Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 21 – (The Chapter About (Al-Istath-naa’ [The Exclusion of Nouns])

   بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِسْتَثْنَاءِ  

21 – (The Chapter About (Al-Istathnaa’ [The Exclusion of Nouns])

 ʿArabic Text: 

‏‮(‬‬وَحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِسْتَثْنَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬ثَمَانِيَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَغَيْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَسِوًى وَسُوًى وَسَوَاءٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَدَا وَحَاشَا فَالـْمُسْتَثْنَى بِإِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬يُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْكَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬تَامّـًا مُوجَبًا نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮   ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَخَرَجَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّاسُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْكََلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬مَنْفِيًا تَامّا جَازَ‏‮ ‬‬فِيهِ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالنَّصْبُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى الاِسْتِثْنَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬اِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬اِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْكَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬نَاقِصًا كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى حَسَبِ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَوَامِلِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬اِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَمَا مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيدٍ‏‮  ‬‬وَالـْمُسْتَثْنَى بِغَيرِ‏‮ ‬‬وَسِوًى وَسُوًى وَسَوَاءٍ‏‮ ‬‬مَجْرُورٌ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُسْتَثْنَى بِخِلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَدَا وَحَاشَا‏‮ ‬‬يَجُوزُ‏‮ ‬‬نَصْبُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَجَرُّهُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوُْمُ‏‮  ‬‬خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬عَدَا عَمْرًا وَعَمْرٍو وَحَاشَا بَكْرًا وَبَكْرٍ‏‮)‬‬‏‮ ‬‬

English Translation:

وَحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِسْتَثْنَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬(And so, the particles of exclusion)   ‏‮ ‬‬ثَمَانِيَةٌ (are eight) وَهِيَ (and they are): إِلاَّ (except) , وَغَيْرٌ and (other than / except) وَسِوًى and (other than / except) وَسُـوًى and (other than / except) and وَسَـوَاءٌ and (except) ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَـلاَ and (except) وَعَدَا and (except) وَحاَشَا and (except).  فـَالـْمُسْتَثْنَى بِإِلاَّ (The noun that has been exclude by illa) يُـنْصَبُ is in the case of naṣb), ‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا كَـانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـكَلاَمُ (if the statement [preceding illa]) تَـامّـًـا (is complete) مُـوجَـبً ([and] affirmative), نَـحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬(like when you say): قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬ إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْــدًا (The  people stood [all] except Zayd), and وَخَـرَجَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّاسُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا and (The people left [all] except ʿAmr).  وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـكََلاَمُ (However, if the statement) تَامّـًا (is complete), but مَنْفِيًا (negative), جَـازَ‏‮ ‬‬فِـيهِ ( permitted in it is)  الْـبَدَلُ (the substitute noun) وَالنَّصْبُ‏‮ ‬‬(and [that noun] is in the case of naṣb)  عَـلَى الاِسْـتِثْنَاءِ (in accordance with the rule for the exclusion of nouns), نَحْوُ (like when you say): مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَومُ‏‮ ‬‬اِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا أَو اِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ (None of the people stood except Zayd). وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَـانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـكَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬ (When the statement) [preceding illa]) نَـاقِصًا (is negative [and does not have الـْمُسْـتَثْنَى مِـنْهُ mentioned in it,‏‮ ‬the case of the noun which comes after illa]‬, كَـانَ‏‮ ‬‬عَـلَى حَسَـبِ (is determined by) الْـعَوَامِـلِ (the governors) [which precede illa]), نَحْوُ (like when you say): مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ (None came except Zayd)‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا and (I didn’t beat anyone except Zayd) ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيدٍand (I didn’t pass by anyone except Zayd). 

