ‬وَيَكْتُبُ

الْـمُعْرَب is also the present tense verb which does not have نون التوكيد‮ ‬or ‮ ‬نون السوة‮ ‬and  الْـمُعْرَب is also most nouns except for a few.

الْـمَبْنِي (The Word Fixed in its Construction) is the word that is required to remain in a fixed condition, in spite of the different governors that precede it, like when you say:

هَذَهِ،‮ ‬أَيْنَ،‮ ‬مِنْ،‮ ‬كَتَبَ،‮ ‬أُكْتُبْ

الْـمَبْنِيَّاتُ‮ ‬(Words Fixed in their Construction) include all الْـحُـرُوف (the particles), الْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمَاضِـي (the past tense verb), فِـعْلُ‮ ‬الأَمْـرِ‮ ‬ (the command tense verb) without exception. الْفِعْلُ‮ ‬الـمُضَارِعُ‮ ‬إِذَا اتَّصِلتْ‮ ‬بِهِ (the present tense verb when) نُونُ النِسْوَةِ (the nuun used for emphasis) or نُـونُ‮ ‬النِسْوَةِ (the nuun of the feminine plural doer pronoun), and some nouns. They originate as particles, verbs fixed in their construction and inflective nouns.

The Kinds of الْبَنَاء‮ ‬ ‬(Fixed Construction)

الْـمَبْنِي‮ ‬ is either a word that is required to carry sukuun at its end, like when you say: أُكْـتُبْ and لَـمْ or ḍammah like when you say: حَـيْثُ and كَـتَبُوا or fatḥah like when you say: كَـتَبَ and أَيْـنَ or kasrah like when you say: هَـؤُلاَءِ and kasrah on the baa in the prepositional phrase بِـسْمِ‮ ‬الله. At time the previously mentioned are expressed by saying: مَـبْنِي‮ ‬عَـلَى السّكون‮ ‬(fixed in construct on the sukuun) or مَبْنِي‮ ‬عَلَى ضَمَّة (fixed in construct on the ḍammah) or مَبْنِي‮ ‬عَلَى  (fixed in construct on the fatḥah) or مَبْنِي‮ ‬عَلَى‮ ‬(fixed in construct on the kasrah). Therefore is  based on four signs: sukuunḍammahfatḥah, and kasrah.

Knowing which vowel the nouns and particles are constructed upon is according to generally accepted usage and sound transmission. Words fixed in their construction include: the word which is construct on the ḍammah, the word which is construct on the fatḥah and the word which is construct on the kasrah, but there are no known general rules for the construction of words on these vowels.

The Kinds of الإعْرَابُ‮ ‬(Inflection for Words)

There are four Kinds of الإعْـرَابُ (inflection for words): rafʿ, naṣb, jarr and jasm.

The inflected verb is changed at its end by the case of  rafʿ, naṣb and jasm like when you say:  يَكْتُبُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬لَنْ‮ ‬يَكْتُبَ‮ ‬،‮ ‬لمْ‮ ‬يَكْتُبْ .

The inflected noun is changed at its end by the case of  rafʿ, naṣb and jarr like when you say: وَاشْتَغلعتُ‮ ‬بِالعِلْمِ‮ ‬النَّافِعِ‮ ‬،‮ ‬رَأَيْتُ‮ ‬الْعِلْمَ‮ ‬نَافِعًا‮ ‬،‮ ‬العِلْمُ‮ ‬نَافِعٌ. From this we can see that the cases of rafʿ and naṣb are used in both inflected verbs and nouns, while  the case of jasm is used with the inflected verb exclusively, and he case of jarr is used with the inflected nouns exclusively.

The Signs for the الإعْرَابُ‮ ‬ (Inflection for Words)

The Sign of الإعْـرَابُ‮ ‬is either a vowel, a letter or the dropping of a vowel or letter.

There are three vowels of inflection: ḍammahfatḥah, and kasrah.

There are four letters of inflection: alifnuun, waaw and yaa.

The dropping as a sign of inflection is either the dropping of a a weak letter at the end of the present tense verb or the dropping of the letter nuun from the end of the  present tense verb.

