Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 26 – (The Chapter About Al-Makhfuuḍaat [The Nouns Caused to be in The Case of Khafḍ)

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَخْفُوضَاتِ

26 – (The Chapter About Al-Makhfuuḍaat [The Nouns Caused to be 

in The Case of Khafḍ) 

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬الـْمَخْفُضَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬ثَلاَثَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَقْسَامٍ‏‮ ‬‬مَخْفُوضٌ‏‮ ‬‬بِالحَرْفِ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَخْفُوضٌ‏‮ ‬‬بِالِإضَافَةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬تَابِعٌ‏‮ ‬‬لِلْمَخْفُوضِ‏‮ ‬‬فَأَمَّا الـْمَخْفُوضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْحَرْفِ‏‮ ‬‬فَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬مَا‏‮ ‬‬يُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِمِنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِلَى وَعَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَلَى وَفِي‏‮ ‬‬وَرُبَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْبَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْكَافِ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللاَّمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَبِحُرُوفِ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَسَمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬الْوَاوُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْبَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَبِوَاوِ‏‮ ‬‬رُبَّوَبِمُذْ‏‮ ‬‬وَمُنْذُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَمَّا مَا‏‮ ‬‬يُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالإِضَافَةِ‏‮ ‬‬فَنَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى قِسْمَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬مَا‏‮ ‬‬يُقَدَّرُ‏‮ ‬‬بِاللاَّمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا‏‮ ‬‬يُقَدَّرُ‏‮ ‬‬بِمِنْ‏‮ ‬‬فَالذِي‏‮ ‬‬يُقَدَّرُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالاَّمِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَالذِي‏‮  ‬‬يُقَدِّرُ‏‮ ‬‬بِمِنْ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬ثَوْبُ‏‮ ‬‬خَزٍّ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬سَاجٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَاتَمُ‏‮ ‬‬حَدِيدٍ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

الـْمَخْفُضَاتُ (the nouns caused to be in  the case of khaf)‏‮ ‬‬ثَلاَثَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَقْسَامٍ‏‮ ‬‬(are three kinds): مَخْفُوضٌ‏‮ ‬‬بِالحَرْفِ (the nouns caused to be in the case of khaf by الْـحَرْف [the particle]) وَمَخْفُــوضٌ‏‮ ‬‬بِالِإضَافَةِ (and noun which is caused to be in the case of khaf by الإِضَافَة (the iḍaafah construction)‏‮ ‬‬تَابِعٌ‏‮ ‬‬لِلْمَخْفُوضِ (and noun which is caused to be in the case of khaf as a result of following a noun which has been placed in khaf).  فَأَمَّا (As for) مَخْفُوضٌ‏‮ ‬‬بِالحَرْفِ (the noun which is caused to be in the case of khaf by the particle), ‏‮ ‬‬فَهُوَ (it is) مَا‏‮ ‬‬يُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِ (what is caused to be in the case of khaf by):

مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِلَى وَعَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَلَى وَفِي‏‮ ‬‬وَرُبَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْبَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْكَافِ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللاَّمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَبِحَروفِ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَسَمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬الْوَاوُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْبَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَبِوَاوِ‏‮ ‬‬رُبَّ ‏‮ ‬‬وَبِمُذْ‏‮ ‬‬وَمُنْذُ

وَأَمَّا (As for) مَا‏‮ ‬‬يُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالإِضَافَةِ (that which is caused to be in the case of khaf by the iḍaafah construction), فَنَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬(and so it is like when you say): غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (the servant of Zayd); وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى قِسْمَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬(and it is  of two kinds): مَا‏‮ ‬‬يُقَدَّرُ‏‮ ‬‬بِاللاَّمِ‏‮ ‬‬ (that which implies اللاَّم(the preposition li-) وَمَا‏‮ ‬‬يُقَدَّرُ‏‮ ‬‬بِمِن (and that which is  implies the preposition min). فَالذِي‏‮ ‬‬يُقَدَّرُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالاَّمِ (As for that which implies the preposition li-), نَحْوُ (is like when you say): غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (a servant of Zayd) وَالذِي‏‮  ‬‬يُقَدِّرُ‏‮ ‬‬بِمِنْ(while that which implies the preposition min) نَحْوُ (is like when you say): ثَوْبُ‏‮ ‬‬خَزٍّ (a garment of silk) وَبَابُ‏‮ ‬‬سَاجٍ and (a door of teak wood) وَخَاتَمُ‏‮ ‬‬حَدِيدٍ and (a ring of iron).      ‏‮ ‬‬ 

