Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 18 – (The Chapter About Ḍharfu-z-Zamaan [The Adverb Of Time] and Ḍharful-Makaan [The Adverb Of Place])

 بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬ظَرْفِ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬ظَرْفِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ 

18 – (The Chapter About harfu-z-Zamaan  [The Adverb Of Time] and harfu-l-Makaan  [The Adverb Of Place])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬اسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِتَقْدِيرِ‏‮ ‬‬فيِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللَّيْلَةَ‏‮ ‬‬وَغُدْوَةً‏‮ ‬‬وَبُكْرَةً‏‮ ‬‬وَسَحَرًا وَغَدًا وَعَتَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬وَصَبَاحًا وَمَسَاءً‏‮ ‬‬وَأَبَدًا وَأَمَدًا وَحِينًا وَمَا أَشْبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ‏‮ ‬‬هَوَ‏‮ ‬‬اسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِتَقْدِيرِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬أَمَامَ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَلْفَ‏‮ ‬‬وَقُدَّامَ‏‮ ‬‬وَوَرَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وَفَوْقَ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَحْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَعِنْدَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَعَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِزَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وَحِذَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وَتِلْقَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُنَا وَثَمَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا أَشَْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ (The adverb of time) هُوَ (is) اسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ (the noun of time) الـْمَنْصُوبُ (in the case of naṣb) بِتَقْديرِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي (it is expressed with [the preposition] فِي being implied) –  (like when you say): الْيَوْمَ (today) وَاللَّيْلَةَ and (tonight) وَغُدْوَةً and (in the morning) وَبُكْرَةً and (at dawn) وَسَحَرًا and (at dawn) وَغَدًا and (tomorrow) وَعَتَمًا and (in the first third of the night) وَصَبَاحًا and (in the morning) وَمَسَاءً and (in the evening) وَأَبَدًا and (always / never) وَأَمَدًا and (briefly) وَحِينًا and (sometimes) وَمَا أَشْبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ (and what is similar to these).

وَظَـــرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَـــانِ‏‮ ‬‬ (And the adverb of place) هُو (is)   اسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ the noun of location) الـْمَنْصُوبُ (in the case of naṣb) بِتَقْديرِ‏‮ ‬‬في (it is expressed with [the preposition] فِي being implied)  – like when you say: أَمَامَ (across from / in front of) وَخَلْفَ and (behind), وَقُدَّامَ and (in front of)  وَوَرَاءَ and (behind) وَفَوْقَ and (above) وَتَحْتَ and (below) وَعِنْدَ and (with) وَمَعَ and (with) وَإِزَاءَ and (face to face / opposite someone or something) وَحِذَاءَ and (opposite / face to face with) وَتِلْقَاءَ and (opposite /in  front  of) وَهُنَــا  and  (here) ‏‮ ‬‬وَثَـــمَّand  (there)  وَمَا أَشَْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِك (and what is similar to these).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَان وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَان هما الإسمان الـمنصوبان الواقع فيهما الفعل متضمِّنًا معنى في‏‮ ‬‬دون لفظها كقولك خَرَجْتُ‏‮ ‬‬يَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعِيدِ‏‮ ‬‬ومَشَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَرَآءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمِ‏‮ ‬‬فيوم وورآء مفعول فيهما لأنّه قد وقع فيهما الفعل وهو الخروج والـمشِي‏‮ ‬‬وكلاهما متضمّن معنى في‏‮ ‬‬دون‏‮  ‬‬لفظها لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬التّقدير في‏‮ ‬‬اليوم والورآء ومثل جِئْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَذْهَبُ‏‮ ‬‬غَدًا‏‮ ‬‬وقُمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬صَبَاحًا ونِمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬مَسَـاءً‏‮ ‬‬وجَـلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬حِذَاءَكَ‏‮ ‬‬ووَقَفْتُ‏‮ ‬‬قُدَّامَكَ‏‮ ‬‬إلى آخره‏‮ ‬‬

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَان هو الإسم الدّالّ‏‮ ‬‬على الزّمان نحو الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬واللَّيْلَةَ‏‮ ‬‬وغُدْوَةً‏‮ ‬‬وبُكْرَةً وسَحَرًا وغَدًا وعَتَمًا وصَبَاحًا ومَسَاءً‏‮ ‬‬وأَبَدًا وأَمَدًا ووَقْتًآ وحِينًا وما أشبه ذلك فهذه‏‮  ‬‬جميعًا تُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬على الظَّرْفيَّةِ‏‮ ‬‬تقول أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬وذَهَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بُكْرَةً‏‮ ‬‬

وظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَان هو الاسم الدّال على الـمكان نحو أَمَامَ‏‮ ‬‬وخَــلْفَ‏‮ ‬‬وقُدَّامَ‏‮ ‬‬ووَرَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وفَوْقَ‏‮ ‬‬وتَحْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وعِنْدَ‏‮ ‬‬ومَعَ‏‮ ‬‬وإِزَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وتِلْقَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وحِذَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وهُنَا وثَمَّ‏‮ ‬‬ومَا أشبه ذلك تقول جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬أَمَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬أو حِذَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٍو أو تِلْقَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَيْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وقس الباقي

Explanation of Text in English:

