Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 19 – (The Chapter About Al-Haal [The Circumstantial Noun])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الْحَالِ

19 – (The Chapter About Al-Haal  [The Circumstantial Noun])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬الـْحَالُ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفَسِّرُ‏‮ ‬‬لـِمَا انْبَهَمَ‏‮ ‬‬مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الْهَيْئَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِبًا وَرَكِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬مُسْرَجًا وَلَقِيتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَبْدَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهِ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِبًا وَمَا أَشْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬الْحَالُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬بَعْدَ‏‮ ‬‬تَمَامِ‏‮ ‬‬الْكلاَمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬صَاحِِبُهُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬مَعْرِفَةً‏‮)‬‬

‏‮ ‬‬English Translation:

الـْحَالُ (The circumstantial noun) هُوَ (is)الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬ (the noun in the case of naṣb) الـْمُفَسِّرُ (which clarifies) لـِمَا انْبَهَم (what is unclear) مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الْهَيْئَاتِ (about the circumstances [of الْفَاعِـل (the doer) or الـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ (the receiver of the action) or الـْمَجْـرُور (the noun in the case of jarr]) – (like when you say):  جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِـبًا (Zayd came riding) وَرَكِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬مُسْرَجًا and (I rode the mare with a saddle) وَلَقِيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَبْـدُ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهِ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِـــــبًا and (I met Abdullaahi riding) وَمَا أَشْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِــكَ‏‮ ‬‬ (and what is similar to these).  وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَــكُونُ الـْـحَالُ (The circumstantial noun must not be anything) إِلاّ (other than) نَكِـرَةً‏‮ ‬‬ (an indefinite noun) وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُــــــونُ (nor  does  it  occur) إِلاّ (other  than) بَـعْدَ‏‮ ‬‬تمَـامِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـكلاَمِ (after the completion of the statement) وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَـكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬صَاحِِـبُهُ (and it is not accompanied [by another noun] إِلاّ (unless) مَعْرِفَةً (it is definite).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الحال نكرة مُشْتَقَّة واقعة بعد تمام الكلام تبين هيئَة الفاعل والـمفعول و كقولك جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِبًا ورَكِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬مُسْرَجًا ومَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِعُمْرٍو جَالِسًا فراكبًا ومُسْرَجًا وجالسًا نكرات لأنّه‏‮ ‬‬يصلح دخول‏‮ ((‬‬ال‏‮)) ‬‬على كلّ‏‮ ‬‬منها ومشتقات لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬كُلاّ‏‮ ‬‬منها‏‮ ‬‬يدلّ‏‮ ‬‬على معنى وصاحبه وواقعات بعد تمام الكلام لأنّه‏‮ ‬‬يصح الاستغناءُ‏‮ ‬‬عنها‏‮ ‬‬

وراكبًا‏‮ ‬‬يبين هيئة الفاعل‏‮ ((‬‬زيد‏‮)) ‬‬ومسرحًا‏‮ ‬‬يبين هيئة الـمفعول‏‮ ((‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮)) ‬‬وجالسًا‏‮ ‬‬يبين هيئة المجرور‏‮ ((‬‬عمرو‏‮)) ‬‬وكلها متضمّنة معنى‏‮ ((‬‬في‏‮)) ‬‬دود لفظها لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬التّقدير في‏‮ ‬‬حال ركوبه إلى آخره شروط الحال ثلاثة أوّلها أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون نكرة ثانيها أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون فضلة ثالثها أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون صاحبه معرفة وهذه الشّروط تجدها في‏‮ ‬‬راكبًا من قولك جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِبًا لأنّه نكرة واقع بعد تمام الكلام وصاحبه معرفة وهو زيد

