Arabic Grammar – Chapter 1 – الْفِعْلُ (The Verb) and وأَقسَامُهُ (and Its Parts) Section 2

Section 2 – الْـمْتَعدِّي‮ ‬ (The Transitive Verb) ‮ ‬واللاَّزِم(and Intransitive Verb)

The Arabic verb in respect to its meaning is divided betweenالْفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬ (The transitive verb) and اللازِم (the   intransitive verb).

الْفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬ (The Transitive Verb)

The action of الْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬ (The transitive verb) is traced back to فاعْـله (its doer) and directed towards الْـمَفْعول بِهِ (it’s direct object), like when you say:فَتَحَ‮ ‬طَارِقٌ‮ ‬الأَنْدَلُسَ‮ ‬ (Tāriq conquered al-Andalus). And so the verb needs the doer to do the action and the direct object to receive it.

الْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬(The transitive verb) is also called الْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـوَاقِـعُ‮ ‬(The  verb of occurrence or happening) because its action falls upon or happens to الْـمَفْعول بِـهِ (the direct object for it).

الْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬(The transitive verb) is also referred to as الْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمُجَاوَزَةُ‮ ‬(The crossing verb) because the action of its doer crosses over to الْـمَفْعول بِـهِ (the direct object). One of its signs is that it comes in contact‮ ‬with هَـاء of the attached pronoun which replaces الْـمَفْعول بِـهِ (the direct object). اجْتِهَادُ‮ ‬الطَّالبِ‮ ‬فأَكْرََمَهُ‮ ‬أُسْتَاذُهُ (The student worked hard, and so his professor honored him).

As for the هَـاء of the attached pronoun which replaces الْـظَّرْفُ (the adverb) and الْـمَصْدَر (the verbal noun), it is not a sign of الْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬ (the transitive verb) when it is affixed to the end of the verb.  The example of the هَـاء of the attached pronoun which replaces الْـظَّرْفُ (the adverb) is like when you say: يَومُ‮ ‬الْـجُمُعَةِ‮ ‬زُرْتُهُ‮ ‬(The Day of Jumuʿah is when I visited him). تَـجَـمَّلْ‮ ‬بِـالْـفَضِيلَةِ‮ ‬تـَجَـمُّلاً‮ ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬يَتَجَـمَّلُهُ‮ ‬سَـلَفُكَ‮ ‬الصَّالِـحُ (adorned yourself greatly with moral excellence,  which your righteous predecessor used to adorned himself with). And so,  in the first example the هَـاء of the attached pronoun is standing in the place of a noun in the case of naṣb which is  الْـمَفْعول بِـهِ (the direct object), while in the second example the هَـاء of the attached pronoun is standing in the place of a noun in the case of naṣb which is مَفْعولُ‮ ‬مُطْلَقٍ (the unrestricted object) also called الْـمَصْدَر (the verbal noun).

‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬بِنَفْسِهِ‮ ‬(The Transitive Verb That Comes by Itself) وَالْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬بِغَيْرهِ‮ ‬ (and the Transitive Verb that Comes with Something Else)

‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬بِنَفْسِهِ‮ ‬(The transitive verb that comes by itself) is the verb that comes in direct contact with الْـمَفْعول بِـهِ (the direct object) without a حَـرْفُ‮ ‬الْـجَـرُّ (preposition) standing in between the verb and the object, like when you say: بَـرَيْـتُ‮ ‬الْـقَلَمَ‮ ‬ (I made the pen), and its object is said to be صَـرِيـحًا (clear, unambiguous).

‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬بِـغَيْرِهِ‮ ‬(The transitive verb that is accompanied) is the verb that comes in contact with الْـمَفْعول بِـهِ (the direct object) by means of حَـرْفُ‮ ‬الْـجَـرُّ (the preposition) which stands between the verb and the object, like when you say: ذَهَـبْتُ‮ ‬بِـكَ‮ ‬ (I went away with you),  meaning أَذْهَـبْتُكَ‮ ‬ (I took you away with me) and its object is said to be  غَيْرُ صَـرِيـحٍ (unclear).

There isالْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬ (the transitive verb) that has two direct objects. One of them is  صَـرِيـحًا (clear, unambiguous) and the other is  غَـيْرُ صَـرِيـحٍ (unclear, ambiguous), like when you say: أَدُّوا الأمَانَاتِ‮ ‬إِلَى أَهْلِهَا ‬ (They took/delivered what they were entrusted with to its owner). الأمَـانَـاتِ is مَـفْعول بِـهِ (a direct object) صَـرِيـحٌ (which is clear, unambiguous), while أَهْلِ is a direct object which  غَيْرُ صَـرِيـحٍ (is not clear). It is is clearly expressed in the case of jarr due to حَـرْفُ‮ ‬الْـجَـرُّ (the preposition), and it’s standing in the place of a noun in the case of naṣb, because the fact that it is مَـفْعول بِـهِ (a direct object) غَيْرُ صَـرِيـحٍ (is not clear).

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 1 – Letters, Words and Sentences
 
 
 
 
 
 
and The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ(Speech) in the Arabic Language
 



Concerning Following Other Madh-habs Outside of the Four Madh-habs

Directions for Seekers

Directions For Seekers

By Shaykh Muhammad Al-Yaqoubi

This poem is a gift from Shaykh Muhammad Al-Yaqoubi to his friends and students on the occasion of Eid. He cast the original Arabic the night before the day of Arafah, during his flight from Johannesburg to Cairo; and finished writing it in English in Damascus, on 24 Dhul Hijja, 1431 H.

O my disciple, upright seeker!

Distract not yourself by others on board,

Never turn to other than Allah The Creator,

He is Your Cherisher and Your Lord.

So journey rapidly to Him with diligence;

The night is dark and unforeseen.

Be steadfast and follow the guide,

So doors will open for you as a reward!

O struggling servant, righteous, repentant!

Leave not of the world in your heart any trace:

Pledge yourself to obey the Compassionate,

Seeking in all your endeavour His Face!

As only the servants who humbly concede

Their feats for Him eventually succeed.

So be enchained by love not fear,

To fly through the way and win this race!

O servant who witnessed The One with none,

While his being was entirely gone:

Confirm to the world His Divine Qualities,

And rid yourself of all your vanities!

God cannot be identified,

Cannot be conceived of nor be defined.

Look for His Signs within yourself,

And in the horizons detect and find.

Do not delve into the quest for His Essence,

And order your mind to halt and shun.

Proofs of the Divine Power are shone,

To mankind every morn at the rise of the sun!

To my pure lover and devout invoker:

Strive and persist with acts of obedience-

The Merciful is to your earnest efforts,

Evermore Thankful in abundance!

Keep up your invocations flowing

Never consider them adequate or enough.

As He created you and your deeds,

So let on Him be your firm reliance!

You who, out of ignorance, is lured

To claim to have reached immortality:

Cry in fear and cling to humility,

Efface yourself and know your reality!

Throw your claim to fame behind

Refine your heart and clear your mind,

If you on the Way ever hope to find

Eternal joy and avoid fatality!

To the traveller, dreaming of high ranks,

Pretending he wants Him yet he lacks

The core of belief and instead

He looks around for a miraculous act!

Fancying he could fly; or even have

The gold of the world brought in sacks,

Looking for Aladdin’s lamp to bring

The king of jinn at once intact:

The marvelous wonder is being upright

Throughout one’s life from birth to death,

Exactly as you’ve been commanded

By Allah, in every breath!

So be ashamed of a wicked wish

And renew your Sufi contract

Unconscious and unmindful of

Being a slave of lustful whim,

Your enemy resides within your skin;

So let your war ‘gainst you be grim.

Be vigilant of the deceit of the self

And what it may embellish or limn.

Free yourself of your free will

And yield to His Will, then safely swim.

Purge your heart of lingering love,

And attachment to other than Him.

Your excuse of leaning towards

Your choice before Him is shamefully slim.

So let Him lead the rein of your life

While in joy you sing His hymn;

Before you’re rejected or even be torn

For your misdeeds limb from limb.

Wishful thinking makes the traveller’s

Road in noonday utterly dim.

I once had the honor of being

In the service of a great Saint (1)

And I beheld miracles following him

With no impure trace or taint-

Rather, they were obvious signs

Of his remarkable self-restraint!

His aspiration in both worlds

Was above everyone’s with no pride.

He was silent with few words

Yet he could make mountains slide.

He was raised to the highest ranks,

Because he never had any complaint!

To the spoiled servant, the insouciant

Demanding from Him immediate entrance,

Affirming that you’re consciously truthful;

Proud of your fake works and vague states:

Do you depend on Allah for deliverance-

Or on your untrue state of heart?

Surely being truthful is a Grace

But to see it emerging from you is a hindrance.