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ  (the adverb of time and the adverb of place) are the nouns in the case of naṣb wherein their verb [is expressed] with an implied meaning  [which includes] the preposition  فِي   –  like when you say: خَرَجْــــتُ‏‮ ‬‬يَـوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعِيــــدِ  (I  left  on  the  feast  day) and  مَشَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَرَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمِ (I walked behind the people); and so يَوْمَ and وَرَاءَ are adverbial objects for both of the verbs  (خَرَجْتُ‏‮ ‬‬ and مَشَيْتُ), because the action falls on both of these objects which is the action of  الْـخُرُوجُ (leaving) and the action of الْـمَشِي (walking).  Both contain the meaning of the preposition فِي without the expression of it, because it is implied by الْيوْمَ and الْوَرَاءَ.  Similar examples are: جِئْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَذْهَبُ‏‮ ‬‬غَدًا‏‮ ‬‬(I came today and I am leaving tomorrow), قُمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬صَبَاحًا ونِمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬مَسَـآءً (I arose in the morning and slept in the evening), جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬حِذَاءَكَ‏‮ ‬‬ووَقَفْتُ‏‮ ‬‬قُدَّامَكَ (I sat across from you and I stood in front of you) and so forth

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَان (the adverb of time) is the noun which demonstrates time  – like when you say: الْيَوْمَ (today), اللَّيْلَةَ (tonight), غُدْوَةً (in the morning), بُكْرَةً (at dawn), سَحَرًا (at dawn), غَدًا (tomorrow/on the morrow), عَتَمًا (in the first third of the night), صَبَاحًا (in the morning), مَسَاءً (in the evening), أَبَدًا (always / never), أَمَدًا (briefly), and حِينًا (sometimes) and what is similar to these.  All of these nouns are in the case of naṣb because they are in the adverbial condition.  And so you say:‏‮ ‬‬أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَهَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بُكْرَةً (I came in the day and left in the evening).

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَان (the adverb of place) is the noun which demonstrates location  – like when you say:  أَمَــــامَ (across from / in front of), خَلْفَ (behind), قُدَّامَ (in front of), وَرَاءَ (behind), فَوْقَ (above), تَحْتَ (below), عِنْدَ (with), مَعَ (with), إِزَاءَ (face to face / opposite someone or something), حِذَاءَ (opposite / face to face with), تِلْقَاء (opposite / in front of), هُنَا (here),‏‮ ‬‬ثَمَّ (there) and what is similar to these.  And so you say: جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬أَمَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (I sat across from Zayd) and حِذَا عَمْرٍو (opposite ʿAmr) and تِلْقَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَيْتِ (in front of the house).  The rest of the adverbs of time are use in a similar manner.

(*note in ʿArabic)

الظرف هو الـمسمَّى الـمفعول فيه أيضًا فهو الـمـنصوب الواقع فيه الفعل متضمنًا معنى في‏‮ ‬‬دون لفظها فهكذا قلنا ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَان وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَان‏‮ ((‬‬منصوب على تقدير في‏‮ ‬‬دون لفظها‏‮)) ‬‬لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬معنى قولك أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيوْمَ‏‮ ((‬‬أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمِ‏‮))‬‬ ومعنى قولك جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ((‬‬جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَرِيبِ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْهُ‏‮)) ‬‬فلو لم‏‮ ‬‬يكن على معني‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬نحو انْتَطَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬يَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعِيدِ‏‮ ‬‬أو كانت‏‮ ((‬‬في‏‮)) ‬‬ظاهرةً‏‮ ‬‬نحو أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الصَّبَاحِ‏‮ ‬‬كان الأوّل منصوبًا على انه مفعولٌ‏‮ ‬‬به والثَّانِي‏‮ ‬‬مجرورًا بالحرف‏‮   ‬‬

(*note in English)

الظَّرْفُ (The adverb) is also known as الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬فِيهِ (the adverbial object).  It is the noun in the case of naṣb upon which the action of the verb falls and implies the meaning of the preposition فِي (in) without expressing it. Therefore, we  have  said, “ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِِ (the adverb of time) and ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِِِ (the adverb of place) are in the case of naṣb because of the implication of [the harf] فِي”. It means that what is being implied is the prepositions فِي (in) without it being expressed, because when you say: أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ (I came today) what you mean is أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمِ (I came in the day) and when you say:  جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (I sat with Zayd) what you mean is  جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَرَيبِ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْهُ (I sat in a place near him).  The preposition فِي is not implied however, if you say: أَنْتَطَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬يَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعِيدِ (I await the day of ‘Iid)  or when the word فِي comes in (a sentence) like:أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الصَّبَاحِ‏‮ ‬‬(I came in the morning). The word يَوْمَ in the first example is in the case of naṣb because it is the object of the verb and the word الصَّبَاحِ in the second example in the case of khafḍ because it is the object of the preposition.