‏‮ ‬‬ وَالـْمُسْتَثْنَى(And the excluded noun) بِـ (preceded and excluded by) غَيْر وَسِوًى وَسُوًى وَسَوَاءٌ (ghayrun, siwan, suwan and sawaa’un) مَجْـرُورٌ (is in the case of jarr) لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غَـيْرُ (only).  وَالـْمُسْتَثْنَى (And the excluded noun) بِـ (preceded and excluded by) خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَدَا وَحَاشَا (khalaa, ʿadaa and ˙ashaaنَصْبُهُ (placing it in the cased of naṣb) وَجَرُّهُ (and in the case of jarr) يَـجُوزُ  ([are both] permitted)  –  نَحْو (like when you say):  قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَخَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (The people left except Zayd) وَعَــــدَا عَمْـــــرًا وَعَــــدَا عَمْــــرٍ and (except ʿAmr) حََاشَا بََكْرًا وَحََاشَا بَكْرٍ and (except Bakr).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الـْمُسْتَثْنَى هو الخارج من حكم الـْمُسْتَثْنَى منه بإلاّ‏‮ ‬‬وإحدى اخواتها مثل له جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا فزيد هو الـمستـثـنى وهو خارج بإلاّ‏‮ ‬‬من حكم الـْمُجِيءِ‏‮ ‬‬الدّاخل فيه الـمستـثـنى منه وهو القوم وقس على ذلك‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English: 

الـْمُسْتَثْنَى (the excluded noun) is the noun which has  fallen outside of the rule of what has been decreed for الـْمُسْـتَثْنَى مِـنْهُ  (the noun from which it has been excluded), because إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَخْوَاتِـهَا (illaa and one of its sisters ) precedes it.  The example of this rule is: جـَـاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا (the people came (all) except Zayd).  And so, Zayd is الْـمُسْـتَثْنَى (the excluded noun), and it is outside of what has been decreed for the noun which precedes إِلاَّ, which is called الـْمُسْـتَثْنَى مِـنْهُ (the noun from which it has been excluded); and in the previous example, that noun is الْقَوْمُ, and it like that with similar example.

 Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِسْتَثْنَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬ثَمَانِيَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَغَيْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَسِوًى وَسُوًى وَسَوَاءٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَدَا وَحَاشَا وسُوًى بالقصر وجواز ضمّ‏‮ ‬‬السّين وكسرها وقد جاء سواءٌ‏‮ ‬‬بالـمدّ‏‮ ‬‬وجواز فتح السّين وكسرها وهي‏‮ ‬‬كسوى معنىً‏‮ ‬‬وحكمًا‏‮  ‬‬فإلاّ‏‮ ‬‬هي‏‮ ‬‬حرف وغَيْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬وسِوًى هما إسمان وأمّا خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وعَدَا وحَاشَا فإن جررن ما بعدها فحروف وإِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬فأفعال‏‮ ‬‬

Further Explanation of Text in English:

حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْتَثْنَاءِ (the particles of exclusion) are eight.  They are: إِلاّ (except) , غَيْرٌ (other than / except) ,‏‮ ‬‬سِـوًى (other than / except) , سُـوًى  (other than / except), سَـواءٌ (except), ‏‮ ‬‬خَـلاَ (except), عَـدَا (except) , حاَشَـا (except) and سُـوًى with alif maqsuurah and the allowance for it to bear ḍammah or kasrah on the letter س (siin).  سَـوَاءٌ comes with الـْمَدُّ (madd = آ) and the allowance for it to bear fat-ḥah or kasrah on the letter siin (س) as well as kasrah; and it is similar to سِـوًى in meaning and rules.  اِلاَّ (illaa) is a particle while غَـيْرٌ (ghayr) and سِـوًى‏‮ ‬‬(siwan [سُوًى (suwan]) are nouns.  As for خَلاَ (khlaa) and عَدَا (ʿadaa) and حَاشَا (ḥaa-shaa), they cause whatever is coming after them to be in the case of jarr (khafḍ) when they are particles but not when they are verbs.