Hence, do not be stopped on your trip

By “I” and “my” lest you be torn apart!

O dear companion! Never head for

The territory of a heedless sinner;

Always stand at the threshold of

The Truthful and the Righteous winner!

Attaining stations of this Way

Is done through the hearts of illustrious Gnostics.

Travelling without a guide makes you

An easy prey for the predator’s dinner!

Your book is the Shaykh; in him everything

You want or need is fully included.

To be quenched, you must accompany him

In full submission, not be eluded

So listen to what the Shaykh dictates,

As he breathes into your heart:

Knowledge, wisdom and light will pour,

To make your heart a piece of art!

The legacy of the Prophet through

A sacred chain in him concluded.

With all the traps of the self and the Satan,

The risk is high if you secluded.

Without the company of the Champions,

Reaching Allah is precluded.

Going astray is a probable result

If you on your own chose to depart!

To the yearning servant! Are you after

The Truth or trying to solve a riddle,

Forecasting the future to have secrets divulged,

Which blocked your advancement in the middle?

You must be courageous to defy these desires

Be first and best; don’t play second fiddle;

Grow up and leave these wishes behind

As jewels are not to be mined by a novice-

You know not the difference in a crevice

Between rocks and gems; you only twiddle!

Persist in the quest for Truth alone

And never lean towards any looming illusion.

Treading in the land of the earthly dominion,

My dear confidant is but an intrusion.

Everything other than Allah the Majestic

Is like a mirage; they’re not even rivals.

You run after them, you get not a thing-

Find Him to find all; this is my conclusion!

O vanishing Servant delighted in ecstasy,

Dwelling in the zone of annihilation

To other than The Master: you have to wake up,

And swiftly feel your own sensation.

Look carefully! You are you, a contingent being;

You could never be He; no union is allowed.

He is He: Allah, The Eternal, The Unique-

By heart is witnessed by reason is found.

Stay back and uphold this essential contrast;

To remove from your mind and your heart this cloud.

The top Sufi masters clearly distinguished

And warned in this field of the slightest deviation.

In the start of the voyage you are a newborn

The end of the trip brings resuscitation.

“Thee” in the Opening chapter (2) removed

From our eyes all veils and curtains.

Reflect on the Divine Command in “Be”(3)

There is in it no doubt a secret concealed.

In the verse “You did not throw when you threw”(4)

The gist of all statements is sealed!

O yearning lover, celebrating his passion

For the beauties of the Eternal Heaven:

You are in love with damsels, fountains

Flowers and the splendid palaces,

Silk and cashmere, pearls and perfume

And all the luxury and grandeur-

To the Friends of Allah, the Garden is but

A moment in His Beatific Presence!

If your goal is closeness to the Near

Prostrate yourself to have His contentment!

Worship Him As though you saw Him

In this world without presentment-

The Reward for your ihsaan(5) is His

To eventually see Him in Paradise;

Gaze then in ecstasy at the Great

And thank Him for the blissful prize!

O servant, seeking only His Face

With no inclination to a single pleasure:

Behold! You are called by His Grace

Invited and ushered to the Divine Treasure!

He favoured you; He admitted you in

Before you repented (6) at your leisure ,

You’re now predestined to receive from Him

Knowledge and wisdom beyond measure!

 Footnotes

(1) In this line, I am referring to the Pole of the awliya of his time, the Proof of Islam, the great Gnostic, namely, my father and my Master, Sayyid Shaykh Ibrahim Al-Yaqoubi, may Allah sanctify his soul.

(2) In the first chapter in the Holy Qur’an, “Thee” is in verse 5. “Thee do we worship.”

(3) Referring to the Divine command “Be and it is” e.g. verse 82 chapter 36 “Yasin.”

(4) Verse 17 chapter 8; “Ye did not throw when ye threw; it is Allah indeed who threw.”

(5) Verse 60 chapter 55; “Is there any reward for ihsaan except ihsaan itself!”

(6) Verse 118 chapter 9; “He accepted their repentance so that they repent.”