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Published in: on October 30, 2011 at 23:56  Comments (1)  

Chapter 2 – Concerning الصَّلاةِ (Prayer) – Part 1 الصَّلاَةُ‮ ‬الْـمَفْرُوضةُ‮ ‬ (The Obligatory Prayers) from Matnu-l-ʿIzziyah

 بَابُ‮ ‬الثَّانِي‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الصَّلاةِ‮ ‬

Chapter 2 – Concerning الصَّلاةِ (Prayer)

Part 1 الصَّلاَةُ‮ ‬الْـمَفْرُوضةُ‮ ‬ (The Obligatory Prayers) 

وَهِيَ (It [Prayer] ) أَحَـدُ‮ ‬أَرْكَانِ‮ ‬الإسلاَمِ‮ ‬الْـخَـمْسَةِ (is one of the five pillars of Islam) التِّي (which)  بُـنِيَ‮ ‬عَـلَيهَا (is also built on) شَـهَادَتِ (witnessing) أَنْ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬إِلَـاـهَ‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬اللهُ (that there is no god except Allah) وَ‮ ‬أَنَّ‮ ‬مُحَـمَّدًا (And that Muhammad) عَبْدُهُ (is His slave) وَرَسُولُـهُ (and Messenger), وَإِقَامِ‮ ‬الصَّلاةِ (and standing for prayer), وَإتَـاءِ‮ ‬الزَّكَاةِ (and giving alms tax), وَصَـومِ (and the fast of Ramadan), وَحَجِّ‮ ‬بَيْتِ‮ ‬اللهِ‮ ‬الْـحَرَامِ (and the pilgrimage to the House of Allah) لِـمَنْ‮ ‬اسْـتَطَاعَ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬سَـبِيلا (for he who is able to find a way to).

 وَالصَّّلاَةُ‮ ‬(Prayer)أَعْـظَمُهَا‮ ‬(is the most important of them [the pillars of Islam]) بَعْدَ‮ ‬الشَّهَادَتَيْـنِ (after the two Shahādahs). مَنْ‮ ‬أَقَامَـهَا (Whoever upholds it), أَقَامَ‮ ‬الدِّينَ (upholds the Diin), ومَنْ‮ ‬تَـرَكَـهَا (and whoever neglects it), فَـقَدْ‮ ‬تَـرَكَ‮ ‬الدِّينَ (neglects the Diin). وَلِـوُجُـوبِـهَا (Its requirements) ‮ ‬خَـمْسَةُ‮ ‬شُـرُوطٍ (are [base on] five conditions): الإسلاَمُ (Islam), وَالْبُلُوغُ (maturity), وَالْـعَقْلُ (intelligence), ‮ ‬وَارْتِفَاعُ‮ ‬دَمِ‮ ‬الْـحَيْضِ (cessation of menstrual bleeding) وَالنِّفَاسِ (and the blood parturition [childbirth]), وَحُضُورِ‮ ‬وَقْتِ‮ ‬الصَّلاَتِ (the arrival of the time of the prayer).

تَـجِبُ‮ ‬بِأَوَّلِ‮ ‬الْوَقْتِ (It becomes obligatory at the beginning of the time) وُجُوبًا مُوَسَّعًا (though the span of time of the obligation is wide).فَمَنْ‮ ‬جَهَدَ‮ ‬وُجُوبَهَا (He who forsakes it as an  obligation) أَوْ‮ ‬شَيْئًا مِنْ‮ ‬وَجَبَاتِهَا (and anything of its requirements) أَوْ‮ ‬شَـيْئًا مِنْ‮ ‬أَرْكَانِ‮ ‬الإسلاَمِ‮ ‬الْـخَمْسَةِ (or anything from the five pillars of Islam) فَهُوَ‮ ‬كَافِرٌ‮ ‬مُرْتَدُّ (is an apostatizing  disbeliever). يَستَتَابُ (He should be called upon to repent) ‮ ‬ثَلاَثَةَ‮ ‬أَيَّامٍ‮ ‬ (for three days) فَـإِنْ‮ ‬تَـابَ to see if he repents) ,‮ ‬وَإِلاَّ‮ ‬قُـتِلَ , otherwise he should be killed ). وَمَـنْ‮ ‬أَقَـرَّ‮ ‬بِـوُجُـوبِـهَا (Whoever affirms the obligation of pray) وَامْـتَنَعَ‮ ‬مِـنْ‮ ‬فِـعْلِهَا (and stops doing it), انتُظِرَ‮ ‬إِلَى‮ ‬ (will be observed until) أَنْ‮ ‬يَـبْقَى مِـنْ‮ ‬وَقْـتِهَا الضُّرُورِيِّ (what remains of its [the prayer’s] necessary time) مِقْدَارُ‮ ‬رَكْعَةٍ‮ ‬كَامِلَةٍ‮ ‬ (equal to the measure of a complete rakʿah). فَإِنْ‮ ‬لَـمْ‮ ‬يُـصَلِّ (If he still hasn’t prayed), قُـتِلَ‮ ‬بِـالسَـيفِ (he should be killed by the sword) حَـدًّا (in accordance with the prescribed penalty);

وَيُصَلِّي‮ ‬عَلَيهِ‮ ‬(and [the people who pray] over him) ‮ ‬غَيْرُ‮ ‬أَهْلِ‮ ‬الْفَضْلِ‮ ‬وَالصَّلاَحِ‮ ‬(should be other than the people of virtue and piety). وَيُدْفَنُ (He should be buried) فِي‮ ‬مُقَابِرِ‮ ‬الْـمُسْلِمِيـنَ (in the grave yard of the Muslims),‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬يُـطْمَسُ‮ ‬قَـبْرُهُ (and his grave should not be destroyed).‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬يُـقْتَلُ (He should not be kill)‮ ‬بِالْفَائِتَةِ (for letting the time of prayer elapse).

