Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 18 – (The Chapter About Ḍharfu-z-Zamaan [The Adverb Of Time] and Ḍharful-Makaan [The Adverb Of Place])

 بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬ظَرْفِ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬ظَرْفِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ 

18 – (The Chapter About harfu-z-Zamaan  [The Adverb Of Time] and harfu-l-Makaan  [The Adverb Of Place])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬اسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِتَقْدِيرِ‏‮ ‬‬فيِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللَّيْلَةَ‏‮ ‬‬وَغُدْوَةً‏‮ ‬‬وَبُكْرَةً‏‮ ‬‬وَسَحَرًا وَغَدًا وَعَتَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬وَصَبَاحًا وَمَسَاءً‏‮ ‬‬وَأَبَدًا وَأَمَدًا وَحِينًا وَمَا أَشْبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ‏‮ ‬‬هَوَ‏‮ ‬‬اسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِتَقْدِيرِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬أَمَامَ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَلْفَ‏‮ ‬‬وَقُدَّامَ‏‮ ‬‬وَوَرَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وَفَوْقَ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَحْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَعِنْدَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَعَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِزَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وَحِذَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وَتِلْقَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُنَا وَثَمَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا أَشَْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ (The adverb of time) هُوَ (is) اسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ (the noun of time) الـْمَنْصُوبُ (in the case of naṣb) بِتَقْديرِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي (it is expressed with [the preposition] فِي being implied) –  (like when you say): الْيَوْمَ (today) وَاللَّيْلَةَ and (tonight) وَغُدْوَةً and (in the morning) وَبُكْرَةً and (at dawn) وَسَحَرًا and (at dawn) وَغَدًا and (tomorrow) وَعَتَمًا and (in the first third of the night) وَصَبَاحًا and (in the morning) وَمَسَاءً and (in the evening) وَأَبَدًا and (always / never) وَأَمَدًا and (briefly) وَحِينًا and (sometimes) وَمَا أَشْبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ (and what is similar to these).

وَظَـــرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَـــانِ‏‮ ‬‬ (And the adverb of place) هُو (is)   اسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ the noun of location) الـْمَنْصُوبُ (in the case of naṣb) بِتَقْديرِ‏‮ ‬‬في (it is expressed with [the preposition] فِي being implied)  – like when you say: أَمَامَ (across from / in front of) وَخَلْفَ and (behind), وَقُدَّامَ and (in front of)  وَوَرَاءَ and (behind) وَفَوْقَ and (above) وَتَحْتَ and (below) وَعِنْدَ and (with) وَمَعَ and (with) وَإِزَاءَ and (face to face / opposite someone or something) وَحِذَاءَ and (opposite / face to face with) وَتِلْقَاءَ and (opposite /in  front  of) وَهُنَــا  and  (here) ‏‮ ‬‬وَثَـــمَّand  (there)  وَمَا أَشَْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِك (and what is similar to these).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَان وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَان هما الإسمان الـمنصوبان الواقع فيهما الفعل متضمِّنًا معنى في‏‮ ‬‬دون لفظها كقولك خَرَجْتُ‏‮ ‬‬يَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعِيدِ‏‮ ‬‬ومَشَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَرَآءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمِ‏‮ ‬‬فيوم وورآء مفعول فيهما لأنّه قد وقع فيهما الفعل وهو الخروج والـمشِي‏‮ ‬‬وكلاهما متضمّن معنى في‏‮ ‬‬دون‏‮  ‬‬لفظها لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬التّقدير في‏‮ ‬‬اليوم والورآء ومثل جِئْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَذْهَبُ‏‮ ‬‬غَدًا‏‮ ‬‬وقُمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬صَبَاحًا ونِمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬مَسَـاءً‏‮ ‬‬وجَـلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬حِذَاءَكَ‏‮ ‬‬ووَقَفْتُ‏‮ ‬‬قُدَّامَكَ‏‮ ‬‬إلى آخره‏‮ ‬‬

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَان هو الإسم الدّالّ‏‮ ‬‬على الزّمان نحو الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬واللَّيْلَةَ‏‮ ‬‬وغُدْوَةً‏‮ ‬‬وبُكْرَةً وسَحَرًا وغَدًا وعَتَمًا وصَبَاحًا ومَسَاءً‏‮ ‬‬وأَبَدًا وأَمَدًا ووَقْتًآ وحِينًا وما أشبه ذلك فهذه‏‮  ‬‬جميعًا تُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬على الظَّرْفيَّةِ‏‮ ‬‬تقول أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬وذَهَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بُكْرَةً‏‮ ‬‬

وظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَان هو الاسم الدّال على الـمكان نحو أَمَامَ‏‮ ‬‬وخَــلْفَ‏‮ ‬‬وقُدَّامَ‏‮ ‬‬ووَرَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وفَوْقَ‏‮ ‬‬وتَحْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وعِنْدَ‏‮ ‬‬ومَعَ‏‮ ‬‬وإِزَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وتِلْقَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وحِذَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وهُنَا وثَمَّ‏‮ ‬‬ومَا أشبه ذلك تقول جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬أَمَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬أو حِذَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٍو أو تِلْقَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَيْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وقس الباقي