Published in: on May 11, 2012 at 11:14  Leave a Comment  
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The Islamic Concept of Leadership and Its Application In The Sakkwato Caliphate

Sokoto Caliphate1

The Islamic Concept of Leadership and Its Application  In The Sakkwato Caliphate

By

Professor Sambo Wali Junaid Department of Arabic 

Usman Dan Fodiyo University Sokoto

The Sakkwato Caliphate, as it is popularly called, is that Islamic government which was based on the pattern of the orthodox Caliphal system founded by the Prophet of Allah Muhammad, may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him and which he bequeathed to Islamic communities all over the world as a modus operandi for every Muslim Ummah to emulate and be governed by. The major sources of jurisdiction for this caliphal system of government are the Qur’an, the Hadith (traditions of the Prophet) (SAW) and the ʿijma’ (consensus of ʿulama and qiyas (analogy) deduced by scholars of every epoch.

The orthodox caliphs from which the Sakkwato leaders derived their inspirations are those four caliphs, namely, Abubakar, Umar, Usman and Ali who governed the entire Muslim world of their time under strict compliance with Shariah as explained to them by the Qur’an and the sayings, acts and approvals of the Prophet (SAW).

The Sokoto caliphate was founded by the renowned scholar and Mujaddid Shaykh Uthman b. Fodiyo. He initially started his career as a preacher with the sole purpose of cleansing the society of its social, political and religious ills. He began by educating the society on proper ways of worship, separating them from the un-Islamic practices interwoven with Islam but which are diametrical with Islam and border to unbelief. He then criticized the venal ʿulama’ (scholars) who encouraged rulers to misrule by overburdening the subjects with heavy taxes fines and confiscation of their properties without any just cause. He undertook preaching tours within Gobir and Zamfara areas. Within a couple of years, Shaykh Uthman raised a community of dedicated Muslims. The growing number of serious Muslims around him aroused the anger of Hausa rulers. Particularly the Gobir ruler. Shaykh Uthman was able to obtain for and on behalf of his followers some concessions.

The kings especially, the tyrant king of Gobir stepped-up his hostilities against the Shaykh’s community, maiming them, killing them, capturing them and selling them as slaves (Muhammad Bello, Infaq al-Maisur).

At a time the Shaykh had called on the king with the aim of finding solutions to hostilities meted against the Shaykh’s community. No sooner was some amicable solution reached when the king of Gobir, Nafata, after assuming office made contradictory declarations against the concessions given to Jama’ah. He declared that:

1. No one except the Shaykh should preach,

2. No one whose parents or grandparents were not originally Muslims should convert to Islam, and those converted should revert to their former religion,

3. No man should wear a turban henceforth,

4. No woman should henceforth wear a veil.

These and many other provocations made the Shaykh’s community start thinking for a leader to defend themselves under him. The Jamāʿah unanimously chose the Shaykh to be their first Amirul Muminin in 1804 after they migrated to Gudu. They fought many battles, some of which they won and lost some. With the capture of Alkalawa, a solid foundation for the establishment of a Caliphate with all its organs and offices, was laid down. The Caliphate waxed stronger with vast territories covering most of the Northern States of the present-day Nigeria and extending its borders to some parts of the present-day Republics of Niger, Chad, Cameroun and Mali. Even the powerful kingdom of Borno lost some part of its territories to the Caliphate.

The leaders of this growing Caliphate were scholars of repute and they wrote a number of books to serve as guidelines in the administration of the Caliphate. The first Amirul Muminin Shaykh Uthman, his full-brother Abdullahi and their son. Muhammad Bello became the nucleus of the Caliphate and they wrote extensively on religious, social, political and economic aspects of an Islamic government whose constitution was the embodiment of the Qur’an, the Sunnah and the consensus of ʿulama’.

The Islamic Concept of Leadership:

Vicegerency, the Islamic concept of leadership first emerged from the Qur’anic verse that expressed Allah’s wish to appoint His vicegerent on earth soil as to maintain justice among the creations both human beings and jinns that would worship Him. On hearing this, the angels were surprised that the human being who was not to be trusted was assigned this onerous responsibility of being Allah’s representative on earth. They politely inquired:

“Do thou place therein one who will do harm therein and will shed blood, while we, we hymn Thy praise and sanctify Thee …?” (Surah II, Verse 30).

What these verses inferred is that’ Adam’ is the representative of Allah on earth who is to live, worship and maintain justice among other human beings. The concept clearly shows that leadership in Islam is a trust from Allah. A leader should regard himself as representing Prophet Muhammad (SAW) who in turn represents Allah the Creator. Allah is the All-knowing. He keeps records of all His Messenger’s representative’s activities on earth. A leader will be fully accountable to Allah on the Day of Judgment. If he commits any injustice among fellow human beings, among animal and plant kingdoms as a leader of his home, his ward, his village, his local government, his state, his nation, his planet, the neighbouring planets, the Creator of all beings is watching him. He may punish him right here on earth or may delay the punishment until the final Day of judgment. This trust by Allah through His Prophets is an all-comprehensive one and must be maintained with all sincerity.