‮ ‬وَيُـؤْمَـرُ‮ ‬الصَّبِيُّ‮ ‬(The youth should be commanded) بِهَا لِسَبْعِ‮ ‬سَنِيـنَ (to perform it [prayer] at seven) يَضْرَبُ‮ ‬عَلَى تَرْكِهَا ضَرْبًا (and should be spanked),غَيْرَ‮ ‬مُبَرِّحٍ (but not severely) ‮ ‬إِذَا بَلَغَ‮ ‬عَشْرَ‮ ‬سَنِيـنَ (if he has reached the age of ten).

فصْلٌ (Section about the obligatory prayers)

الصَّلاَةُ‮ ‬الْـمَفْرُوضةُ‮ ‬ (The obligatory prayers) خَـمْسَةٌ (are five): الظُّهْـرُ (aḍh-Ḍhur), وَالْعَصْرُ (al-ʿAṣr), وَالْـمَغٌرِبُ‮ ‬(al-Maghrib),  وَالُعِشًاءُ‮ ‬(alʿIshaa’) and  وَالصُّبْحُ‮ ‬(aṣ-Ṣubḥ). وَلِكُلِّ‮ ‬وَاحِدَةِ‮ ‬مِنْهَا (For each of them) وَقْـتَانِ‮ ‬اخْـتِيارِيٌّ (is a preferred time) وَضَـرُورِيٌّ (and a necessary time). فَلاِخْتِيَارِيُّ‮ ‬لِلظُّهْرِ (The preferred time for aḍh-Ḍhur)‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬زَوَالِ‮ ‬الشََّمْسِ  (is from when the noon day sun passes the meridian])‮ ‬لآِخِـرِ‮ ‬الْـقَامَـةِ (until the time of when the shadow of a thing is equal to it]) وَهُـوَ‮ ‬أَوَّلُ‮ ‬الْوَقْـتِ‮ ‬الْـعَصْرِ (and it is the time of the beginning of al-ʿAṣr). ‮ ‬وَآخِرُهُ (The end of it [the time of al-ʿAṣr]) ‮ ‬إِلى اصْـفِرَارِ‮ ‬الشَّمْسِ ( is the yellowing of the Sun]). ولِـلْـمَغْرِبِ (The preferred time of al-Maghrib)‮  ‬بِـغُرُوبِ‮ ‬قُرْصِ‮ ‬الشَّمْسِ (is with the setting of the round edge of the sun)‮ ‬وَهُوَ‮ ‬مُضَيِّقٌ (it [the time span] is narrow)  غَـيْرُ‮ ‬مُـمْتَدِّ (not wide). يُـقَدَّرُ (It is limited (to the amount of time) بِـفِعْلِهَا (which will enable you to perform it)  بَـعْدَ‮ ‬تَـحْصِيلِ‮ ‬شُـرُرطِـهَا  ( after having fulfilled its conditions: [that is to say, the adhaan, the iqaamah and the essentials of purification etc.])  وَلِـلعِشَاءِ (The preferred time of alʿIshaa’ is from غَـيْبُوبَةِ‮ ‬الشَّفَقِ‮ ‬الأَحْـمَرِ (the red twilight of the evening]) إِِلَـى ثُـلْثِ‮ ‬اللَّيْلِ‮ ‬الأََوَّلِ‮ ‬(up until the first third of the night). لِلصُّبْحِ (The preferred time of aṣ-Ṣubḥ) طُـلُوعِ‮ ‬الْفَجْـرِ‮ ‬الصَّادِقِ (is from the actual appearance of the (light) of dawn)‮ ‬لِلإِسْفَارِ‮ ‬الأَعْلَى (to brightness of dawn). وَالضَّرُورِيُّ‮ ‬للصُّبْحِ (The necessary time of aṣ-Ṣubḥ) مِن الإِسْفَارِ‮ ‬الأَعْلَى (is from the brightness of dawn) ‮ ‬إلَى طُلُوعِ‮ ‬الشَّمْسِ (the appearance of the sun). وَلِلظَّهْرِ ([The necessary time] for aḍh-Ḍhur) مِنْ‮ ‬أَوَّلِ‮ ‬وَقْتِ‮ ‬الْعَصْرِ‮ ‬الْـمُخْتَارِ (is from the beginning of the preferred time of al-ʿAṣr)  إِلَى‮ ‬غُرُوبِ‮ ‬قُرْصِ‮ ‬الشَّمْسِ (until the setting of the round edge of the sun). ولِـلْعَصْرِ ([The necessary time] for  al-ʿAṣr) مِنَ‮ ‬الأَصْفِرَارِ (is from the yellowing of the Sun) ‮ ‬إِلَى وَقْتِ‮ ‬الْغُرُوبِ (to the time of sunset). وَلِلْمَغْرِبِ ([The necessary time] for  al-Maghrib) ‮ ‬مِـنَ‮ ‬الْـفَرَاغِ‮ ‬مِنْهَا (is from) ‮ ‬إِلَى طُلُوعِ‮ ‬الْفَجرِ (to the appearance of dawn). وَلِلْعِشَاءِ ([The necessary time] for alʿIshaa’)‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬آخِرِ‮ ‬ثُلُثِ‮ ‬اللَّيْلِ‮ ‬الأوَّلِ (is from the end of the first third of the night) ‮ ‬إِلَى طُلُوعِ‮ ‬الْفَجْرِ (to the appearance of dawn).