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـحَالُ (The circumstantial noun) is a separate indefinite noun which occurs after the completion of a statement and which clarifies the circumstance of الفَاعِل (the doer), الـْـمَفْعُول (the object of the verb) and الـْمَجْـرُور (the object of the preposition) – like when you say: جَـاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِـبــًا (Zayd came riding) and رَكَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬مُسْرَجـــــًا (I rode the saddled horse) and  مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِعَمْرٍو جَالِسَا (I passed by ʿAmr while he was sitting). And so رَاكِـبًا , مُسْرَجًـا and جَـالِـسًا are indefinite because the prefixing of اَلْـ is not permissible for any of them. They are separate from the rest of the statement, because each of them gives meaning to what accompanies it and they occur after the completion of the statement, because it is (grammatically) permissible to leave or drop them from the statement.  And so رَاكِبًا clarifies the circumstances of زَيْدٌ (Zayd) – the doer – (that is to say, how he performed a particular act) and مُسْرَجًـا clarifies the situation or condition in which الْفَرَسَ the object of the verb was found (when it received the action of the verb) and جَـاِلسًا clarifies the situation ofعَـمْرٍو (‘Amr) – the object of the preposition (during the occurrence of the action being carried out by the doer).

The determinate conditions of الْـحَالُ (The circumstantial noun) are three.  First it must be نَـكِرَةٌ (indefinite), second it must be فُـضْلَةً (more than what is needed to complete the statement – (that is to say, it would be [grammatically] permissible to leave or drop it from the statement), and third ‏‮ ‬‬صَـاحِبُهُ‏‮ ‬‬مَـعْرِفَـةٌ(a definite noun must accompany it).‏‮ ‬‬ These conditions can be found in the noun راكبًا like when you say:  جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِـبًا, because it is نَـكِرَة (an indefinite noun) وَاقِـعُ‏‮ ‬‬بَـعْدَ‏‮ ‬‬تَـمَامِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـكَلاَمِ (which occurs after the completion of the statement) and صَاحِبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعْرِفَةٌ (a definite noun accompanies it) and that noun is Zayd.

Published in: on December 27, 2011 at 12:50  Leave a Comment  
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Matn Al Ajurruumiyyah (Audio) – Quick Recitation and Slow Recitation

Matn Al Ajurruumiyyah (Audio) – Quick Recitation and Slow Recitation  

Click here for the: Matn Al Ajurruumiyyah (Arabic Text)

Click here for the: 1. Complete Audio Quick Recitation

Click here for the: 3. Complete Audio Slower Recitation

The Fourth Rule from the Treatise: قواعد التّصوف‮ ‬ (The Rules of Tasawwuf [Sufism])

The Fourth Rule  from the Treatise:قواعد التّصوف‮ ‬ (The Rules of Tasawwuf [Sufism])1

by Shaykh Aḥmad bin Muḥammad Zurrūq2

صدق التوجه‮ ‬ (Correct turning [towards Allah]) مشروط (is preconditioned) بكونه من حيث‮ ‬يرضاه‮ ‬(wherein it [the turning] must be pleasing to Him), الحقّ‮ ‬تعالى (Al-Ḥaqq Taʿālaa [The Truthful One Who is Most High]) وبما يرضاه (and [it must be] what pleases Him). ولايصح مشروط (That which has been preconditioned is not ṣaḥīḥ [sound]) بدون شرطه (without its condition [being correctly followed]). ‭‬‮قال تعالى: ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬يَرْضَى لِعِبَادِهِ‮ ‬الْكُفْرَ[Allah the Most High has said]: (“He has not sanctioned disbelief for His slaves3”) فلزم تحقيق الإميان (Therefore, the affirmation of Imān [belief is necessary]),‭‬‮قال تعالى: ‬وَإِنْ‮ ‬تَـشْكُرُوا‮ ‬يَـرْضَـهُ‮ ‬لَـكُمْ‮ ‬ [Allah the Most High has also said] (“If you are grateful, He will sanction a thing for you4”),