The quoted verse above has been explained by a number of traditions of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) emphasizing the trust and that man will be accountable to Allah. The first Hadith, which comes to mind, is that which says:

“Each one of you is a shepherd and each one of you would be asked about his shepherd. The leader is a shepherd and would be accountable to Allah about his shepherd.”

In yet another Hadith the Prophet (SAW) said when his companions asked him:

What do you see if leaders were appointed and they asked for their rights from us as our leaders but they in turn refused to give us our rights as their subjects? The Prophet (SAW) replied, “Give them their rights and ask them for your right from Allah for He will certainly make them accountable to what they have been entrusted ‘with.” (Shaykh Uthman, Najm al-Ikhwan, p.8).

This leadership under whatever name it is called, the same principle of trust be applied. The leader may be called Mr. President as in American democracy, the Prime Minister as in democracies of Westminster style, the Imam as in lran, the King as in Saudi Arabian monarchy or the Khalifah as was severally used in the Glorious Qur’an, In the Qur’an, Khalifah, Malik and Imam or their derivations have been used signifying leadership. Thus referring to Prophet Yusuf (AS), the verse reads:

“Oh my Lord! Thou hast given me sovereignty.” (Surah 12, Verse 101).

Also Prophet Sulaiman (AS) said as reported in the Qur’an:

“He said, My Lord! Forgive me and bestow on me sovereignty such as shall not belong to all after me.” (Surah 38, Verse 35).

In another verse referring to Imamate, it reads:

“And We made them chiefs who guide by our command …” (Surah 21.Verse 73).

In another verse referring to Prophet Ibrahim (AS). It reads:

“He said, Lo! I have appointed thee a leader (Imam) for mankind.” (Surah 2, Verse 124).

All these verses refer to various terms used for leadership role but they all point to one thing and that it is a trust which must be preserved by all types and scopes of leadership. It was with this trust in mind that Prophet Yusuf (A.S) requested Paroah to entrust him with the store-houses. He said:

“Set me over the store-houses of the land. Loll am a skilled custodian.” (Surah 12, Verse 55).

After this trust is entrusted upon a leader, then he is expected to maintain that trust and treat everyone equitably without fear or favour. In another Hadith, the Prophet of Allah (Muhammad) (SAW) said:

“The Sultan is the shadow of Allah on earth!”

The leader, therefore, being the shadow of Allah’s authority through the Prophets, should treat everyone equally. Vice such as nepotism, self aggrandizement, promotion of one’s friends, egocentricism, blind-materialism, acquisition of ill-gotten wealth should all be. avoided by a leader. In fact, the leader should be as the Prophet (SAW) described him saying:

“The leader of a community is but their servant.”

When this concept of trust which is an authority bestowed to you by Allah is digested the leader must be just in his dealing with all his subjects. He must be fair to all and sundry and the rule of the Sharfah must be supreme. Whoever tampers with the Shariah must be punished accordingly after full investigations. Justice must be carried out in all facets of human endeavours. It must include justice in relation to terrestrial and marine life as well as in connection with animal and plant kingdoms. He must do justice to the planet he lives in and the planets that he sees and utilises. To sum it all, a leader must uphold justice even against himself. He should not therefore claim immunity of the rule of the Shariah. Everyone, with high or low status, must be equal before the Shariah (Shehu Umar Abdullah. On the Search for a Viable Political Culture p.47).

The leader must see his leadership role as both mundane and spiritual. In other words, the concept of secularism as professed by the so-called modern democracies, which separate religion from politics, is absolutely alien in Islam (Shehu Umar Abdullahi, Ibid, p.46).

It was reported on the authority of Ibn Abbas that the Prophet (SAW) had said:

“Authority and Islam are twins, neither of both can, improve without the other. lslam is the foundation while authority is the protector, Whatever lacks foundatlon will collapse and whatever lacks protector is lost.” (Shaykh Uthman b. Fodiyo, Najm al-Ikhwan, p.68).