تَنْبِيهٌ (note):

مَـنْ‮ ‬أَخَّرَ‮ ‬الصَّلاةَ‮ ‬ (Whoever delays the prayer) إِلَى الْوَقْتِ‮ ‬الضُّرُورِيِّ (until the necessary time)‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬غَـيْرِ‮ ‬عُـذْرِ (without a [valid] excuse) أَثِـمَ (commits a sin). وَالْعُدْرُ (The [valid] excuses are): ‮ ‬الْـحَيْضُ (the bleeding of menstruation).‮ ‬وَالنِّفَاسُ (the bleeding of parturition), والْكُفْرُ (disbelief), وَالصِّبَا ( under the age of the obligation to pray), وَالْـجُنُونِ  (insanity),  والإغْـمَاءِ (unconsciousness), وَالنَّومِ (sleep), and وَالنِسْيَانُ (forgetfulness).

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الْـحَيْضُ (The Blood of Menstruation) and النَّفَاسُ (The Blood of Parturition [Childbirth]) from Matn al ʿIzziyah

الْـحَيْضُ (The Blood of Menstruation) and  النَّفَاسُ (The Blood of Parturition [Childbirth])

 الْـحَيْضُ (The blood of menstruation) ‮ ‬هُـوَ‮ ‬الدَّمُ‮ ‬الْـخَارِجُ‮ ‬بنَفْسِهِ(is the [natural] blood flow in itself) مِنْ‮ ‬قُبُلِ‮ ‬مَنْ‮ ‬تَـحْمِلُ (from the woman who is able to become pregnant). عَادَةٌ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬مُدَّةِ‮ ‬خَمْسَةَ‮ ‬عَشَرَ‮ ‬يَـوْمًـا (It can last up to fifteen days) فَدُونَهَا إِلَى سَاعَةٍ‮ ‬ (or as little as an hour) مِنْ‮ ‬غَيْرِ‮ ‬وِلاَدَةٍ‮ ‬([as long as] it is not caused by childbirth) وَلاَ‮ ‬مَـرْضٍ (or illness). فَأَقَلُّهُ (The minimum duration [of purity from the blood of menstruation]) لاَ‮ ‬حَـدَّ‮ ‬لَـهُ (has no limit), كَـأَكْـثَرِ‮ ‬الطُّهْـرِ(likewise the maximum duration [of purity from the blood of menstruation][has no limit]). وَأَمَّا أَقَـلُّ‮ ‬الطُّهْـرِ (The minimum) فَخَمْسَةَ‮ ‬عَشَرَ‮ ‬يَوْمًا (can be fifteen days). وَأَمَّا أَكْثَرُ‮ ‬الْـحَيْضِ (As for the maximum duration period for the blood of menstruation), فَـيَخْتََلفُ (it varies) بِـخْتِلاَفِ‮ ‬الْـحُيَّضِ (in accord with the different menstrual cycles [of each female]). ‮  ‬فَإنْ‮ ‬كَانَـتْ‮ ‬مُـبْتَدَأَةٌ‮ ‬ (If she’s just staring to have a menstrual period) فَأَكْثَرُ (the maximum period) فِـي‮ ‬حَـقِّهَا‮ ‬(in reality) إذَا تَـمَادَتْ‮ ‬بِـهَا الْـحَيْضَةُ (if the bleeding persists) خَمْسَةَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬يَـوْمًـا (is fifteen days). وَإِنْ‮ ‬كَنَاتْ‮ ‬مُعْتَادَةٌ‮ ‬(If she is a woman who is accustomed to regular menstrual cycles]),فَـإِمَّّا أَنْ تَـخْتَلِفَ‮ ‬عَـادَتُـهَا أَمْ‮ ‬لاَ (her normal period is either irregular or regular). فَـإنْ‮ ‬لَـمْ‮ ‬تَـخْتَلِفِ‮ ‬(Even if it is not irregular), ‮ ‬اسْظهَرَتْ‮ ‬عَلَى عَادَتِهَا بِثَلاَثَةِ‮ ‬أَيَّامًا (she can use precaution by adding three days above her normal period) مَا لَـمْ‮ ‬تُجَاوـِزْ‮  ‬خَـمْسَةَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬يَوْمًَا ( that usually doesn’t exceed fifteen days),وَإِنِ‮ ‬اخْتِلاَفَتِ‮ ‬اسْتَظَهَرَتْ‮ ‬عَلَى أَكْثرِ‮ ‬عَادَتِهَا‮ ‬ (while if it [her period] is irregular, she can also use precaution for what is beyond her normal period),كَـذَالكَ‮ ‬ (in the same way [that is to say: she can add three days to what is above her normal period]). وَهِـيَ‮ ‬ (She),فِـي‮ ‬أَيَّّامِ‮ ‬الاسْـتِظْهَارِ (during the days of istiḍh-haar [precaution before performing ablution]) ‮ ‬حَـائِـضٌ (is still considered to be a menstruating woman). فَإِنْ‮ ‬تَـمَادَى بِهَا (If it [the bleeding] persist with her) ‮ ‬إِلَى تَـمَامِ‮ ‬خَمْسَةَ‮ ‬عَشَرَ‮ ‬يَومًا (up to the completion of fifteen days), فَحُكْمُهَا حُكْمُ‮ ‬الطَّاهِرِ (the judgement for her is same as the judgement for the woman who has purity) ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬تَـوْجِـيهِ(in respect) الصَّلاَةِ (to the prayer),وَالصَّوْمِ‮ ‬(fasting), وعَـدَمِ‮ ‬القَضَاءِ (the repayment of missed prayers), وَإِتْيَانِ‮ ‬الزَّوْجِ (and the arrival of the husband for intercourse).