The Signs of الرَّفْع‮ ‬ (The Case of Rafʿ)

الرَّفْـع‮ ‬(The case of rafʿ) has four signs: ḍammah, waaw, alif, and nuun. Ḍammah is the main or primary sign. The example of the use of these signs for the case of rafʿ is as follows: يُحَبُّ‮ ‬الصَّادِقُ‮ ‬and‮ ‬أَفْـلَحَ‮ ‬الْـمُؤْمِنُونَ‮ ‬and‮ ‬لِيُننْفِقْ‮ ‬ذُو‮ ‬سَـعة مِـنْ‮ ‬سَـعتِهِ‮ ‬and‮ ‬التِلْمِذَانِ‮ ‬الْـمُـجْتَهِدَان‮ ‬and تَنْطِقُونَ‮ ‬بِالصِّدْقِ.‮  ‬

The Signs of النَّصْب‮ ‬(The Case of Naṣb)

النَّصْب‮ ‬(The case of naṣb) has five signs: fat-ḥah, alif, yaa, kasrah and the dropping of nuun. Fat-ḥah is the main or primary sign. The example of the use of these signs  for the case of naṣb is as follows: جَانِبُ‮ ‬الشَّرِّ‮ ‬فَتَسْلَمََ‮ ‬أَعْطِ‮ ‬ذَا‮ ‬الْـحَقِّ‮ ‬حَقُّهُ‮ ‬and‮ ‬يُحِبُّ‮ ‬الله الْـمُتَقِيـنَ‮ ‬and‮ ‬كَانَ‮ ‬أَبُو عُبَيْدَة عَامِر بِن الـجَرَّاح وَخَالِد بن وَلِيد فَائدِيـنَ‮ ‬عَظِمِيـنَ‮ ‬and  أُكْرِمُ‮ ‬الْفيَاتِ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَهِدَاتِ‮ ‬and‮ ‬لَنْ‮ ‬تَنَالُوا‮ (‬تَـنَالُـونَ‮) ‬الْـبِرَّ‮ ‬حَـتَّى تُـنْفَقُوا‮ (‬تُـنْفَقُوانَ‮) ‬مِـمَّا تُـحِبُّونَ. In the last example, the nuun is dropped when the present tense verb is precede by the particle of naṣb.

The Signs of الـجَرّ‮ ‬(The Case of Jarr)

الـجَـرّ‮ ‬(The case of jarr) has three signs: kasrah, yaa and fat-ḥah. Kasrah is the main or primary sign. The example of the use of these signs for the case of jarr is as follows: تَـمَسَّكْ‮ ‬بِالفَضَائِلَ‮ ‬and‮ ‬أَطِعْ‮ ‬أَمْرَ‮ ‬أَبِيكَ‮ ‬and‮ ‬الْـمَرْءُ‮ ‬بِأَصْغَريْهِ‭:‬‮ ‬قَلْبُهُ‮ ‬ولِسَانُهُ‮ ‬and‮ ‬تَقَرَّبْ‮ ‬مَنَ‮ ‬الصَّادِقِيـنَ‮ ‬and‮ ‬وَانْأَ‮ ‬عَنَ‮ ‬الكَادِبِيـنَ‮ ‬and‮ ‬لَيْسَ‮ ‬فَاعِلُ‮ ‬الْـخَيْرِ‮ ‬بِأَفْضَلِ‮ ‬مِنَ‮ ‬السَّاعِي‮ ‬فِهِ.

The Signs of الـجَزْم‮ ‬(The Case of Jazm)

الـجَـزْم‮ ‬(The case of jazm) has three signs: sukuun, the dropping of a a weak letter at the end of the present tense verb, and the dropping of nuun. Sukuun is the main or primary sign. The example of the use of these signs for the case of jazm is as follows: مَنْ‮ ‬يَفْعَلْ‮ ‬خَيْرًًا‮ ‬يَجِدْ‮ ‬خَيْرًا‮ ‬ and ‮ ‬مَنْ‮ ‬يَزَرَعْ‮ ‬شَرًّا‮ ‬يَجْنِ‮ ‬شَرًّا‮ ‬and ‮ ‬أَفْعَلْ‮ ‬الْـخَيْرَ‮ ‬تَلْقَ‮ (‬تَلْقَــي‮) ‬الْـخَيْرَ‮  ‬(In the preceding example, the alif maqṣuurah has been dropped when the present tense verb is in the case of jazm, because it is a weak letter), لاَ‮ ‬تَـدْعُ‮ (‬تَـدْعُـو‮) ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬اللهَ‮ ‬ (In this preceding example, the waaw has been dropped when the present tense verb is in the case of jazm, because it is a weak letter), قَـالُـوا خَـيْرًا تَغْنَمُوا‮ (‬تَغْنَمُونَ‮) ‬واسْكُتُوا‮ (‬اسْكُتُونَ‮) ‬عَنْ‮ ‬شَرِّ‮ ‬تَسْلَمُوا‮ (‬تَسْلَمُونَ‮)‬ا‮. ‬ In the last three examples, the nuun has been dropped because the present tense verb is in the case of jazm.