In other words, politics and religion are seen in Islam as just two faces of the same coin. The leader, therefore, must see his role as such and must, with all sincerity, carry out his responsibilities with justice irrespective of differences of religion, ethnic affiliations, geographical boundaries, etc. The religion of Islam enjoined him to be fair to all, The Glorious Qur’an says:

“Oh ye who believe! Be steadfast witnesses for Allah in equity, and let not hatred of any people seduce you that you deal not justly. Deal justly, that is nearer to your duty. Observe your duty to Allah. Lo! Allah is informed of what ye do.” (Surah 5, Verse 8).

In another verse, the leader is enjoined to maintain justice even if it is against his relative. The Our’an urges that:

“And if you give your word, as justice thereunto, even though it be (against) a kinsman!” (Surah 6, Verse 152).

In another verse, the leader is still being enjoined to uphold justice whenever he passes a judgement among his subjects.

The Our’an says:

“And if ye judge between mankind that you judge justly.” (Surah 4, Verse 58).

The next concept of leadership in Islam is the utilisation of Shura [consultation], The Qur’an enjoins the leader to look for advice before embarking on any serious issue affecting his subjects. The so-called modern models of State or National assemblies under the guise of Western democracies are mere caricatures of the Islamic principle of Shura revealed to the Prophet of Islam (SAW) more than one thousand, four hundred and eighteen years ago. Shuraor Counsel is from the Arabic word ashara. Shura to show or to consent or approve by nodding one’s head.

The person seeking advice would want to know areas of truth and the benefit . to be derived from the issue Shura is sought for Counsel is the search for an expert opinion from experienced persons to enable the leader arrive at what seems to be right, But before the right course or decision is arrived at, a body of experienced persons must come together and critically examining each other’s opinion being guided by the principles of jihad.

Those issues which had already been legislated on in the Qur’an and/or by the Prophet (.SAW) cannot be subjected to discussion or review. The leader may however call for a discussion, presentation of opinions or debate on things that are either not yet clear or have multiple approaches. Matters of peace and war or signing treaties, for example, are issues that should not be taken lightly or rushed into without taking due cognisance of the implications involved.

Particular example which may be cited here where difficult decisions were taken by the Prophet (SAW) was the Hudaibiyah peace accord. Despite the opposition by some of his companions to the treaty, the Prophet (SAW) upheld it and it turned out to be the greatest conquest in the history of Islam.

Another example was the Battle of Uhud when some of his companions advised that he should remain in Madina while others opined that he should move out. Each opinion was trying to arrive at what would be the best option for the Muslims. But in the end, the Prophet (SAW) chose the decision to go out of Madina to meet the enemies (see Abdurrahman Abdul-Khaliq, AI-Shura, p.17).

For any issues to be tabled for discussion, the leader must be able to select experienced persons who are transparently sincere, honest, determined and have strong sense of responsibility who will stand firmly by the decisions taken and implement them as required. That body of decision-making must not be lobbied by the leadership but should let each one of them to be the master of his conscience and the protector of the trust reposed in him by Allah.

The importance of Counsel has been emphasised in the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet (SAW). A whole chapter of the Qur’an was named chapter of Shura. In one of the verses of the chapter, Muslim leaders are enjoined to seek for advice before taking any serious decisions.

In another chapter, the importance of seeking for Counsel was also highlighted when the Prophet (SAW) was asked to consult his companions before taking a decision. The Qur’an verse reads:

“So pardon them and ask for forgiveness for them and consult with them upon the conduct of affairs. And when thou art resolved, then put thy trust in Allah Lo! Allah loveth those who put their trust in Him.” (Surah 3. Verse 1.59).

With the establishment of an Islamic State, the leader must not relent in his defence of the Ummah from internal and external enemies by establishing a strong force to defend the nation of Islam defends its territories as well as guarantee the application of the Shariah throughout his domain. The nation of Islam must be combat ready and the leadership must be alert and lead its army in defence of the State. The leadership must protect the religion and its values with all its ‘juristical, administrative and military’ capabilities. The leader must adhere to the following ten conditions in discharging the affairs of the Islamic State. The conditions are:

a) Preservation of faith in its established principles and in the form in which al-Salaf (the predecessors) of the Ummah had unanimously agreed.

b) Enforcement of judgments among contenders and resolving cases among disputants.

c) Provision of security in the territory so that people may live in their homes safely and travel in security.

d) Enforcement of punishments prescribed by the Shariah to safeguard the limits set by Allah and preserve the rights of people.

e) Fortification of borders with preventive equipment and repelling of aggression.

f) Jihad against those who oppose Islam after calling upon them to embrace it or to accept protection as non-Muslims, so that the light of Allah is upheld in proclamation of the religion in its entirety.

g) Levying of taxes and collection of Zakah and charity from the treasury without being extravagant or stingy.

h) Appointing the honest and competent to positions of trust in order to preserve (State) wealth to administer (government’s) affairs.

i) Personal supervision and examination of public affairs to be able to lead the nation and protect the religion.

j) Personal supervision and examination of public affairs to be able to lead the nation the nation and protect the religion (See Muhammad S. EI Awa, on the Political System of the Islamic State, p.?7).