فصْلٌ (Section)

ولِلطَّهْرِ‮ ‬عَلاَمَتَانِ (Purity from menstruation has two signs:) 1. الْـخُفُوفُ (dryness): وَهُـوَ (it is) أَنْ‮ ‬تُـدْخِـلَ‮ ‬الْـمَرْأَةُ (when a woman puts) خِرْفَةً (a cloth) فِي‮ ‬فُرْجِـهَا (into the opening of her vagina) فَتَخْـرُجَ (and when she takes it out),‮ ‬جَافَّةً (it is dry);لَـيْسَ‮ ‬عَـلَيْهَا شَـيْءٌ‮ ‬مِـنَ‮ ‬الدَّمِ‮ ‬ (there isn’t any blood on it). 2. وَالْقَصَّةُ‮ ‬الْبَيْضَاءُ (al-qiṣṣatu-l-bayḍaa’u) ‮ ‬وَهِيََ‮ ‬مَاءٌ‮ ‬أَبْيَضُ‮ ‬رَقِيٍقٌ(which is thin white water) يَأْتِى فِي‮ ‬آخِرِ‮ ‬الْـحَيْضِ (that comes at the end of menstrual bleeding) كَـمَاءِ‮ ‬الْقَصَّةِ (which like the water from gypsum). ‮ ‬وَهِـيَ‮ ‬الْـجِيرُ(It [resembles] the water of quicklime) وَالْـقَصَّةُ (and gypsum). أَبْـلغُ (This is a more reliable indicator) للْـمُتَادَةِ (for a woman who is accustom to having a menstrual period). فإِذَا رَأَتِ‮ ‬الْـخُفُوفَ‮ ‬أَوَّلاً (Even if she see the dryness first), ‮ ‬انْـتَظَرَتِ (she should still expect to see) الْـقَصَّةَ (the white water) لآخِرِ‮ ‬الْوَقْتِ‮ ‬الْـمُخْتَارِ (towards the end of the particular period).

وَأَمَّا الْـمُبْتَدَأَةُ (As for the one who is just starting to menstruate), فَـلاَ‮ ‬تَـنْتَطِرُ (she should not expect to see) الْـقَصَّةِ‮ ‬ (the white water)إذَا رأَتِ‮ ‬الْـجُفُوفِ‮ ‬أَوَّلاً‮ ‬(if she sees dryness first). وَعَـلَى الْـمَرْأَتِ (A woman is obligated) أَنْ‮ ‬تَنْتَطِرَ‮  ‬طَهْرَهَا (to look for her state of purity) عِنْدَ‮ ‬النَّوْمِ (when she’s going to sleep) وَعِنْدَ‮ ‬صَـلاَةِ‮ ‬الصُّبْحِ (and when it is time to pray Ṣalatu-ṣ-Ṣubḥ).

وَيَـمْنَعُ‮ ‬الْـحَيْضُ (Menstruation prevents) الصَّلاَةَ (prayer [from being performed]), وَالصَّومَ (fasting) والطَّلاَقَ ([the pronouncement of] divorce), ومَسَّ‮ ‬الْـمُصحَفِ (the touching of a copy of the Qur’an), وَقرَاءَةَ‮ ‬القُرْأَنِ (the recitation of the Qur’an), وَدُخُـولَ‮ ‬الْـمَسْجِـدِ (the entry [of a woman] into the masjid), وَالْـوَطَءَ‮ ‬فِـى الْـفُرْجِ (sexual intercourse [between the man and the woman]) زَمَنَ‮ ‬الْـحَيْضِ (during the time of menstruation), وَبَـعَدَهُ (and after it), قَبْلَ‮ ‬طُهْرِهَا بِالْـمَاءِ (before the woman has purified herself with water).

فصْلٌ (Section) النَّفَاسُ (The Blood of Parturition [Childbirth])

النَّفَاسُ (The blood of parturition [childbirth]) هُـوَ‮ ‬الدَّمُ‮ ‬الْـخَارِجُ (is the blood which comes out) مِـنَ‮ ‬الْـقَبْلِ (of the opening of the woman)  بِسَـبَبِ‮ ‬الْوِلاَدَةِ (because of childbirth) غَـيْرَ‮ ‬زَائِدِ‮ ‬عَلى سِـتِّيـنَ‮ ‬يَوْمًا (for a period not exceeding sixty days)1 فَـلاَ‮ ‬يَسْـتَظْهِرُ ([After sixty days,] there are no precautionary days)2. وَحُـكْمُ‮ ‬دَّمِ‮ ‬النَّفَاسِ (The legal ruling for the blood of parturition [childbirth]) فِـيمَا‮ ‬يَـمْنَعُهُ (in respect to what it prohibits) وَِفِي‮ ‬اقتضَائِهِ‮ ‬الْغَسْلَ (and in respect the necessity of ghusl) حُـكْمُ‮ ‬دَمِ‮ ‬الْـحَيْضِ (is the [same as] legal ruling for menstruation) مُـطْلَقًا (without any restriction). وَاللَّهُ‮ ‬أَعْلَمُ (And Allah is the Best Knower).

Footnotes:

1 Minimum of the bleeding after childbirth (Nifas)

وإذا انقطع دم النفساء وإن كان قرب الولادة اغتسلت وصلت

If the bleeding after childbirth (nifas) stops soon after the birth, a woman should do ghusl straightaway and start doing the prayer. [ If shortly after childbirth a woman sees the sign which indicates that it is ended with white discharge and dryness, then she washes and prays. “Soon after birth” has no minimum limit in relation to time and it has a minimum in relation to what emerges, which is one gush.]