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

والـمستـثـنى له ثلاث حالاتٍ‏‮ ‬‬أوّلها وجوب النصب ثانيها جواز الرفع والنصب ثالثها إعرابه حسب العوامل الـمتـقدّمة على إِلا‏‮ ‬‬َّ‏‮ ‬‬فيجب نصبه متى كان الكلام الـمتقدّم على إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬تامّا موجَـبًا ونعني‏‮ ‬‬بالتّامّ‏‮ ‬‬ما‏‮ ‬‬يُذكَر به الـمستـثـنى منه وبالـموجَب ما‏‮ ‬‬يكن مسبوقًا بأداة نفي‏‮ ‬‬أو شبهه وشبه النفي‏‮ ‬‬هو الاستفهام والنهي‏‮ ‬‬مثال ذلك قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬القَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا فقام القوم كلام تام لأن الـمستـثـنى منه وهو‏‮ ‬‬القوم الـمذكور به ومُوجَب لأنه‏‮ ‬‬غير مسبوق بأداة نفي‏‮ ‬‬ولا شبهه‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـمُسْـتَثْنَى (the excluded noun) has three (possible) cases: the first of these cases is the necessity for it to be in the case of naṣb, the second of them is the permissibility for it to be in the case of rafʿ or naṣb, the third (possible case) is that the inflection of the noun is determined by the governor which precedes إِلاّ.  

الْـمُسْـتَثْنَى (the excluded noun) is required to be in the case of naṣb when the statement preceding إِلاّ is complete and affirmative.  What is meant by the word التّامّ (complete) is that  الـْمُسْـتَثْنَى مِـنْهُ (the noun from which [الـمُسْـتَثْنَى the excluded noun] has been excluded) is mentioned in it (the statement), while (what is meant by الـْـمُوجَـب (affirmative) is  that it [the statement coming before إِلاَّ] is not preceded by أَدَاةُ‏‮ ‬‬نَـفْي (a particle of negation)  or  what  is  similar  to  it  –  like when you say: ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا.‏‮ ‬‬ And so قَامَ الْقَوْمُ  is كَلاَمٌ‏‮ ‬‬تامٌّ (a complete statement), because  الـْمُسْـتَثْنَى مِـنْهُ  (the  noun  from which [الـمُسْـتَثْنَى has been excluded) – and that noun is الْـقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬- has been mentioned in the statement, and مُـوجَبٌ (it is affirmative), because it has not been preceded by أَدَاةُ‏‮ ‬‬نَـفْي (a particle of negation) nor what resembles it.

Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

وأمّا جواز الرفع والنصب للإسم الـواقع بعد إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬فيجوز ذلك متى كان الكلام تامّــًا أي‏‮ ‬‬مذكورًا به الـمستـثـنى منه إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬أنّه‏‮ ‬‬غير موجب أي‏‮ ‬‬مسبوق بأداة نفي‏‮ ‬‬أو شبهه من الاِسْتِفْهَام والنَّهْي‏‮ ‬‬نحو مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أحَدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وهَلْ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحَدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْد ولاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَقُومُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَحَدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬يرفع زيد على البدلية ويجوز رفعه على الاستثناء هذا إذا كان ما بعد إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬من جنس ما قبلها إن لم‏‮ ‬‬يكن كذلك فلا‏‮ ‬‬يجوز إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬النّصب نحو مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْم إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬حِمَارًا بالنصب على الاستثنَاء ولا‏‮ ‬‬يجوز البدل فيه‏‮ ‬‬

Further Explanation of Text in English:

As for the permissibility of the case rafʿ or naṣb for the noun that comes after إِلاّ, that is allowed when the statement has been completed – that is to say, that الـمُسْـتَثْنَى مِـنْهُ (the noun from which [الـمُسْـتَثْنَى) has been excluded) has been mentioned with the statement and that the statement is not affirmative – that is to say that it is preceded by أَدَاةُ‏‮ ‬‬النَّفْي (the particle of negation) or what resemble it from  الاِسْـتِفْهَام (the particles of interrogation) and النَّهْـي (the particles of prohibition) – like when you say: مَا قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحَـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدًا (No one stood except Zayd), هَلْ‏‮ ‬‬قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحَـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدًا  (Did anyone stand except Zayd?), and لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَـقُومَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَحَـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬رَيْـدًا (There is no one standing except Zayd) with Zayd being in the case of rafʿ in all three examples because it is الْـبَدَلُ (the substitute noun).  The case of rafʿ  is permitted for the noun زَيْـد  according to the rules of exclusion for this noun, if what comes after the إِلاّ is of the same species or classification as what comes before إِلاّ ; and  if  that is not the case, then nothing except the case of naṣb is allowed – like when you say: مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬حِـمَارًا (None of the people stood except a donkey) with [حِـمَارًا] being in the case of naṣb in accordance with the rules for the exclusion of nouns; while الْبَدَلُ (the substitute noun) is not permitted for it at all.

Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

فــأمّا الإسم الواقع بعد إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬الذي‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَب بحَسَبِ‏‮ ‬‬العواملِ‏‮ ‬‬الـمتـقدِّمةِ‏‮ ‬‬عليه إن كان الكلام ناقصًا منفيًا أي‏‮ ‬‬تفرّغ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُسْتَثْـنَى منه وما قبل إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬منفيّ‏‮ ‬‬فكان الإسم الواقع بعد إلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬معربًا بإعراب ما‏‮ ‬‬يقتضيه ما قبل إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬قبل دخولها وذلك نحو مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ و مَا رَأََيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا ومَا مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬فزَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬مرفوع بقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬وزَيْدًا منصوب برَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬ومجرور بالبآءِ‏‮ ‬‬متعلّق بمررت كما لو لم تُذكر إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬وهذا هو الاستثناء الـمفرّغ‏‮ ‬‬وهو لا‏‮ ‬‬يقع في‏‮ ‬‬كلام موجَب إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬نادرًا فلا‏‮ ‬‬يقال ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاِّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا‏‮ ‬‬

Further Explanation of Text in English:

As for the noun coming after إِلاّ which is inflected in accordance with العَوَاِملُ‏‮ ‬‬الْــمُتَقَدِّمَةُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى إِلاَّ (the governors which  precede إِلاّ), if the statement has a portion (part) that has been omitted  and is negative – that is to say, that الـْمُسْـتَثْنَى مِـنْهُ is omitted from the statement and what comes before إلا has been negated, then the noun which comes after إِلاّ is inflected with the inflection that would have been required for a noun preceding إِلاّ – prior to إِلاّ being placed in front of the noun‏‮ ‬‬ – like when you say:  مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ (no one stood up except Zayd) and مَا رَأََيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬رَيْدًا (I didn’t see anyone except Zayd) and مَا مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬بِـزَيْدٍ (I did not pass by (anyone) except Zayd).  Zayd is in the case of rafʿ due to the influence of قَـامَ and in the case of naṣb, because of رَأَيْـتُ and (in the case of jarr) because it is being governed by the preposition بِ which is linked to the verb مَرَرْتُ.  It is as if إِلاَّ had not been expressed.  This is الاِسْتَثْـنَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفَـــرَّغُ (the  excluded noun which has been omitted.  It does not occur in speech except on rare occasions while the statement: ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا (I beat (all of them) except Zayd) is not said at all.

Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

 إن الـمستـثـنى بغَيْر وسِوى وَسُوًى وَسَوَاء مجرور فحكم الإسم الواقع بعدها الجر لإضافتها إليه وتُعْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْر بما كان‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬به الإسم الـمستـثـنى مع إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬فتقول قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬ينصب‏‮ ‬‬غير كما تقول قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا بنصب زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وتقول مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحَدٌ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَغَيْرَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬بالإتباع والنصب كما تقول مَا قَام أَحَدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وتقول مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬برفع‏‮ ‬‬غير وجوبًا كما تقول مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬برفع زيد وجوبًا وأمّا سوى فمذهب قوم أنّها تعامل بما تعامل به‏‮ ‬‬غير من الرفع والنّصب والجرّ‏‮ ‬‬ومذهب سيبويه والجمهور إنّها لا تخرج عن الظّرفيّة‏‮ ‬‬

Further Explanation of Text in English:

And الْـمْسْتَثْنَى (the excluded noun) preceded by غَيْر,سِوًى, سُوًى and‏‮ ‬‬سَوَاء isمَجْرُور (in the case of jarr [khafḍ]) لاِضَافَتِهَا إِلَيْهِ (because of their construction the noun.  غَيْرٌ (Ghayrun) is inflected according to the rules of inflection for الإِسْمْ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُسْتَثْنَى (the excluded noun) when it is precede by إِلاّ.  And so you say: قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (the people stood [all] except Zayd) with غير in the case of naṣb – likewise you say: قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا with Zayd in the case of naṣb and you say: مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحَدٌ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ in compliance (with the rule for the case of rafʿ) and the case of naṣb – and like what you say: مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيـْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا and you say: مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (none stood except Zayd) with غير being in the case of rafʿ as a requirement.

