Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 22 – (The Chapter About Laa)

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ

22 – (The Chapter About Laa)

‏‮ ‬‬ʿArabic Text: 

‏‮(‬‬إِعْلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬أَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬تَنْصِبُ‏‮ ‬‬النَّكِرَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬بِغَيْرِ‏‮ ‬‬تَنْوِينٍ‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا بَاشِرَتِ‏‮ ‬‬النَّكِرَةَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬تَتَكَرَّرْ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬فَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬تُبَاشِرْهَا وَجَبَ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّفْعُ‏‮ ‬‬وَوَجَبَ‏‮ ‬‬تَكْرَارُ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬فَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَكَرَّرَتْ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮  ‬‬جَازَ‏‮ ‬‬إِعْمَالُهَا وَإِلْغَاؤُهَا فَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬شِئْتَ‏‮ ‬‬قُلْتَ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرأَةَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬شِئْتَ‏‮ ‬‬قُلْتَ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةٌ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

إِعْلَمْ (Know), that لاَ (laa) تَنْصِبُ‏‮ ‬‬النَّكَرَاتُ (causes the indefinite nouns to be in the case of naṣb) بِغَيْرِ (without) التَّنْوِيــــنِ (adding the nuun sound to the end of the noun),  إِذَا بَاشِرَتِ (when it [لا – laa] comes in contact with) النّكرة (the indefinite noun) وَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬تَتَكَرَّرْ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ (and is not repeated) – نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬ like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ (there is no man in the house).

‏‮ ‬‬فَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬تُبَاشِرْهَا (If it [لَا – laa]) does not come in contact with it [النّكرة – the indefinite noun]), وَجَبَ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّفْعُ (the case of rafʿ is required) وَوَجَبَ‏‮ ‬‬تَكْرَارُ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ (and لاَ must  be  repeated)  نَحْـــــوُ  (like when you  say): لاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِــي‏‮ ‬‬الــدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةٌ (No man nor woman are in the house).

‏‮ ‬‬ فَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَكَـــرَّرَتْ‏‮ ‬‬لا(If لاَ is repeated),  جَازَ‏‮ ‬‬إِعْمَالُهَا وَإِلْغَاؤُهَا (the use and non-use of [the case of naṣb] is permitted.  فَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬شِئْتَ (So if you wish), قُلْتَ (you can say): لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُـــلَ‏‮ ‬‬فِـي‏‮ ‬‬الــدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرأَةَ (No man nor woman are in the house);  وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬شِئْتَ (and if you wish),  قُلْتَ (you can say): لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأةٌ.

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

لاَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّافِيَة هي‏‮ ‬‬الحرف التي‏‮ ‬‬يُرادَُ‏‮ ‬‬بها نفي‏‮ ‬‬الجنس على سبيل التـنصيص أي‏‮ ‬‬أنها تنفي‏‮ ‬‬الجسم الدّاخلة عليه نفيًا عامًا حتى لا‏‮ ‬‬يجوز أنْ‏‮ ‬‬يُستـثـنى واحد من أفـراده كقولك لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ فإنّ‏‮ ‬‬لا فيه نافية لجسم الرّجال حتى لا‏‮ ‬‬يجوز أنْ‏‮ ‬‬تقول بل رجلان وهي‏‮ ‬‬تعمل عمل إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬فتنصب الـمبتدأ إسمًا لها وترفع الخبر خبرًا لها ولا فرق في‏‮ ‬‬هذا العمل بين الـمفردة وهي‏‮ ‬‬التي‏‮ ‬‬لم تتكرّر نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمَ‏‮ ‬‬سَفَـرٍ‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِرٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬بين الـمُكرَّرة نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرأَةَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬غير أنّها متي‏‮ ‬‬تتكرّرت مع مباشرتها النكرة جاز الغاؤها نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬حَوْلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬قُوَّةٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬بِاللَّهِ‏‮ ‬‬بالرفع في‏‮ ‬‬الحول والقوّة‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English: 

لاَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّافِيَة (The laa of negation) is the particle by which the negation of a specific category of noun is desired according to the way it is quoted – that is to say لاَ (laa) negates the category of noun by preceding it with a total negation of (it) to the point of not allowing anything from it (the category) to be excluded (in the negation) – like when you say:لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ (there is not (one) man in the house).  And so لاَ (laa) negates the category of men in it (the house) until it is impossible for you to (even) say: بلْ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلاَنِ (except two men).  It operates in the same manner as إِنَّ.  It (laa) causes الْــمُبْتَدَأ (the  subject) which is  referred to as إِسْمًا لَهَا (its noun) to be in the case of naṣb and it causes the predicate which is refer to as خَبْرًا لَهَا (its predicate) to be in the case of rafʿ.  There is no differentiation made in this function between the لا that is expressed  only once – which is the لا that is not repeated,  like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمَ‏‮ ‬‬سَفَرٍ‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِــــرٌ (there is no traveling servant here) –  and the لا which is repeated,  like when you say :لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرأَةَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ (there is no man nor woman in the house).  However, if it (لا – [laa)] is repeated, while having the indefinite noun coming in direct contact with it, then the cancellation of the naṣb case is allowed – like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬حَوْلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬قُوَّةٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬بِاللَّهِ (there is no power nor might except with Allah) with حَوْلٌ and قُوَّةٌ being in the case of rafʿ.

Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

يشترط في‏‮ ‬‬عمل لا أمران أحدهما أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون إسمها وخبرها نكرتين والثاني‏‮ ‬‬أنْ‏‮ ‬‬يكون الإسم مقدّمًا والخبر مؤخرًا وذلك كقولك لاَ‏‮ ‬‬صَاحِبَ‏‮ ‬‬عِلْمٍ‏‮ ‬‬مَمْقُوتٌ‏‮ ‬‬ولاَ‏‮ ‬‬طَالِعًا جَبَلاً‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِرٌ‏‮ ‬‬فلو دخلت على معرفة أو على خبر مقدّم وجب إما إِهْمَالِها أو تكرارها فمثال دخولها على الـمعرفة قولك‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـــدٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِـي‏‮ ‬‬الــدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو بِتكرارها ومثال تقدّم خبرها قولك لاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأةٌ‏‮ ‬‬بإِهْمَالِها‏‮ ‬‬

Further Explanation of Text in English:

Two conditions have been made prerequisite for the function of لاَ (laa).  The first of them is that إِسْمُهَا (its noun) and خَبْرُهَا (its predicate) must both be indefinite.  The second condition is that the noun comes first and the predicate comes last – like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬صَاحِبَ‏‮ ‬‬عِلْمٍ‏‮ ‬‬مَمْقُوتٌ‏‮ ‬‬ (no owner of knowledge is hated) and ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬طَالِعًا جَبَلاً‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِرٌ (there is no mountain climber present).  If لاَ (laa) comes in front of a definite noun or a predicate that comes before its noun, either its omission or its repetition is required.  The  example of لاَ (laa) coming in front of the definite noun is like when you   say: ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـــدٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِـي‏‮ ‬‬الــدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو (there is know Zayd nor ʿAmr in the house) with لاَ (laa) being repeated.  The example of the predicate of لاَ coming first is like when you  say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِــي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأةٌ (there is no man nor woman in the house) with لاَ‏‮ ‬‬(laa) being omitted.

Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

أعلم‏‮ ‬‬أوّلاَ‏‮ ‬‬إن لا إنْ‏‮ ‬‬لم تباشر النكرة أي‏‮ ‬‬إنْ‏‮ ‬‬فصل بينهما فاصل فحينئذ لا‏‮ ‬‬يجوز نصب النكرة بها‏‮ ‬‬يجب رفعها ويجب مع ذلك تَكْرار لا نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬ولا امْرَأَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬ثانيا إن لاَ‏‮ ‬‬إنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَكَرَّرَتْ‏‮ ‬‬مع مباشرتها النكرة جَازَ‏‮ ‬‬إعمالها والغاؤها أي‏‮ ‬‬جاز أن تنصب بها النكرة الواقعة بعدها أو تُبْقِيهَا مرفوعة وتُبْطِل عمل لا نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةَ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدّارِ‏‮ ‬‬بفتح الإسمين أو رفعهما

Further Explanation of Text in English: 

Know, firstly, that if لاَ (laa) doesn’t come in direct contact with the indefinite noun  –  that is to say, if something is standing between them, then it is not permissible for the indefinite noun to be in the case of naṣb.  The case of rafʿ is required for it and in addition to that, لاَ must be repeated. – like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةٌ.