Maximum of the bleeding after childbirth (Nifas)

وإن تمادى بها الدم جلست ستين ليلة ثم اغتسلت وكانت مستحاضة تصلي‮ ‬وتصوم وتوطأ

However, if bleeding continues longer than sixty days, then she does ghusl anyway, the bleeding is considered as istihada, and she does the prayer and fasts and her husband can have sexual intercourse with her. [If the bleeding continues, she waits for sixty days, which it the maximum of its extent. If it stops after sixty, the matter is clear. If she continues to bleed after sixty, it is abnormal bleeding and she has a ghusl, prays and fasts and her husband can come to her.]

2 The three precautionary days that a woman waits before performing ghusl.

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Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 17 – (The Chapter About Al-Maṣdar [The Verbal Noun])

    بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَصْدَرِ

17 – (The Chapter About Al-Maṣdar [The Verbal Noun])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬الـْمَصْدَرُ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬الذِي‏‮ ‬‬يَجِىءُ‏‮ ‬‬ثَالِثًا فِي‏‮ ‬‬تَصْرِيفِ‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْلِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبًا وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬قِسْمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬لَفْظِيٌّ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَعْنَوِيٌّ‏‮ ‬‬فَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَافَقَ‏‮ ‬‬لَفْظُهُ‏‮ ‬‬لَفْظَ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلِهِ‏‮ ‬‬فََهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬لَفْظِيٌّ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَتَلَهُ‏‮ ‬‬قَتْلاً‏‮ ‬‬وَإَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَافَقَ‏‮ ‬‬مَعْنَى فِعْلِهِ‏‮ ‬‬دُونَ‏‮ ‬‬لَفْظِهِ‏‮ ‬‬فَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬مَعْنَوِيٌّ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬قُعُودًا وَقُمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَقُوفًا وَمَا أَشَْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮)‬‬

 English Translation:

الْـمَصْدَرُ (The verbal noun) هُـوَ (is) الإِسْـمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْـمَنْصُوبُ (the noun in the case of naṣb) الذِي‏‮ ‬‬يَـجِىءُ (which occurs as) ثَـالِـثًا (the third form) فِي‏‮ ‬‬تَـصْرِيفِ (in the conjugation of) الْـفِعْـــلِِ (the verb)  – نَـحْـــوُ (like when you say):  ضَـرَبَ (He beat…), يَضْرِبُ (He is beating…), ضَرْبًا (a beating).  وَهُـو (And it is) قِسْمَانِ (of two  kinds): لَـفْظِيّ (a noun that has a pronunciation that is similar [to the verb]) وَمَـعْنَوِيّ (and a noun that has a similar meaning [to the verb]). فَـإِنْ (If) وَافَقَ‏‮ ‬‬لَفْظُهُ (its pronunciation corresponds) لَفْظَ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلِهِ (to the pronunciation of its verb), فََـهُوُ (then it is) لَـفْظِيٌّ (a noun that sounds like the verb in its pronunciation)  – نَـحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬ (like when you say):  قَتَلَهُ‏‮ ‬‬قَـتْلاً (I killed him a killing)1 فَـإِنْ (but if), وَافَـقَ (it [the maṣdar’s meaning] corresponds) مَعْنَى فِعْلِهِ (with the meaning of its verb) دُونَ‏‮ ‬‬لَـفْظِهِ (but not its pronunciation), فَـهُوَ (then it is) معنـــويّ (a noun possessing a similar meaning [to the verb]) – نَـحْوُ (like when you say): جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬قُعُودًا (I sat a sitting)2  وَقُمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وُقُوفًا and (I stood a standing)3 وَمَا أَشَْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ (and what is similar to these).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الـمصدر هو الذي‏‮ ‬‬يقع ثالثًا فِي‏‮ ‬‬تصريف فعله وهو منصوب لأنَّه الـمفعول الـمطلق وهو الإسم الـمُسَـلِّط عليه عاملٌ‏‮ ‬‬وهو فعل مذكور معه والـمصدر قسمان لفظيّ‏‮ ‬‬ومعنويّ‏‮ ‬‬فالـمصدر اللّفظي‏‮ ‬‬نحو ضَرَبْتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبًا فضربًا مصدر منصوب وضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬هو عامله وهو موافق له في‏‮ ‬‬لفظه ومعناه وأمّا الـمصدر الـمعنويّ‏‮ ‬‬هو من ذات معنى عامله فقط نحو قَعَدْتُ‏‮ ‬‬جُلُوسًا فجلوسًا مصدر منصوب ومسّلط عليه عامله من معناه ولا من لفظه وهو قَعَدَ‏‮ ‬‬فإن جلوسًا موافق معنى‏‮ ((‬‬قعد‏‮)) ‬‬دون لفظه،‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـمَصْدَرُ (The verbal noun) is the noun which occurs as the third form in the conjugation of its verb.  It is in the case  of  naṣb, because  it  is  الْـمَفْعُول الْـمُطْـلَق (the unrestricted object) which is influenced by  عَـامِــــــلٌ (a governor).   Its governor is  فِعْــلٌ مَذْكُورٌ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَهُ (a verb that is mentioned with it).