 
 
 
 
 
 
and The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ(Speech) in the Arabic Language
 

Section 2 – الْـمْتَعَدِّي‮ ‬ (The Transitive Verb) ‮ ‬واللاَّزِم(and Intransitive Verb)



Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 21 – (The Chapter About (Al-Istath-naa’ [The Exclusion of Nouns])

   بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِسْتَثْنَاءِ  

21 – (The Chapter About (Al-Istathnaa’ [The Exclusion of Nouns])

 ʿArabic Text: 

‏‮(‬‬وَحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِسْتَثْنَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬ثَمَانِيَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَغَيْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَسِوًى وَسُوًى وَسَوَاءٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَدَا وَحَاشَا فَالـْمُسْتَثْنَى بِإِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬يُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْكَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬تَامّـًا مُوجَبًا نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮   ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَخَرَجَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّاسُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْكََلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬مَنْفِيًا تَامّا جَازَ‏‮ ‬‬فِيهِ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالنَّصْبُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى الاِسْتِثْنَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬اِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬اِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْكَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬نَاقِصًا كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى حَسَبِ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَوَامِلِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬اِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَمَا مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيدٍ‏‮  ‬‬وَالـْمُسْتَثْنَى بِغَيرِ‏‮ ‬‬وَسِوًى وَسُوًى وَسَوَاءٍ‏‮ ‬‬مَجْرُورٌ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُسْتَثْنَى بِخِلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَدَا وَحَاشَا‏‮ ‬‬يَجُوزُ‏‮ ‬‬نَصْبُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَجَرُّهُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوُْمُ‏‮  ‬‬خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬عَدَا عَمْرًا وَعَمْرٍو وَحَاشَا بَكْرًا وَبَكْرٍ‏‮)‬‬‏‮ ‬‬

English Translation:

وَحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِسْتَثْنَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬(And so, the particles of exclusion)   ‏‮ ‬‬ثَمَانِيَةٌ (are eight) وَهِيَ (and they are): إِلاَّ (except) , وَغَيْرٌ and (other than / except) وَسِوًى and (other than / except) وَسُـوًى and (other than / except) and وَسَـوَاءٌ and (except) ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَـلاَ and (except) وَعَدَا and (except) وَحاَشَا and (except).  فـَالـْمُسْتَثْنَى بِإِلاَّ (The noun that has been exclude by illa) يُـنْصَبُ is in the case of naṣb), ‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا كَـانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـكَلاَمُ (if the statement [preceding illa]) تَـامّـًـا (is complete) مُـوجَـبً ([and] affirmative), نَـحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬(like when you say): قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬ إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْــدًا (The  people stood [all] except Zayd), and وَخَـرَجَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّاسُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا and (The people left [all] except ʿAmr).  وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـكََلاَمُ (However, if the statement) تَامّـًا (is complete), but مَنْفِيًا (negative), جَـازَ‏‮ ‬‬فِـيهِ ( permitted in it is)  الْـبَدَلُ (the substitute noun) وَالنَّصْبُ‏‮ ‬‬(and [that noun] is in the case of naṣb)  عَـلَى الاِسْـتِثْنَاءِ (in accordance with the rule for the exclusion of nouns), نَحْوُ (like when you say): مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَومُ‏‮ ‬‬اِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا أَو اِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ (None of the people stood except Zayd). وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَـانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـكَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬ (When the statement) [preceding illa]) نَـاقِصًا (is negative [and does not have الـْمُسْـتَثْنَى مِـنْهُ mentioned in it,‏‮ ‬the case of the noun which comes after illa]‬, كَـانَ‏‮ ‬‬عَـلَى حَسَـبِ (is determined by) الْـعَوَامِـلِ (the governors) [which precede illa]), نَحْوُ (like when you say): مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ (None came except Zayd)‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا and (I didn’t beat anyone except Zayd) ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيدٍand (I didn’t pass by anyone except Zayd). 

‏‮ ‬‬ وَالـْمُسْتَثْنَى(And the excluded noun) بِـ (preceded and excluded by) غَيْر وَسِوًى وَسُوًى وَسَوَاءٌ (ghayrun, siwan, suwan and sawaa’un) مَجْـرُورٌ (is in the case of jarr) لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غَـيْرُ (only).  وَالـْمُسْتَثْنَى (And the excluded noun) بِـ (preceded and excluded by) خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَدَا وَحَاشَا (khalaa, ʿadaa and ˙ashaaنَصْبُهُ (placing it in the cased of naṣb) وَجَرُّهُ (and in the case of jarr) يَـجُوزُ  ([are both] permitted)  –  نَحْو (like when you say):  قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَخَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (The people left except Zayd) وَعَــــدَا عَمْـــــرًا وَعَــــدَا عَمْــــرٍ and (except ʿAmr) حََاشَا بََكْرًا وَحََاشَا بَكْرٍ and (except Bakr).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الـْمُسْتَثْنَى هو الخارج من حكم الـْمُسْتَثْنَى منه بإلاّ‏‮ ‬‬وإحدى اخواتها مثل له جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا فزيد هو الـمستـثـنى وهو خارج بإلاّ‏‮ ‬‬من حكم الـْمُجِيءِ‏‮ ‬‬الدّاخل فيه الـمستـثـنى منه وهو القوم وقس على ذلك‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English: 