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الـمخفوضات تـنقسم إلى ثلاثة أنواع نوع‏‮ ‬‬يُخفض بالحرف ونوع‏‮ ‬‬يخفض بالإضافة ونوع‏‮ ‬‬يخفض بالتَّبَعِيَّة والذي‏‮ ‬‬يخفض بالحرف هو كل إسم دخل عليه حرف من حروف الخفض كزيد والسطْح ورجل من قولك مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وجَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى السَّطْحِ‏‮ ‬‬ورُبَّ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٍ‏‮ ‬‬كَرِيمٍ‏‮ ‬‬لَقِيْتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬فإنها أسماء مخفوضة بدخول حرف الخفض عليها وهي‏‮ ‬‬البَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وعَلَى ورُبَّ‏‮ ‬‬وأمّا حروف الخفض فقد مرّ‏‮ ‬‬ذكرها أوّلاً‏‮ ‬‬فلا حاجة إلى الـمراجعة والذي‏‮ ‬‬يخفض بالإضافة هو كل إسم نُسب إليه‏‮ ‬‬غيره على‏‮ ‬‬غير إسنادِ‏‮ ‬‬كزيد من قولك‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ فإنه إسم مخفوض منسوب إليه‏‮ ‬‬غيره وهو‏‮ ‬‬غلام وأمّا الـمخفوض بالتّبعية فقد تقدّم الكلام عليه في‏‮ ‬‬باب التّوابع‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـمَخْفُوضَاتُ (The nouns that are caused to be in the case of khafḍ) are of three kinds – one kind which is caused to be in the case of khafḍ by الْـحَرْف (the particle) which precedes them.  Another kind is caused to be in khafḍ due to الإِضَافَة (the  i∂aafah construction) and another kind is ‏‮ ‬‬يُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بالتَّبَعِيَّة caused to be in khafḍ as a result of following a noun which has been placed in khafḍ.  And so the one which is caused to be in the case of khafḍ by الْـحَرْف is every noun which has a حَرْفٌ (particle) from the particles of khafḍ preceding it, like: َزَيْد ( Zayd) and  السَّطْحُ (the roof) and الرَّجُلُ (the man) – like when you say: مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ (I passed by Zayd) and جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى السَّطْحِ (I sat on the roof) and رُبَّ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٍ‏‮ ‬‬كَرِيمٍ‏‮ ‬‬لَقِيتُهُ (many a noble man I have met).  And these are nouns which have been caused to be in the case of khafḍ by placing the حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـخَفْضِ in front of them. They are the بِـ and عَلَى and رُبَّ.

As for حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـخَفْضِ, they have already been discussed previously in the beginning.  And so there is no necessity to repeat them.  That which is caused to be in the case of khafḍ by الإِضَافَة the  iḍaafah construction) is every noun which has had another noun linked to it which is not its predicate – like زَيْد when you say: غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (the servant of Zayd).  And so زَيْد is the noun is in khafḍ which has been linked with the other noun and that noun is غُلاَم.

As for the noun which is caused to be in the case of  khafḍ because of يُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بالتَّبَعِيَّة (following a noun that is in the case of khafḍ), there has already been a discussion about it in the chapter dealing with التَّوَابِع (the appositives).

(*note in ʿArabic)

إن أحكام الإضافة ما‏‮ ‬‬يكون بتقدير اللام كغُلاَم زَيّدٍ‏‮ ‬‬فإن تقديره‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمٌ‏‮ ‬‬لِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬ومنها ما‏‮ ‬‬يكون بتقدير مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كخَاتَم فِضَّةٍ‏‮ ‬‬أي‏‮ ‬‬خَاتَمِ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬فَضَّةٍ‏‮  ‬‬وزاد بعضهم تقدير في‏‮ ‬‬كَمَكْرِ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّيْلِ‏‮ ‬‬أي‏‮ ‬‬مَكْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬اللَّيلِ‏‮ ‬‬والّه أعلم

(*note in English)

The rules of  الإِضَافَة (the iḍaafah construct) imply the meaning of اللاَّمُ = لِـ (the laam of possession) – like when you say: غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (the servant of Zayd).  This construction implies غُلاَمٌ‏‮ ‬‬لِزَيْدٍ (a servant belong to Zayd). What is also being implied within the rules for the i∂aafah construct الإِضَافَةُ is مِنْ – like when you say: خَاتَمُ‏‮ ‬‬فِضَّـــــةٍ ( a ring of silver) – that is to say: خَاتَمٌ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬فِضَّةٍ (a ring made of or from silver) and some of the grammarians also add that the iḍaafah construct implies فِي  – like when you say: كَمَكْرِ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّيْلِ (like the deception of the night) – that is to say: مَكْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬اللَّيلِ (a deception in / during the night).  And Allah is the Best of Knowers.

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Published in: Uncategorized on June 7, 2012 at 07:36  Leave a Comment  

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