Now we have through the previous pages seen the Islamic concept of leadership and what follows is the application of that concept in the Sakkwato Caliphate.

Concept of Leadership and Its Application in the Sakata Caliphate

The leaders in the Sokoto Caliphate firmly believed that leadership is a trust from Allah through the Prophet (SAW) bestowed on them to rule according to Shariah. Thus, from the onset, the Muslims unanimously agreed to pay homage to Shaykh Uthman b. Fodiyo as the first Amirul-Muminin of the newly established Muslim Ummah, an Ummah which is to be governed by the Shariah. The leadership from the beginning applied Shura when they realised the danger they were exposed to by the enemy. After their Hijra to Gudu, the Muslim Ummah met and agreed to pay homage to Shaykh Uthman as Amirul Muuminin. The first to pay the homage was his full-brother Abdullah, followed by Muhammad Bello and then Umar Alkammu and the rest of the “Ummah (see Wazir Junaidu, Tarihin Fulani, pp.16-17).

The Shariah as the basis of Muslim constitution was implemented in full. Honest, pious and scholarly judges were appointed throughout the Caliphate. In fact, descendants of these jUdges like the Qadi-Qudat (Chief Judge) still retain the titles if not the functions. We also have other titles like the Sa’i who takes charge of the collection and distribution of Zakah. Other are the Sarkin Yaki (War Commander), the title still held by the descendants of Aliyu Jedo, the war commander at the time of the Jihad and the Muhtasib (Censor of Morals). As for the Wazir, the Shaykh appointed four viziers, namely: Abdullah,Muhammad Bello, Umar  Alkammu and Malam Sa’adare. When the Caliphate became stronger, the viziership positions were reduced to only two. The Western flank under the charge of Abdullah has its own vizier as was the case with the Eastern flank under Bello. However, as Muhammad Bello became the second Caliph, the viziership position of the Caliphate held by Abdullahi shifted to  ‘Uthman Gidado.

The application of the Shariah was thorough and that some recordedincidents during the  struggle to apply justice to all were evidenced in some traditions.

Sultan Bello’s strict application of the Shariah is evidenced by his scrutinizing the judges, reversing their judgments dictated by their own interest and his refusal to give them free rein in their posts (Alhaji Shehu Malami, Sir Siddiq Abubakar III, p.25). Sultan Bello was also said to have told his brotherAbubakar Atiku:

If you judge according to the truth, I will not interfere with you.” (Ibid, p.25). Throughout the Caliphate, justice was done and every, citizen was forced to comply with the Shariah. As a result of that, there was absolute peace. This peaceful momentum did not escape the eagle-eye of the Christian white explorer, Clapperton who observed that:

“The laws of the Qur’an were in his (Bello’s) time so strictly put in force … That the whole country when not in a state of war, was so well regulated that a woman might travel with a casket of gold upon her head from one end of the Fellata dominions to the other,” (See Rashid, Islamic Lava in Nigeria, p.39)

The Sokoto leadership promoted learning and scholarship. This promotion was vigorously pursued by the Caliphate so much so that there was no Islamic revivalist movement in the whole of Africa during that time that had bequeathed to the generations of the Sakkwato Caliphate. Shehu Uthman had written not less than one hundred books and manuals in three languages, namely: Fulfulde, Hausa and Arabic. So was also done by his son Bello and Abdullahi and Emirs who received flags from the Shehu. All the flag-bearers were at one time or another students of Shaykh Uthman b. Fodiyo who in turn encouraged scholarship in their own areas of jurisdiction.

With the combined efforts of the leaders and their subjects, within a short period, the massive educational and enlightenment programmes embarked upon by the Caliphate yielded fruitful results.

At this juncture, one can recall the unprecedented educational campaign mounted by Nana Asma’u, the Shaykh’s daughter to educate the women-folk. Nana herself. a poetess in three languages, did not hesitate to compose poems which are still sung today to educate the women masses. She organised the Ysn-teru’ (Associates) system of knowledge dissemination whereby older women from rural areas converged to her home and received lessons from her and in turn disseminated such lessons to the wives in purdah in the rural areas.