Explanation of Text in English:

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ  (the adverb of time and the adverb of place) are the nouns in the case of naṣb wherein their verb [is expressed] with an implied meaning  [which includes] the preposition  فِي   –  like when you say: خَرَجْــــتُ‏‮ ‬‬يَـوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعِيــــدِ  (I  left  on  the  feast  day) and  مَشَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَرَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمِ (I walked behind the people); and so يَوْمَ and وَرَاءَ are adverbial objects for both of the verbs  (خَرَجْتُ‏‮ ‬‬ and مَشَيْتُ), because the action falls on both of these objects which is the action of  الْـخُرُوجُ (leaving) and the action of الْـمَشِي (walking).  Both contain the meaning of the preposition فِي without the expression of it, because it is implied by الْيوْمَ and الْوَرَاءَ.  Similar examples are: جِئْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَذْهَبُ‏‮ ‬‬غَدًا‏‮ ‬‬(I came today and I am leaving tomorrow), قُمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬صَبَاحًا ونِمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬مَسَـآءً (I arose in the morning and slept in the evening), جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬حِذَاءَكَ‏‮ ‬‬ووَقَفْتُ‏‮ ‬‬قُدَّامَكَ (I sat across from you and I stood in front of you) and so forth

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَان (the adverb of time) is the noun which demonstrates time  – like when you say: الْيَوْمَ (today), اللَّيْلَةَ (tonight), غُدْوَةً (in the morning), بُكْرَةً (at dawn), سَحَرًا (at dawn), غَدًا (tomorrow/on the morrow), عَتَمًا (in the first third of the night), صَبَاحًا (in the morning), مَسَاءً (in the evening), أَبَدًا (always / never), أَمَدًا (briefly), and حِينًا (sometimes) and what is similar to these.  All of these nouns are in the case of naṣb because they are in the adverbial condition.  And so you say:‏‮ ‬‬أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَهَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بُكْرَةً (I came in the day and left in the evening).

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَان (the adverb of place) is the noun which demonstrates location  – like when you say:  أَمَــــامَ (across from / in front of), خَلْفَ (behind), قُدَّامَ (in front of), وَرَاءَ (behind), فَوْقَ (above), تَحْتَ (below), عِنْدَ (with), مَعَ (with), إِزَاءَ (face to face / opposite someone or something), حِذَاءَ (opposite / face to face with), تِلْقَاء (opposite / in front of), هُنَا (here),‏‮ ‬‬ثَمَّ (there) and what is similar to these.  And so you say: جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬أَمَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (I sat across from Zayd) and حِذَا عَمْرٍو (opposite ʿAmr) and تِلْقَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَيْتِ (in front of the house).  The rest of the adverbs of time are use in a similar manner.

(*note in ʿArabic)

الظرف هو الـمسمَّى الـمفعول فيه أيضًا فهو الـمـنصوب الواقع فيه الفعل متضمنًا معنى في‏‮ ‬‬دون لفظها فهكذا قلنا ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَان وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَان‏‮ ((‬‬منصوب على تقدير في‏‮ ‬‬دون لفظها‏‮)) ‬‬لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬معنى قولك أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيوْمَ‏‮ ((‬‬أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمِ‏‮))‬‬ ومعنى قولك جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ((‬‬جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَرِيبِ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْهُ‏‮)) ‬‬فلو لم‏‮ ‬‬يكن على معني‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬نحو انْتَطَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬يَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعِيدِ‏‮ ‬‬أو كانت‏‮ ((‬‬في‏‮)) ‬‬ظاهرةً‏‮ ‬‬نحو أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الصَّبَاحِ‏‮ ‬‬كان الأوّل منصوبًا على انه مفعولٌ‏‮ ‬‬به والثَّانِي‏‮ ‬‬مجرورًا بالحرف‏‮   ‬‬

(*note in English)

الظَّرْفُ (The adverb) is also known as الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬فِيهِ (the adverbial object).  It is the noun in the case of naṣb upon which the action of the verb falls and implies the meaning of the preposition فِي (in) without expressing it. Therefore, we  have  said, “ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِِ (the adverb of time) and ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِِِ (the adverb of place) are in the case of naṣb because of the implication of [the harf] فِي”. It means that what is being implied is the prepositions فِي (in) without it being expressed, because when you say: أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ (I came today) what you mean is أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمِ (I came in the day) and when you say:  جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (I sat with Zayd) what you mean is  جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَرَيبِ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْهُ (I sat in a place near him).  The preposition فِي is not implied however, if you say: أَنْتَطَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬يَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعِيدِ (I await the day of ‘Iid)  or when the word فِي comes in (a sentence) like:أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الصَّبَاحِ‏‮ ‬‬(I came in the morning). The word يَوْمَ in the first example is in the case of naṣb because it is the object of the verb and the word الصَّبَاحِ in the second example in the case of khafḍ because it is the object of the preposition.

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Published in: on October 30, 2011 at 23:56  Comments (1)  

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  1. Ma sha’Allah. You have done a wonderful service here for students of Arabic who want to try and do some self-learning.


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