الـْمُسْتَثْنَى (the excluded noun) is the noun which has  fallen outside of the rule of what has been decreed for الـْمُسْـتَثْنَى مِـنْهُ  (the noun from which it has been excluded), because إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَخْوَاتِـهَا (illaa and one of its sisters ) precedes it.  The example of this rule is: جـَـاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا (the people came (all) except Zayd).  And so, Zayd is الْـمُسْـتَثْنَى (the excluded noun), and it is outside of what has been decreed for the noun which precedes إِلاَّ, which is called الـْمُسْـتَثْنَى مِـنْهُ (the noun from which it has been excluded); and in the previous example, that noun is الْقَوْمُ, and it like that with similar example.

 Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِسْتَثْنَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬ثَمَانِيَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَغَيْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَسِوًى وَسُوًى وَسَوَاءٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَدَا وَحَاشَا وسُوًى بالقصر وجواز ضمّ‏‮ ‬‬السّين وكسرها وقد جاء سواءٌ‏‮ ‬‬بالـمدّ‏‮ ‬‬وجواز فتح السّين وكسرها وهي‏‮ ‬‬كسوى معنىً‏‮ ‬‬وحكمًا‏‮  ‬‬فإلاّ‏‮ ‬‬هي‏‮ ‬‬حرف وغَيْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬وسِوًى هما إسمان وأمّا خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وعَدَا وحَاشَا فإن جررن ما بعدها فحروف وإِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬فأفعال‏‮ ‬‬

Further Explanation of Text in English:

حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْتَثْنَاءِ (the particles of exclusion) are eight.  They are: إِلاّ (except) , غَيْرٌ (other than / except) ,‏‮ ‬‬سِـوًى (other than / except) , سُـوًى  (other than / except), سَـواءٌ (except), ‏‮ ‬‬خَـلاَ (except), عَـدَا (except) , حاَشَـا (except) and سُـوًى with alif maqsuurah and the allowance for it to bear ḍammah or kasrah on the letter س (siin).  سَـوَاءٌ comes with الـْمَدُّ (madd = آ) and the allowance for it to bear fat-ḥah or kasrah on the letter siin (س) as well as kasrah; and it is similar to سِـوًى in meaning and rules.  اِلاَّ (illaa) is a particle while غَـيْرٌ (ghayr) and سِـوًى‏‮ ‬‬(siwan [سُوًى (suwan]) are nouns.  As for خَلاَ (khlaa) and عَدَا (ʿadaa) and حَاشَا (ḥaa-shaa), they cause whatever is coming after them to be in the case of jarr (khafḍ) when they are particles but not when they are verbs.

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

والـمستـثـنى له ثلاث حالاتٍ‏‮ ‬‬أوّلها وجوب النصب ثانيها جواز الرفع والنصب ثالثها إعرابه حسب العوامل الـمتـقدّمة على إِلا‏‮ ‬‬َّ‏‮ ‬‬فيجب نصبه متى كان الكلام الـمتقدّم على إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬تامّا موجَـبًا ونعني‏‮ ‬‬بالتّامّ‏‮ ‬‬ما‏‮ ‬‬يُذكَر به الـمستـثـنى منه وبالـموجَب ما‏‮ ‬‬يكن مسبوقًا بأداة نفي‏‮ ‬‬أو شبهه وشبه النفي‏‮ ‬‬هو الاستفهام والنهي‏‮ ‬‬مثال ذلك قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬القَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا فقام القوم كلام تام لأن الـمستـثـنى منه وهو‏‮ ‬‬القوم الـمذكور به ومُوجَب لأنه‏‮ ‬‬غير مسبوق بأداة نفي‏‮ ‬‬ولا شبهه‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـمُسْـتَثْنَى (the excluded noun) has three (possible) cases: the first of these cases is the necessity for it to be in the case of naṣb, the second of them is the permissibility for it to be in the case of rafʿ or naṣb, the third (possible case) is that the inflection of the noun is determined by the governor which precedes إِلاّ.  

