Arabic Grammar – Chapter 1 – الْفِعْلُ (The Verb) and وأَقسَامُهُ (and Its Parts) Section 2

Section 2 – الْـمْتَعدِّي‮ ‬ (The Transitive Verb) ‮ ‬واللاَّزِم(and Intransitive Verb)

The Arabic verb in respect to its meaning is divided betweenالْفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬ (The transitive verb) and اللازِم (the   intransitive verb).

الْفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬ (The Transitive Verb)

The action of الْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬ (The transitive verb) is traced back to فاعْـله (its doer) and directed towards الْـمَفْعول بِهِ (it’s direct object), like when you say:فَتَحَ‮ ‬طَارِقٌ‮ ‬الأَنْدَلُسَ‮ ‬ (Tāriq conquered al-Andalus). And so the verb needs the doer to do the action and the direct object to receive it.

الْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬(The transitive verb) is also called الْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـوَاقِـعُ‮ ‬(The  verb of occurrence or happening) because its action falls upon or happens to الْـمَفْعول بِـهِ (the direct object for it).

الْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬(The transitive verb) is also referred to as الْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمُجَاوَزَةُ‮ ‬(The crossing verb) because the action of its doer crosses over to الْـمَفْعول بِـهِ (the direct object). One of its signs is that it comes in contact‮ ‬with هَـاء of the attached pronoun which replaces الْـمَفْعول بِـهِ (the direct object). اجْتِهَادُ‮ ‬الطَّالبِ‮ ‬فأَكْرََمَهُ‮ ‬أُسْتَاذُهُ (The student worked hard, and so his professor honored him).

As for the هَـاء of the attached pronoun which replaces الْـظَّرْفُ (the adverb) and الْـمَصْدَر (the verbal noun), it is not a sign of الْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬ (the transitive verb) when it is affixed to the end of the verb.  The example of the هَـاء of the attached pronoun which replaces الْـظَّرْفُ (the adverb) is like when you say: يَومُ‮ ‬الْـجُمُعَةِ‮ ‬زُرْتُهُ‮ ‬(The Day of Jumuʿah is when I visited him). تَـجَـمَّلْ‮ ‬بِـالْـفَضِيلَةِ‮ ‬تـَجَـمُّلاً‮ ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬يَتَجَـمَّلُهُ‮ ‬سَـلَفُكَ‮ ‬الصَّالِـحُ (adorned yourself greatly with moral excellence,  which your righteous predecessor used to adorned himself with). And so,  in the first example the هَـاء of the attached pronoun is standing in the place of a noun in the case of naṣb which is  الْـمَفْعول بِـهِ (the direct object), while in the second example the هَـاء of the attached pronoun is standing in the place of a noun in the case of naṣb which is مَفْعولُ‮ ‬مُطْلَقٍ (the unrestricted object) also called الْـمَصْدَر (the verbal noun).

‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬بِنَفْسِهِ‮ ‬(The Transitive Verb That Comes by Itself) وَالْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬بِغَيْرهِ‮ ‬ (and the Transitive Verb that Comes with Something Else)

‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬بِنَفْسِهِ‮ ‬(The transitive verb that comes by itself) is the verb that comes in direct contact with الْـمَفْعول بِـهِ (the direct object) without a حَـرْفُ‮ ‬الْـجَـرُّ (preposition) standing in between the verb and the object, like when you say: بَـرَيْـتُ‮ ‬الْـقَلَمَ‮ ‬ (I made the pen), and its object is said to be صَـرِيـحًا (clear, unambiguous).

‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬بِـغَيْرِهِ‮ ‬(The transitive verb that is accompanied) is the verb that comes in contact with الْـمَفْعول بِـهِ (the direct object) by means of حَـرْفُ‮ ‬الْـجَـرُّ (the preposition) which stands between the verb and the object, like when you say: ذَهَـبْتُ‮ ‬بِـكَ‮ ‬ (I went away with you),  meaning أَذْهَـبْتُكَ‮ ‬ (I took you away with me) and its object is said to be  غَيْرُ صَـرِيـحٍ (unclear).

There isالْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬ (the transitive verb) that has two direct objects. One of them is  صَـرِيـحًا (clear, unambiguous) and the other is  غَـيْرُ صَـرِيـحٍ (unclear, ambiguous), like when you say: أَدُّوا الأمَانَاتِ‮ ‬إِلَى أَهْلِهَا ‬ (They took/delivered what they were entrusted with to its owner). الأمَـانَـاتِ is مَـفْعول بِـهِ (a direct object) صَـرِيـحٌ (which is clear, unambiguous), while أَهْلِ is a direct object which  غَيْرُ صَـرِيـحٍ (is not clear). It is is clearly expressed in the case of jarr due to حَـرْفُ‮ ‬الْـجَـرُّ (the preposition), and it’s standing in the place of a noun in the case of naṣb, because the fact that it is مَـفْعول بِـهِ (a direct object) غَيْرُ صَـرِيـحٍ (is not clear).

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 1 – Letters, Words and Sentences
 
 
 
 
 
 
and The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ(Speech) in the Arabic Language
 



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