Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 17 – (The Chapter About Al-Maṣdar [The Verbal Noun])

    بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَصْدَرِ

17 – (The Chapter About Al-Maṣdar [The Verbal Noun])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬الـْمَصْدَرُ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬الذِي‏‮ ‬‬يَجِىءُ‏‮ ‬‬ثَالِثًا فِي‏‮ ‬‬تَصْرِيفِ‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْلِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبًا وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬قِسْمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬لَفْظِيٌّ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَعْنَوِيٌّ‏‮ ‬‬فَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَافَقَ‏‮ ‬‬لَفْظُهُ‏‮ ‬‬لَفْظَ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلِهِ‏‮ ‬‬فََهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬لَفْظِيٌّ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَتَلَهُ‏‮ ‬‬قَتْلاً‏‮ ‬‬وَإَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَافَقَ‏‮ ‬‬مَعْنَى فِعْلِهِ‏‮ ‬‬دُونَ‏‮ ‬‬لَفْظِهِ‏‮ ‬‬فَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬مَعْنَوِيٌّ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬قُعُودًا وَقُمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَقُوفًا وَمَا أَشَْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮)‬‬

 English Translation:

الْـمَصْدَرُ (The verbal noun) هُـوَ (is) الإِسْـمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْـمَنْصُوبُ (the noun in the case of naṣb) الذِي‏‮ ‬‬يَـجِىءُ (which occurs as) ثَـالِـثًا (the third form) فِي‏‮ ‬‬تَـصْرِيفِ (in the conjugation of) الْـفِعْـــلِِ (the verb)  – نَـحْـــوُ (like when you say):  ضَـرَبَ (He beat…), يَضْرِبُ (He is beating…), ضَرْبًا (a beating).  وَهُـو (And it is) قِسْمَانِ (of two  kinds): لَـفْظِيّ (a noun that has a pronunciation that is similar [to the verb]) وَمَـعْنَوِيّ (and a noun that has a similar meaning [to the verb]). فَـإِنْ (If) وَافَقَ‏‮ ‬‬لَفْظُهُ (its pronunciation corresponds) لَفْظَ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلِهِ (to the pronunciation of its verb), فََـهُوُ (then it is) لَـفْظِيٌّ (a noun that sounds like the verb in its pronunciation)  – نَـحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬ (like when you say):  قَتَلَهُ‏‮ ‬‬قَـتْلاً (I killed him a killing)1 فَـإِنْ (but if), وَافَـقَ (it [the maṣdar’s meaning] corresponds) مَعْنَى فِعْلِهِ (with the meaning of its verb) دُونَ‏‮ ‬‬لَـفْظِهِ (but not its pronunciation), فَـهُوَ (then it is) معنـــويّ (a noun possessing a similar meaning [to the verb]) – نَـحْوُ (like when you say): جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬قُعُودًا (I sat a sitting)2  وَقُمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وُقُوفًا and (I stood a standing)3 وَمَا أَشَْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ (and what is similar to these).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الـمصدر هو الذي‏‮ ‬‬يقع ثالثًا فِي‏‮ ‬‬تصريف فعله وهو منصوب لأنَّه الـمفعول الـمطلق وهو الإسم الـمُسَـلِّط عليه عاملٌ‏‮ ‬‬وهو فعل مذكور معه والـمصدر قسمان لفظيّ‏‮ ‬‬ومعنويّ‏‮ ‬‬فالـمصدر اللّفظي‏‮ ‬‬نحو ضَرَبْتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبًا فضربًا مصدر منصوب وضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬هو عامله وهو موافق له في‏‮ ‬‬لفظه ومعناه وأمّا الـمصدر الـمعنويّ‏‮ ‬‬هو من ذات معنى عامله فقط نحو قَعَدْتُ‏‮ ‬‬جُلُوسًا فجلوسًا مصدر منصوب ومسّلط عليه عامله من معناه ولا من لفظه وهو قَعَدَ‏‮ ‬‬فإن جلوسًا موافق معنى‏‮ ((‬‬قعد‏‮)) ‬‬دون لفظه،‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـمَصْدَرُ (The verbal noun) is the noun which occurs as the third form in the conjugation of its verb.  It is in the case  of  naṣb, because  it  is  الْـمَفْعُول الْـمُطْـلَق (the unrestricted object) which is influenced by  عَـامِــــــلٌ (a governor).   Its governor is  فِعْــلٌ مَذْكُورٌ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَهُ (a verb that is mentioned with it).

الـمَصْدَر (The verbal noun) is of two kinds: لَـفْظِيُّ (a noun that has a similar pronunciation to the pronunciation verb) and مَـعْنَوِيٌّ (a noun having a similar meaning to the meaning of the verb).  الْـمَصْدَرُ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّفْظِيُّ (the noun having a similar pronunciation to the verb) is like when you say: ضَـرَبْـتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَـرْبًـا (I beat him a beating – that is to say: I beat him intensely).   And so ضَرْبًـا is a مَصْدَرٌ (a verbal noun) in the case of naṣb and the verb ضَـرَبَ is عَـامِـلُهُ (its governor) and that which agrees with it in its pronunciation and its meaning.