الْـمُسْـتَثْنَى (the excluded noun) is required to be in the case of naṣb when the statement preceding إِلاّ is complete and affirmative.  What is meant by the word التّامّ (complete) is that  الـْمُسْـتَثْنَى مِـنْهُ (the noun from which [الـمُسْـتَثْنَى the excluded noun] has been excluded) is mentioned in it (the statement), while (what is meant by الـْـمُوجَـب (affirmative) is  that it [the statement coming before إِلاَّ] is not preceded by أَدَاةُ‏‮ ‬‬نَـفْي (a particle of negation)  or  what  is  similar  to  it  –  like when you say: ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا.‏‮ ‬‬ And so قَامَ الْقَوْمُ  is كَلاَمٌ‏‮ ‬‬تامٌّ (a complete statement), because  الـْمُسْـتَثْنَى مِـنْهُ  (the  noun  from which [الـمُسْـتَثْنَى has been excluded) – and that noun is الْـقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬- has been mentioned in the statement, and مُـوجَبٌ (it is affirmative), because it has not been preceded by أَدَاةُ‏‮ ‬‬نَـفْي (a particle of negation) nor what resembles it.

Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

وأمّا جواز الرفع والنصب للإسم الـواقع بعد إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬فيجوز ذلك متى كان الكلام تامّــًا أي‏‮ ‬‬مذكورًا به الـمستـثـنى منه إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬أنّه‏‮ ‬‬غير موجب أي‏‮ ‬‬مسبوق بأداة نفي‏‮ ‬‬أو شبهه من الاِسْتِفْهَام والنَّهْي‏‮ ‬‬نحو مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أحَدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وهَلْ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحَدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْد ولاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَقُومُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَحَدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬يرفع زيد على البدلية ويجوز رفعه على الاستثناء هذا إذا كان ما بعد إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬من جنس ما قبلها إن لم‏‮ ‬‬يكن كذلك فلا‏‮ ‬‬يجوز إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬النّصب نحو مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْم إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬حِمَارًا بالنصب على الاستثنَاء ولا‏‮ ‬‬يجوز البدل فيه‏‮ ‬‬

Further Explanation of Text in English:

As for the permissibility of the case rafʿ or naṣb for the noun that comes after إِلاّ, that is allowed when the statement has been completed – that is to say, that الـمُسْـتَثْنَى مِـنْهُ (the noun from which [الـمُسْـتَثْنَى) has been excluded) has been mentioned with the statement and that the statement is not affirmative – that is to say that it is preceded by أَدَاةُ‏‮ ‬‬النَّفْي (the particle of negation) or what resemble it from  الاِسْـتِفْهَام (the particles of interrogation) and النَّهْـي (the particles of prohibition) – like when you say: مَا قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحَـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدًا (No one stood except Zayd), هَلْ‏‮ ‬‬قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحَـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدًا  (Did anyone stand except Zayd?), and لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَـقُومَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَحَـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬رَيْـدًا (There is no one standing except Zayd) with Zayd being in the case of rafʿ in all three examples because it is الْـبَدَلُ (the substitute noun).  The case of rafʿ  is permitted for the noun زَيْـد  according to the rules of exclusion for this noun, if what comes after the إِلاّ is of the same species or classification as what comes before إِلاّ ; and  if  that is not the case, then nothing except the case of naṣb is allowed – like when you say: مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬حِـمَارًا (None of the people stood except a donkey) with [حِـمَارًا] being in the case of naṣb in accordance with the rules for the exclusion of nouns; while الْبَدَلُ (the substitute noun) is not permitted for it at all.

Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

فــأمّا الإسم الواقع بعد إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬الذي‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَب بحَسَبِ‏‮ ‬‬العواملِ‏‮ ‬‬الـمتـقدِّمةِ‏‮ ‬‬عليه إن كان الكلام ناقصًا منفيًا أي‏‮ ‬‬تفرّغ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُسْتَثْـنَى منه وما قبل إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬منفيّ‏‮ ‬‬فكان الإسم الواقع بعد إلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬معربًا بإعراب ما‏‮ ‬‬يقتضيه ما قبل إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬قبل دخولها وذلك نحو مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ و مَا رَأََيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا ومَا مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬فزَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬مرفوع بقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬وزَيْدًا منصوب برَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬ومجرور بالبآءِ‏‮ ‬‬متعلّق بمررت كما لو لم تُذكر إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬وهذا هو الاستثناء الـمفرّغ‏‮ ‬‬وهو لا‏‮ ‬‬يقع في‏‮ ‬‬كلام موجَب إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬نادرًا فلا‏‮ ‬‬يقال ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاِّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا‏‮ ‬‬

Further Explanation of Text in English:

As for the noun coming after إِلاّ which is inflected in accordance with العَوَاِملُ‏‮ ‬‬الْــمُتَقَدِّمَةُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى إِلاَّ (the governors which  precede إِلاّ), if the statement has a portion (part) that has been omitted  and is negative – that is to say, that الـْمُسْـتَثْنَى مِـنْهُ is omitted from the statement and what comes before إلا has been negated, then the noun which comes after إِلاّ is inflected with the inflection that would have been required for a noun preceding إِلاّ – prior to إِلاّ being placed in front of the noun‏‮ ‬‬ – like when you say:  مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ (no one stood up except Zayd) and مَا رَأََيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬رَيْدًا (I didn’t see anyone except Zayd) and مَا مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬بِـزَيْدٍ (I did not pass by (anyone) except Zayd).  Zayd is in the case of rafʿ due to the influence of قَـامَ and in the case of naṣb, because of رَأَيْـتُ and (in the case of jarr) because it is being governed by the preposition بِ which is linked to the verb مَرَرْتُ.  It is as if إِلاَّ had not been expressed.  This is الاِسْتَثْـنَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفَـــرَّغُ (the  excluded noun which has been omitted.  It does not occur in speech except on rare occasions while the statement: ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا (I beat (all of them) except Zayd) is not said at all.

Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

 إن الـمستـثـنى بغَيْر وسِوى وَسُوًى وَسَوَاء مجرور فحكم الإسم الواقع بعدها الجر لإضافتها إليه وتُعْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْر بما كان‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬به الإسم الـمستـثـنى مع إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬فتقول قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬ينصب‏‮ ‬‬غير كما تقول قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا بنصب زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وتقول مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحَدٌ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَغَيْرَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬بالإتباع والنصب كما تقول مَا قَام أَحَدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وتقول مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬برفع‏‮ ‬‬غير وجوبًا كما تقول مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬برفع زيد وجوبًا وأمّا سوى فمذهب قوم أنّها تعامل بما تعامل به‏‮ ‬‬غير من الرفع والنّصب والجرّ‏‮ ‬‬ومذهب سيبويه والجمهور إنّها لا تخرج عن الظّرفيّة‏‮ ‬‬

Further Explanation of Text in English:

And الْـمْسْتَثْنَى (the excluded noun) preceded by غَيْر,سِوًى, سُوًى and‏‮ ‬‬سَوَاء isمَجْرُور (in the case of jarr [khafḍ]) لاِضَافَتِهَا إِلَيْهِ (because of their construction the noun.  غَيْرٌ (Ghayrun) is inflected according to the rules of inflection for الإِسْمْ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُسْتَثْنَى (the excluded noun) when it is precede by إِلاّ.  And so you say: قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (the people stood [all] except Zayd) with غير in the case of naṣb – likewise you say: قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا with Zayd in the case of naṣb and you say: مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحَدٌ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ in compliance (with the rule for the case of rafʿ) and the case of naṣb – and like what you say: مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيـْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا and you say: مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (none stood except Zayd) with غير being in the case of rafʿ as a requirement.

As for سِـوًى (siwan), it is the opinion of the grammarians that it is governed by that which governs غَيْرُ  (ghayrun) in the case of rafʿ, naṣb and jarr (khafḍ),  and the view of Siybawayhi and the people of grammatical knowledge in general is that it is not include with the adverbs.

Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

فأمّا خلا وعدا وحاشا فإن الـمستـثـنى الـمتقدم بهذه الأدوات‏‮ ‬‬يجوز جرّه على أنها حروف جرّ‏‮ ‬‬نحو قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وعَدَا زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وحَاشَا زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬بِجَر زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬بعدها ويجوز نصبه على الـمفعوليّة وتكون خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وعَدَا وحَاشَا أيضًا أفعالاً‏‮ ‬‬ماضيــةً‏‮ ‬‬فَاعِلُهَا ضمير عائد على البعض الـمفهوم من القوم وهو مستتر وجوبًا نحو‏‮ ‬‬ قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَومُ‏‮ ‬‬خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَمَا عَدَا زَيْدًا وحَاشَا زَيْدًا بنصب زيد على أنه مفعول به وفاعل خلا وعدا وحاشا مستتر وجوبًا والتّقدير خلا بعضهم زَيْدًا وعَدَا بعضهم زَيْدًا وحَاشَا بعضهم زَيْدًا وأمّا إِنْ‏‮ ‬‬تقدّمت ما على خلا وعدا وجب النّصب بهما نحو قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَومُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَمَا عَدَا زَيْدًا بالنّصب و أمّا حاشا فلا تتقدّم ما عليه فلا تقول ما حاشا

Further Explanation of Text in English:

As for  خَـلاَ (khalaa), عَـدَا (ʿadaa) and حَـاشَـا (haa-shaa), when الْـمُسْـتَثْنَى is (preceded) by these particles it is permissible for it to be in the case of jarr (khafḍ) due to the fact that they are prepositions – like when you say: قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيـدٍ and عَـدَا زَيدٍ and حَاشَـا زَيْدٍ. And so  خلا (Khalaa), عدا (ʿadaa) and حَاشَا (ḥaa-shaa)  are also أَفْـعَالاً‏‮ ‬‬مَـاضِـيَةً (past tense verbs).  Their فَـاعِـل (doer) is a pronoun traceable back to someone who is understood to be from among the people and it is concealed out of necessity – like when you say : قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَومُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَمَا عَدَا زَيْدًا وَحَاشَا زَيْدًا (The people stood without Zayd).  Zayd is the case of naṣb, because it is الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِـهِ (the object of the verb [خَـلاَ‮ ‬,عَدَا and حَـاشَـا respectively]).  The فَاعِـل of خَـلاَ‏‮ ‬‬and عَـدَا and حَاشَـا as stated before, it is a pronoun concealed out of necessity.   Its  implication is that خَـلاَ‏‮ ‬‬بَـعْضُهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدًا (some of them [the people] acted without Zayd) and عَدَا بَعْضَهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدًا  (some of them excluded Zayd) and حَـاشَـا بَعْضُهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا (some of them are not with Zayd).  As for مَا preceding خَـلاَ‏‮ ‬‬and عَـدَا, it is necessary that the case of naṣb (be affixed to the noun which is govern by them) like when you say: قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَــــومُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَمَا عَدَا زَيْدًا with Zayd in the case of naṣb.  As for the حاشا, مَا does not come in front of it, therefore you cannot say: مَا حَاشَا.


Published in: on March 22, 2012 at 12:25  Leave a Comment  
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Shaykh Al Yaquoubi Speaks About The Sacred Arabic Language

Note:

Shaykh Al Yaqoubi used the term anagram in his talk.  An anagram is a word, phrase, or name formed by rearranging the letters of another word, such as: god, formed from dog.

Published in: on March 20, 2012 at 18:49  Leave a Comment  
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Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 20 – (The Chapter About At-Tamyiiz [The Noun Of Specification])

  بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬التَّمْيِيزِ 

 20 – (The Chapter About At-Tamyiiz 

   [The Noun Of Specification])

ʿArabic Text: 

‏‮(‬‬التَّمْيِِيزُ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُفَسِّرُ‏‮ ‬‬لـِمَا انْبَهَمَ‏‮ ‬‬مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الذَّوَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬تَصَبَّبَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عَرَقًا وَتَفَقَّأَ‏‮ ‬‬بَكْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬شَحْمًا وَطَابَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَمَّدٌ‏‮ ‬‬نَفْسًا وَاشْتَرَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عِشْرِينَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمًا وَمَلَكْتُ‏‮ ‬‬تِسْعِينَ‏‮ ‬‬نَعْجَةً‏‮ ‬‬وَزَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَكْرََمُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْكَ‏‮ ‬‬أَبًا وَأَجْمَلُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَجْهًا وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬التَّمْيِيزُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬نَكِِرَةً‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬بَعْدَ‏‮ ‬‬تَمَامِ‏‮ ‬‬الْكلاَمِ‏‮)‬‬

‏‮ ‬‬English Translation:

التُّمْيِيــــــزُ  (The  noun  of  specification)  هُوَ  (is) الإِسْـمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬ (a noun in the case of naṣb) الْـمُفَسِّرُ‏‮ ‬‬(which clarifies) لـِـمَا انْـبَهَمَ (what is unclear) مِـنَ‏‮ ‬‬الذَّوَاتِ (about the nature [of a verb and the exact details of what resulted from its action]) – نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ (like when we say): تَصَـبَّبَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عَرَقًا (Zayd was dripping with perspiration) وَتَفَقَّأَ‏‮ ‬‬بَكْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬شَحْمًا and (Bakr is bursting with fat) وَطَابَ مُحَمَّدٌ‏‮ ‬‬نَفْســًا and (Muhammad is good  by nature [good natured]) أَشْتَرَيتُ‏‮ ‬‬عِشْرِينَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمًا and  (I bought twenty servants) مَلَكْتُ‏‮ ‬‬تِسْعِينَ‏‮ ‬‬نَعَجَةًً and (I own ninety‏‮ ‬‬ewes) زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَكْرَمُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْكَ‏‮ ‬‬أَبًا وَأَجْمَلُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَجْهًا and (Zayd is more noble than you as a father and has a more handsome face than you).  وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬التَّمْيِيزُ (And so [a noun] is not the noun of specification) إِلاَّ (unless) نَـكِِرَةً (it is indefinite) وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُون (nor is it [the noun of specification] إِلاَّ (unless) بَعْدَ‏‮ ‬‬تَمَامِ‏‮ ‬‬الْكلاَمِ ([occurs] at the end of the statement).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن التّمييز هو نكرة جامدة مفسرة لـما أُبْهِِِمَ‏‮ ‬‬من الذّوات متضمّنة معنى من دون لفظها كقولك زَرَعْنَا الأَرْضَ‏‮ ‬‬قَمْحًا فقَمْحًا نكرة‏‮  ‬‬جامدة مفسِّرة لذات الـمزروع في‏‮ ‬‬الأرض الذي‏‮ ‬‬كان مُبْهَمًا قبل ذكره وهو متضمّنُ‏‮ ‬‬معنى من دون لفظها لأن التّقدير من قمح وقس عليه للتّمييز شرطان إحدهما أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون نكرة و الثّاني‏‮ ‬‬إن‏‮ ‬‬يكون واقعًا بعد تمام الكلام