الـمَصْدَر (The verbal noun) is of two kinds: لَـفْظِيُّ (a noun that has a similar pronunciation to the pronunciation verb) and مَـعْنَوِيٌّ (a noun having a similar meaning to the meaning of the verb).  الْـمَصْدَرُ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّفْظِيُّ (the noun having a similar pronunciation to the verb) is like when you say: ضَـرَبْـتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَـرْبًـا (I beat him a beating – that is to say: I beat him intensely).   And so ضَرْبًـا is a مَصْدَرٌ (a verbal noun) in the case of naṣb and the verb ضَـرَبَ is عَـامِـلُهُ (its governor) and that which agrees with it in its pronunciation and its meaning.

As for الْـمَصْدَرُ‏‮ ‬‬الـمَعْنَوِيُّ (a noun having a similar meaning to the verb), it is from the essence of the meaning of عَـامِـلُهُ (its governing verb).  It is like when you  say: قَـعَدْتُ‏‮ ‬‬جُـلُوسًـا (I sat a sitting [that is to say: I sat for a long time]).  And so, جُـلُوسًـا (sitting) is a مَـصْدَرٌ in the case of naṣb and عَـامّـلُهُ (its governor) has influenced its meaning but not its pronunciation.  It (الْـعَامِـلُ [the governor]) is قَـعَدَ (sat).  And so جُـلُوسًـا agrees in meaning with قَـعَدَ without having its pronunciation.

(*note in ʿArabic)

الـمصدر ما‏‮ ‬‬يؤكد عامله كضَرْبَتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبًا أو ما‏‮ ‬‬يبيّن نوعه كنَظَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَيْهِ‏‮ ‬‬نَظَرًا أو ما‏‮ ‬‬يبيّن عدده كضَرَبْتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبَتَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬

يسمّى الـمصدر مفعولاً‏‮ ‬‬مطلقًا أيضًا فسمّى مطلقًا لأنّه مفعولاً‏‮ ‬‬بدون قَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬إذْ‏‮ ‬‬تقول‏‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬‬ضَرَبْتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبًا فيكن ضَرْبًا نفس الفعل الذي‏‮ ‬‬فعلته وتقول‏‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬‬ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬خَالِدًا فإنّ‏‮ ‬‬خَالِدًا ليس نفس الفعل الذي‏‮ ‬‬فعلته بل فَعَلْتَ‏‮ ‬‬بِخَالِدٍ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلا وهو ضرْبًا ولذلك‏‮ ‬‬يسمّى خالِدًا مفعولاً‏‮ ‬‬به وإنّ‏‮ ‬‬الـمفعول الـْمُطْلَق فهو نفس ما فعله الفاعل‏‮ ‬‬

وقيل أيضًا‏‮ ‬‬يسمّى الـمصدر مطلقًا لانّه الـمفعول الذي‏‮ ‬‬لم‏‮ ‬‬يتقيد بحرف جرّ‏‮ ‬‬نحو الـمفعول‏‮ (( ‬‬به‏‮)) ‬‬والـمفعول‏‮ (( ‬‬معه‏‮ )) ‬‬والـمفعول‏‮ (( ‬‬فيه‏‮ )) ‬‬وقِسْ‏‮ ‬‬علي‏‮ ‬‬مُقَيِّدِ‏‮ ‬‬الـمفعول‏‮ ‬‬

(*note in English)

الَـمَصْدَرَُ (The verbal noun) can emphasizes عَامِله (its governing verb) like: ضَرَبْتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبًا (I beat him a beating – that is to say: “I beat him intensely”) or clarify (the kind of action) – like: نَـظَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَـيْهِ‏‮ ‬‬نَـظَرًا‏‮ ‬‬(I look at him a looking – that is to say: “I stared at him”) or show the number of times the action occurred like: ضَـرَبْـتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبَتَيْنِ (I beat him two beatings – that is to say: “I beat him twice”).

الْـمَصْدَرُ (The verbal noun) is also called الْـمَفْعُول الْـمُطْـلَق (the unrestricted object).  It is said to be مُـطْلَقًا (unrestricted), because it is an object without restriction.  When you say, ضَرَبْتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبًا (I beat him a beating), it is ضَرْبًا which is the essence of the action which you did.  Whereas if you say: ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬خَالِدًا (I beat Khaalid), خَالِدًا (Khaalidan) is not the essence of the action you did.  On the contrary, فَعَلْتَ‏‮ ‬‬بِخَالِدٍ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلاً (you did an action to خَالِدًا [Khaalid])  –  and that action is ضَرْبًا (a beating).  Therefore, it is for this reason Khaalid is called مَفْعُول بِهِ (a receiver of it) or an object.  الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُظْلَقُ (the unrestricted object), it is the essence of the action done to him by the doer.

It has also been said, that الْـمَصْدَرُ (The verbal noun) is called مُـطْلَقًا (unrestricted), because it is the object that is not restricted by حَـرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬جَرٍّ (a preposition) like when you say:الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬‏‮ ‬‬بِـهِ‏‮ ‬‬ِ‏‬  and  الـْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬مَـعْهُ‏‮ ‬ and ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬فِيهِ‏‬ and so forth which restricts the objects.

Footnotes:

1  قَتَلَهُ‏‮ ‬‬قَتْلاً I killed him a killing – meaning: I slaughtered him. 
2  جَلَسْتُ‏‮‬‬ قُعُودًا I sat a sitting – meaning: I sat for a very long time. 
3  قُمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وُقُوفًا I stood a standing – meaning: I stood for a long time.

Published in: on October 24, 2011 at 22:13  Leave a Comment  
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