Secondly, if لاَ (laa) is repeated due to contact with the النَّكِرَة (the indefinite noun), its application and its omission is permitted. – that is to say, النَّكِرَة (the indefinite noun) which comes after لاَ (laa) can be in the case or naṣb or it can remain in the case of rafʿ and the function of لاَ (laa) will be cancelled – like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُـــــلَ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُـــلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةَ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدّارِ with fat-ḥah placed on both nouns or the case of rafʿ (that is to say, ḍammah is place on the end of the each noun).

Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

فاسم لا‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬إلّا‏‮ ‬‬يخلو من ثلاثة أحوال الأوّل أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون مضافًا نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٍ‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِرٌ‏‮ ‬‬الثّاني‏‮ ‬‬أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون مشابهًا للمضاف والـمراد به كل إسم تعلّق بما بعده إما بعمل نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬طَالِعًا جَبَلاً‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِرٌ‏‮ ‬‬ولاَ‏‮ ‬‬حَسَـنًا فِعْـلُهُ‏‮ ‬‬مَوْجُودٌ‏‮ ‬‬ولاَ‏‮ ‬‬مَارًّا بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬مُقْبِلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وإمّا بعطف نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬ثُـلُـثًا وَثُـلُثَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَنَا وحكم الـمضاف والـمشبّه به النّصب لفظًا كما مُثـّل والحال الثّالث أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون مفردًا والـمراد به هنا ما ليس بمضاف ولا مشبَّه بالـمضاف فيدخل فيه الـمثنى والـمجمع وحكم البناء على ما كان‏‮ ‬‬يُنصب به نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬حال الـمفرد ولاَ‏‮ ‬‬قَمَرَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬السَّمَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬حال الـمثنى ولاَ‏‮ ‬‬مُومِنينَ فِي‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَدِينَةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬مُسْلِمَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْبَلَدِ في‏‮ ‬‬حال الجمع

Further Explanation of Text in English: 

The noun of لاَ (laa) does not function outside of three cases.  The first case is: that it is مُضَافٌ (annexed to another noun) like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٍ‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِرٌ (there is no servant of [any] man present).

The second case is that it is  مُشَابَهًا لِلْمُضَافِ  (what  resembles الْـمُـضَاف).  What is desired is that every noun which is connected to what comes after it is connected either by function – like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬طََالِعًا جَبَلاً‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِرٌ (there is no mountain climber here) and لاَ‏‮ ‬‬حُسَـنًا فِعْـلُهُ‏‮ ‬‬مَوْجُودٌ (there is no good which he has done in existence) and لاَ‏‮ ‬‬مَارّ‏‮ ‬‬ًا بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬مُقْبِلٌ (there is no one who passed by Zayd coming) or connected to what comes after it by a conjunction – like when you say:  لاُ‏‮ ‬‬ثُـلُـثًا وَثُـلُـثَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَنَا (there is not one third nor two thirds with us – that is to say, we do not have one third or two thirds).  The rule for الـمُضَافُ and مُشَابَهًا‏‮ ‬‬ِللْمُضَافِ (what resembles الْـمُـضَاف) is that the case of naṣb is expressed as shown in previous examples.

The third case is that the noun following لاَ (laa) is مُفْـرَدًا (singular) and what is desired here is not مُضَاف or مُشَابَهًا‏‮ ‬‬ِللْمُضَافِ (what resembles الْـمُـضَاف).  And when الـْمُثَـنَّى (the dual) or الـمْجَمْــعُ (the plural) are joined to it (لاَ [laa]), the rule for its construction is in accordance with that for a noun in the a case of naṣb – like when you: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ  (there is no man in the house) in the case of the singular noun; and لاَ‏‮ ‬‬قَمَرَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬السَّمَاءِ (there are not two moons in the sky) in the case of the dual noun and لاَ‏‮ ‬‬مُومِنينَ فِي‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَدِينَةِ (there are no believers in the city) and لاَ‏‮ ‬‬مُسْلِمَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْبَلَدِ (there are no female Muslims in the  country) in the case of the plural noun.

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Published in: on April 10, 2012 at 01:50  Leave a Comment  
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