Explanation of Text in English:

التَّمْيِيزُ (the noun of  specification)  is  an indefinite noun in the case of naṣb which clarifies what is unclear about the nature of a something, while implying the meaning of  مِـنّ without expressing it. – like when you say: زَرَعْـنَا الاَرْضِ‏‮ ‬‬قَـمْحًا (we planted the ground with wheat.  And so, قَـمْحًا (wheat) is an indefinite noun in the case of naṣb that explains the nature of what was planted in the earth  –  which was unclear before it (قَـمْحًا) was mentioned.  التَّمْيِيــزُ (The noun of specification) contains the meaning of مِـنْ (some) without expressing it, because what is implied in the above example is مِـنْ‏‮ ‬‬قمحٍ (some wheat – [that is to say,  زَرَعْـنَا الاَرْضِ‏‮ ‬‬مِـنْ‏‮ ‬‬قَـمْحٍ  – “we planted (مِـنْ [some] قَـمْحٍ [wheat] in the ground”]) and so forth.

التَّمْيِيزُ (the noun of specification) has two determinate conditions: the first of them is that it is indefinite, and the second is that it occurs at the end of the statement.

(*note in ʿArabic)

التّمييز يُقسَم إلى مَا‏‮ ‬‬يبيّن إبهام إسم مفرد وإلى ما‏‮ ‬‬يبيّن إبهام إجمال نسبةٍ‏‮ ‬‬فَمَا‏‮ ‬‬يبيّن إبهام اسم مفرد كالـْمِسَاحَات‏‮ ‬‬نحو هَذَا شِبْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْضًا والْـمِكْيَلاَت نحو عِنْدِي‏‮ ‬‬إِرْدَبٌّ‏‮ ‬‬قَمْحًا والْعَدَد نحو لِي‏‮ ‬‬عِشْرُونَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمًا والْـمَوْزُونَات نحو عِنْدِي‏‮ ‬‬رَطْلٌ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْتًا وما‏‮ ‬‬يبيّن إبهام إجمال نسبةٍ‏‮ ‬‬نحو طَابَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬نَفْسًا وزَرَعْناَ‏‮ ‬‬الأَرْضَ‏‮ ‬‬قَمْحًا‏‮  ‬‬وزَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَكْثَرُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْكَ‏‮ ‬‬فَضْلاً‏‮ ‬‬وقس على ذلك

(*note in English)

التَّمْيِيـــزُ (the noun of specification) is divided between that which clarifies what is uncertain about a singular noun, and that which clarifies what is unclear about  إِجْمَال نِسْبَةٍ (the entire relationship)The clarification of what is uncertain about a singular noun is like الـمِسَاحَات (the measurement for land area)  – like when you say:: شِـبْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْضًـا (a shibr [foot] of ground); and الـمِكْيَلاَت  (the dry measure for grains)  –  like when you say:‏‮ ‬‬إِرْدَبٌّ‏‮ ‬‬قَمْحًا  (an irdabb of wheat); and العَدَد (the numerical amount of something) – like: لِـي‏‮ ‬‬عِشْـرُونَ‏‮ ‬‬غُـلاَمًـا (I have twenty servants); and  الْـمَوْزُونَـات (that which is weighed)  – like: عِنْدِي‏‮ ‬‬رَطْلٌ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْتـًا (I have a‏‮ ‬‬ral of oil).  The clarification of what is unclear about إِجْـمَال نِسْـبَةٍ (the entire relationship) is – like when you say: طَـابَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬نَـفْسًا (Zayd was good in spirit [good spirited]) and زَرَعْـناَ‏‮ ‬‬الأَرْضَ‏‮ ‬‬قَـمْحًا (We planted the ground with wheat [we planted some wheat in the ground) and زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَكْـثَرُ‏‮ ‬‬مِـنْكَ‏‮ ‬‬فَضْلاً (Zayd is greater than you in  kindness / generosity [Zayd is kinder / more generous than you]) and so forth.

Published in: on February 16, 2012 at 11:18  Leave a Comment  
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