As for الْـمَصْدَرُ‏‮ ‬‬الـمَعْنَوِيُّ (a noun having a similar meaning to the verb), it is from the essence of the meaning of عَـامِـلُهُ (its governing verb).  It is like when you  say: قَـعَدْتُ‏‮ ‬‬جُـلُوسًـا (I sat a sitting [that is to say: I sat for a long time]).  And so, جُـلُوسًـا (sitting) is a مَـصْدَرٌ in the case of naṣb and عَـامّـلُهُ (its governor) has influenced its meaning but not its pronunciation.  It (الْـعَامِـلُ [the governor]) is قَـعَدَ (sat).  And so جُـلُوسًـا agrees in meaning with قَـعَدَ without having its pronunciation.

(*note in ʿArabic)

الـمصدر ما‏‮ ‬‬يؤكد عامله كضَرْبَتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبًا أو ما‏‮ ‬‬يبيّن نوعه كنَظَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَيْهِ‏‮ ‬‬نَظَرًا أو ما‏‮ ‬‬يبيّن عدده كضَرَبْتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبَتَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬

يسمّى الـمصدر مفعولاً‏‮ ‬‬مطلقًا أيضًا فسمّى مطلقًا لأنّه مفعولاً‏‮ ‬‬بدون قَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬إذْ‏‮ ‬‬تقول‏‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬‬ضَرَبْتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبًا فيكن ضَرْبًا نفس الفعل الذي‏‮ ‬‬فعلته وتقول‏‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬‬ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬خَالِدًا فإنّ‏‮ ‬‬خَالِدًا ليس نفس الفعل الذي‏‮ ‬‬فعلته بل فَعَلْتَ‏‮ ‬‬بِخَالِدٍ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلا وهو ضرْبًا ولذلك‏‮ ‬‬يسمّى خالِدًا مفعولاً‏‮ ‬‬به وإنّ‏‮ ‬‬الـمفعول الـْمُطْلَق فهو نفس ما فعله الفاعل‏‮ ‬‬

وقيل أيضًا‏‮ ‬‬يسمّى الـمصدر مطلقًا لانّه الـمفعول الذي‏‮ ‬‬لم‏‮ ‬‬يتقيد بحرف جرّ‏‮ ‬‬نحو الـمفعول‏‮ (( ‬‬به‏‮)) ‬‬والـمفعول‏‮ (( ‬‬معه‏‮ )) ‬‬والـمفعول‏‮ (( ‬‬فيه‏‮ )) ‬‬وقِسْ‏‮ ‬‬علي‏‮ ‬‬مُقَيِّدِ‏‮ ‬‬الـمفعول‏‮ ‬‬

(*note in English)

الَـمَصْدَرَُ (The verbal noun) can emphasizes عَامِله (its governing verb) like: ضَرَبْتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبًا (I beat him a beating – that is to say: “I beat him intensely”) or clarify (the kind of action) – like: نَـظَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَـيْهِ‏‮ ‬‬نَـظَرًا‏‮ ‬‬(I look at him a looking – that is to say: “I stared at him”) or show the number of times the action occurred like: ضَـرَبْـتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبَتَيْنِ (I beat him two beatings – that is to say: “I beat him twice”).

الْـمَصْدَرُ (The verbal noun) is also called الْـمَفْعُول الْـمُطْـلَق (the unrestricted object).  It is said to be مُـطْلَقًا (unrestricted), because it is an object without restriction.  When you say, ضَرَبْتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبًا (I beat him a beating), it is ضَرْبًا which is the essence of the action which you did.  Whereas if you say: ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬خَالِدًا (I beat Khaalid), خَالِدًا (Khaalidan) is not the essence of the action you did.  On the contrary, فَعَلْتَ‏‮ ‬‬بِخَالِدٍ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلاً (you did an action to خَالِدًا [Khaalid])  –  and that action is ضَرْبًا (a beating).  Therefore, it is for this reason Khaalid is called مَفْعُول بِهِ (a receiver of it) or an object.  الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُظْلَقُ (the unrestricted object), it is the essence of the action done to him by the doer.

It has also been said, that الْـمَصْدَرُ (The verbal noun) is called مُـطْلَقًا (unrestricted), because it is the object that is not restricted by حَـرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬جَرٍّ (a preposition) like when you say:الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬‏‮ ‬‬بِـهِ‏‮ ‬‬ِ‏‬  and  الـْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬مَـعْهُ‏‮ ‬ and ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬فِيهِ‏‬ and so forth which restricts the objects.

Footnotes:

1  قَتَلَهُ‏‮ ‬‬قَتْلاً I killed him a killing – meaning: I slaughtered him. 
2  جَلَسْتُ‏‮‬‬ قُعُودًا I sat a sitting – meaning: I sat for a very long time. 
3  قُمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وُقُوفًا I stood a standing – meaning: I stood for a long time.

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Published in: on October 24, 2011 at 22:13  Leave a Comment  

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