فلزم العمل بالإسلام (ʿAmal [Actions, Deeds] are requisite in Islam).  فلا تصوف (There is no tasawwuf5 [raising of one’s self to a high degree of spiritual excellence) ‮ ‬إلاّ‮ ‬بفقه‮  ‬(without fiqh [knowledge of Islamic law]), إذ لا تعرف أحكام الله ( since the clear rulings of Allah are not known)  ‮ ‬إلاّ‮ ‬منه‮ ‬ (except through it [fiqh]); فلا فقه (and there is no fiqh) إلاّ‮ ‬بتصوف (without tasawwuf), إذ لا عمل (since there are no actions) إلاّ‮ ‬بصدق (without sincerity) وتوجه (and turning towards Allah); فلا هما (and neither of them [fiqh nor tasawwuf] exist) إلاّ‮ ‬بالإميان (without imān [uncorrupted belief in Allah]), إذ لايصح منهما (since neither of them [tasawwuf or fiqh]) is not ṣaḥīḥ [sound]) دونه (without it [imān]); فلزم الجميع (therefore the joining of them [tasawwuf and fiqh] is necessary), لتلازمها  (because they are inseparable) في‮ ‬الحكم (in regards to legal  rulings), كتلازم االأرواح للأسجاد (in the same way the souls and the bodies are inseparable). ولا وجود لها (They [the souls] do not exist [in this world]) إلاّ‮ ‬فيها (without being in them [the bodies]), كما لا حياة لها (just as there is no life for them (the bodies) إلا بها (without them ([the souls]). فأفهم (So  be aware [of these matter]).

ومنه (In regards to it [this matter]) قول مالك رحمه الله (is the saying of Imām Mālik [may God have mercy on him]):

من تَصَوَّفَ (“He who devotes himself to tasawwuf) ولم‮ ‬يَتَفَقَّهْ (and doesn’t know or understand fiqh) فقد تَـزَنْـدَقَ (becomes a zindīq6 [one who deviates from the correct path]), ومن تفقه (and he who learns fiqh)ولم‮ ‬يتصوف‮ ‬ (and avoids taasawwuf [trying to seek to raise himself to a high degree of spiritual excellence]) فقد‮ ‬تفسق (becomes fāsiq7 [a corrupt deviator from the commands of Allah]), ومن جمع بينهما (while he who joins both of them [tasawwuf and fiqh] together)‮ ‬فقد تحقق(finds the Truth”).

قلت I [Ahmad Zarrūq] say, that تـزَنْـدَقَ‮ ‬الأول (the first person [mentioned] becomes a zindīq) لأنّّـه قال بالجبر (because he discusses al-jabru [fatalism])8 الـموجد لنفي‮ ‬الحكمة والأحكام (which results in the negation of proper judgement and rules).

تُـفَسِّقَ‮ ‬الثاني (The second person [mentioned] becomes a fāsiq), لخلو عمله من التوجه (because his actions are void of turning towards Allah), الحاجبة منهما (which would be the protection for both of them  [both the zindīq and fāsiq]) عن معصية الله (from disobedience to Allah), ومن الإخلاص (and [because his actions] are void of sincerity), الـمشترط (which is one of the required conditions) في‮ ‬العمل لله (in actions [done] for the sake of Allah.

وتَـحَقّقَ‮ ‬الثالث (The third person [that has been mentioned] finds the Truth) لقيامه (because of his steadfastness) بالـحقيقة (in the very action) في‮ ‬عين التمسك بالحق (of cling to the Truth). فأعرف ذلك (So be conscious of that).


1 Ahmad Zarruq explained the reason why he wrote The Rules of Tasawwuf [Sufism] by saying: فالقصد بهذا المـختصر وفصوله تمهيد قواعد التصوف وأصوله وعلى وجه‮ ‬يجمع بين الشريعة والحقيقة ويصل الأصول والفقه بالطريقة (“The purpose of this short treatise and its sections is to simplify the rules and principles of Sufism in a way that brings ash-Sharīʿah (the Sacred Law) together with al-Ḥaqīqah (the true realization of tawḥīd), and to join al-usuul (the principles of the Dīn) and al-fiqh (Islamic law) with at-Ṭarīqah (the Sufī Path).”