The lessons usually imparted by Nana Asma’u included Islamic rituals like the five daily prayers, aspects of Teunia, the Zakah, responsibilities of the wife to the family, etc. These rituals are composed in poems for easy memorization. (Jean Boyd, The Caliph’s Sister, pp.-51-52).

After the establishment of the Caliphate, the leaders built a strong army to defend and extend the territories of the nation of Islam. The leaders led many successful expeditions against the  enemy. Abdullah, who was in charge of the Western flank of the Caliphate and his able lieutenants, ably extended the areas of the Caliphate as far away as the Nupe and Yoruba lands. while Bello effectively controlled the whole of the Eastern flank which extended far beyond Adamawa. The Caliphate remained intact and the leaders successfully subdued to submission the attempted rebellion after the demise of Sultan Bello. Sultan Bello had, during his reign which spanned for over 20 years, led 17 military campaigns against the enemies of Islam.

The Caliphate became the Islamic umbrella under which the citizens of the nation of Islam, irrespective of language, colour or place of birth, converged to worship Allah alone and maintain justice among human’ beings and becametrue representatives of Allah on earth.

Conclusion

The paper traced the Islamic concept of leadership from the Qur’an and the Sunnah, the two main sources of Islamic jurisprudence and constitution. It discussed the Islamic and secular concepts of leadership. It emphasized that the Sakkwato Caliphate believed in leadership being a trust from Allah and had left no stone unturned throughout its life-span which began in 1804 until it was rudely halted in the year 1903 by the British fire power.

The paper also expressed its nostalgia for the Islamic concept of leadership especially with regard to the general security of life and property, which followed the total application of the Shariah.

References

1. Abdullah b. Fodiyo, Tazyin al-Waraqat. Kano, 1383 A.H.

2. Abdullah b. Fodiyo, Diyaul-Sultan, Zaria

3. Abdurrahman Abdul-Khaliq, AI-Shra fi Dhilli Nidham al-Hukm al-Islami, Kuwait. 1988.

4. Alhaji Shehu Malami, Sir Siddiq Abubakar III, Ibadan, 1989.

5. Ibrahim Imam, Tarihin Shehu Usman Mujaddadi, Zaria, 1966.

6. Jean Boyd, The Caliph’s Sister, Nana Asma’u, London, 1989.

7. Kalim Siddiqui, Issues in the Islamic Mivement, London, 198.0-81.

8. Muhammad Bello, Aigayth al-wabi fi Sirat ai-Imam al-Adl, manuscript available in Wazir Junaidu’s personal library.

9. Muhammad Bello, Infaq al-Maisur, London, 1957.

10. Muhammad Bello, Sard al-Kalam fi Ma Jara Bainana Wa Baina Abdissalam, Manuscript available in my personal library.

11. Muhammad Fu’ad Abdul-baqi, AI-Mu’jam al-Mufahras Ii al-Fadh al Our’an al-Karim, Beirut, 1945.

12. Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall, The Meaning of the Glorious Qur’an, Karachi, 1986.

13. Muhammad S.EI-Awa, On the Political System of the Islamic State, Indiana, 1980.

14 Sa’adu b. Abdurrahman, Tartib al-Ashab wa Tajmi’ Ulil-Albab, Manuscript available in wazir Junaidu’s personal library.

15. Shehu Umar Abdullah, On the Search for a Viable Political Culture, Kaduna, 1984.

16. Syed Khalid Rashid, Islamic Law in Nigeria, Sokoto.

17. Uthman b. Fodiyo, Sayan Wuju al-Hijra al Allbad wa Bayan Nasbi al-Imam wa Iqamat al-Jihad, Zaria.

18. Uthman b. Fodiyo, Najm al-Ikhwan Yahtaduna Bihi Bi Idhnil Lah fi Umur al-Zaman. Cairo.

19. Wazir Junaidu, Tarihin Fulani, Zaria, 1957.

International Seminar Papers

1. International Seminar on “The Role of the Ulama in the Sakkwato

Caliphate”, 1800-1803, presented in 1986, organised by C.I.S/U.D.U.S.

2. International Seminar on “Intellectual Tradition in the Sakkwato

Caliphate”, 1987, organised by C.I.S/U.D.U.S.

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