As for سِـوًى (siwan), it is the opinion of the grammarians that it is governed by that which governs غَيْرُ  (ghayrun) in the case of rafʿ, naṣb and jarr (khafḍ),  and the view of Siybawayhi and the people of grammatical knowledge in general is that it is not include with the adverbs.

Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

فأمّا خلا وعدا وحاشا فإن الـمستـثـنى الـمتقدم بهذه الأدوات‏‮ ‬‬يجوز جرّه على أنها حروف جرّ‏‮ ‬‬نحو قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وعَدَا زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وحَاشَا زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬بِجَر زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬بعدها ويجوز نصبه على الـمفعوليّة وتكون خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وعَدَا وحَاشَا أيضًا أفعالاً‏‮ ‬‬ماضيــةً‏‮ ‬‬فَاعِلُهَا ضمير عائد على البعض الـمفهوم من القوم وهو مستتر وجوبًا نحو‏‮ ‬‬ قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَومُ‏‮ ‬‬خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَمَا عَدَا زَيْدًا وحَاشَا زَيْدًا بنصب زيد على أنه مفعول به وفاعل خلا وعدا وحاشا مستتر وجوبًا والتّقدير خلا بعضهم زَيْدًا وعَدَا بعضهم زَيْدًا وحَاشَا بعضهم زَيْدًا وأمّا إِنْ‏‮ ‬‬تقدّمت ما على خلا وعدا وجب النّصب بهما نحو قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَومُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَمَا عَدَا زَيْدًا بالنّصب و أمّا حاشا فلا تتقدّم ما عليه فلا تقول ما حاشا

Further Explanation of Text in English:

As for  خَـلاَ (khalaa), عَـدَا (ʿadaa) and حَـاشَـا (haa-shaa), when الْـمُسْـتَثْنَى is (preceded) by these particles it is permissible for it to be in the case of jarr (khafḍ) due to the fact that they are prepositions – like when you say: قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيـدٍ and عَـدَا زَيدٍ and حَاشَـا زَيْدٍ. And so  خلا (Khalaa), عدا (ʿadaa) and حَاشَا (ḥaa-shaa)  are also أَفْـعَالاً‏‮ ‬‬مَـاضِـيَةً (past tense verbs).  Their فَـاعِـل (doer) is a pronoun traceable back to someone who is understood to be from among the people and it is concealed out of necessity – like when you say : قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَومُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَمَا عَدَا زَيْدًا وَحَاشَا زَيْدًا (The people stood without Zayd).  Zayd is the case of naṣb, because it is الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِـهِ (the object of the verb [خَـلاَ‮ ‬,عَدَا and حَـاشَـا respectively]).  The فَاعِـل of خَـلاَ‏‮ ‬‬and عَـدَا and حَاشَـا as stated before, it is a pronoun concealed out of necessity.   Its  implication is that خَـلاَ‏‮ ‬‬بَـعْضُهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدًا (some of them [the people] acted without Zayd) and عَدَا بَعْضَهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدًا  (some of them excluded Zayd) and حَـاشَـا بَعْضُهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا (some of them are not with Zayd).  As for مَا preceding خَـلاَ‏‮ ‬‬and عَـدَا, it is necessary that the case of naṣb (be affixed to the noun which is govern by them) like when you say: قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَــــومُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَمَا عَدَا زَيْدًا with Zayd in the case of naṣb.  As for the حاشا, مَا does not come in front of it, therefore you cannot say: مَا حَاشَا.


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Published in: on March 22, 2012 at 12:25  Leave a Comment  
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