Māliki faqih and sufi who has been described as one of the last of those who united fiqh and Tasawwuf. His full name is Ahmed Zarruq (or Sheikh Shihāb ad-Din Abu al-ʿAbbās Ahmed bin Ahmed bin Muhammad bin ʿIsa al-Barnūsī al-Fasī Zarrūq) (1442–1493) was a Shadhili Sufi Sheikh and founder of the Zarruqiyye branch of the Shadhili Sufi order (Tariqa). He was born on the 7th June 1442 (846 of the Islamic ‘Hijra’ calendar) – according to Sheikh Abd Allah Gannun – in a village in the region of Tiliwan, a mountain area of Morocco.[1] He was a contemporary of Muhammad al-Jazuli. He was a Berber of the tribe of the Barnusi who lived in an area between Fes and Taza.

He took the name ‘Zarrūq’ (meaning ‘blue’) and he studied the traditional Islamic sciences such as jurisprudence, Arabic, traditions of the Prophet and wrote extensively on a number of subjects. His most famous works are first of al his Qawa’id al-Tasawwuf (The Principles of Sufism), his commentaries on Maliki jurisprudence and his commentary upon the Hikam of ibn ‘Ata Allah.

He travelled East to the Hijaz and to Egypt before taking up residence in Misrata, Libya where he died in 899 (1493).

Anecdotes of Zarrūq’s childhood, travels and education appear in an untitled fahrasa and Al-Kunnash fi ilm ash, both still in manuscript. Selected passages appear in translation in: Zarruq the Sufi: a Guide in the Way and a Leader to the Truth by Ali Fahmi Khushaim (Tripoli, Libya:General Company for Publication, 1976) (Taken from Wikipedia)

3 Surah Az-Zumar  Verse 7

4 Surah Az-Zumar  Verse 7

5 TasawwufSufism; a systematized form of spiritual training (tarbiyah) which is used to guide individuals towards a proper Islamic attitudes in life, and to guide them towards intellectual and moral elevation in order to overcome the diseases of the lower self (nafs) that prevent spiritual development; tasawwuf is also know as Iḥsān which is the ability to conquer distraction and absent-mindedness in worship, and to perfect worship and ones behavior, by keeping in mind that one, in reality,  is always in the presence of Allah.

6 Zindīq: one who believes in dualism; one who does not believe in the  hereafter; one who does believe in Tawḥīd; one who conceals his disbelief with an outward show of belief; one who is attached to or associated with any form of زَنْـدَقَـة (act of deviation from correct beliefs about Islam).

7 Fāsiq: a transgressor; person who is corrupt; he acknowledges and observes what  is prescribe by the law and also acknowledges its authority, and thereafter falls short in his own observation of some or all of the law; he practices فِسْق (deviation from Allah’s commands; going outside of the limits of the law and obedience)

8 Al-jabru [fatalism] is a false doctrine and deviant view about Allah’s relation with human beings held by Al Jabariyyah a sect found in early Islam: who believe that a person does not have a choice, and nor does he have a free will. And that the doer of every action is Allah!  And that the humans do not have a will and strength over anything [i.e. they are compelled]. he destroys the legislations of the religion, and its creed : and he frees himself of any accountability in front of Allah ; from any sins which he has commits.  So if he fornicated, or drank alcohol, or murdered, he says : I am excused, I am compelled [majbuur].  The followers of this sect say, “The One who gives us faith and who makes us perform acts of worship is Allah. Every action is done under Allah’s compulsion. Man is doomed to his qadar, so no one is responsible for the sins he commits.” And they cite the following Qur’anic verses to corroborate their views:

Allah guides whom He wills and leaves to stray whom He wills. [Ibrahim 4]

If your Lord had willed, all the people on earth would have believed. Then will you force people to become Believers? No one can believe except by the permission of Allah. [Yunus 99,100]

It is Allah who creates you and what you do. [As-Saffat 96]

Published in: on December 27, 2011 at 02:40  Leave a Comment  
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