Questions About Purification from ‘al-Khalaaṣatu-l-Fiqhiyyah

Questions About Purification from ‘al-Khalaaṣatu-l-Fiqhiyyah ʿalaa Madh-habi-s-Saadaati-l-Maalikiyyah’ by Muhammad al ʿArabī al Qarawī

س  _ مَا هِيَ  حَقِيقَتُهَا وَكَمْ  أَقْسَامُهَا

What is it (purification) in reality and how many are its kinds?

ج  _ الطَّهَارَةُ  رَفَعَ  الـْمَنْعِ  الْـمُرَتَّبِ  عَلَى الأَعْضَاءِ  كُلِّهَا وهي  الطهارة الكبرى المسماة بالغسل أو على بعض الأعضاء  وهي  الطهارة الصغرى المسماة بالوضوء والمراد بِالـْمَنْعِ  الحالة التى لا تُبِيحُ  لِلاِنْسَانِ  أَنَ  يُؤَدِّي  عِبَادِتَهُ  كحالة تلبسه بناقض من نواقض الوضوء المانع له من أداء الصلاة مثلا

Purification is the removal of the prohibiting things that accumulate on all of the limbs. This is purification from major impurity which is called ghusl, or [purification is the removal of the prohibiting things that accumulate] on some of the limbs. This is purification from minor impurity which is called wuduu’. What is meant by prohibiting things is the condition which doesn‘t allow the human being to perform his acts of worship, like when he is overcome by the things which nullify wuduu‘ thereby preventing from performing the prayer for example.

والطهارة قسمان طهارة حدث وطهارة خبث

Purification is divided into two types1: ‬طَـاهَـرَةُ‏ حَـدَثٍ (purity from minor or major impurities of the body]) and  طَـاهَـرَةُ‏  خَـبَثٍ (purity from impure substances).

س  _  ما هو الحدث وكم أقسامه

What is طَـاهَـرَةُ‏  حَـدَثٍ (purification from minor or major impurities2 of the body])?

ج  _ هو الـمنع المرتب على الأعضاء كلها وهو الحدث الأكبر الـموجب للغسل أو الـمنع المرتب على بعض الأعضاء وهو الحدث الأصغر الـموجب للوضوء

It is [either purification from] the prohibiting things that accumulate on all of the limbs, and this is major impurity which requires ghusl or it is [purification from] prohibiting things that accumulate on some of the limbs, and this is minor impurity which requires wuduu‘.

س  _  ما هي  طهارة الخبث وبماذا تكون

What is طَـاهَـرَةُ‏  خَـبَثٍ (purification from impure substances)3 and what else is it?

ج  _ هي  إزالة النجاسة عن ثوب الـمصلي  وبدنه ومكانه وتكون بأي  نوع من أنواع المياه إذ الـمعتبر فيها إزالة عيـن النجاسة وتطهير محلها

It is the removal of impure substances from the clothing, body and area of worship of the one who‘s praying, and depending on the kind of water used in regards to it, it is the removal of the source of the impure substance and the purification of the area where it was located.

س  _ هل تنقسم طهارة الحدث وبأي  شيء تكون

Is طَـاهَـرَةُ‏  خَـبَثٍ  (purification from impure substances) divided into different kinds, and what are they?

ج تنقسم إلى قسمين مائية وهي  الوضوء والغسل وترابية وهي  التيمم وتكون بالماء المطلق

It is divided into two kinds: [purification with] water which [is used for] wuduu‘ and ghusl, and [purification with] pure earth [which is used for] tayammum. Purification should be done with  الْـمَاء الـمُطْلَقِ (valid water free from impurities).

س  _ ما هو الماء المطلق

What is الْـمَاء الـمُطْلَق(valid water free from impurities)? 4

ج  _ هي  ما اجتمع فيه شرطان أن  يكون باقيا على أصل خلقته بحيث لم  يخالطه شيء كماء البحر والآبار والماء المجتمع من النَّدَى والذَّاِئبِ  بعدما كان جامدا كالجليد وأن لا  يتغير لونه ولا ريحه بشيء  يفارقه في  الغالب من الأشياء الطاهرة أو النجسة

It (water)5 has two conditions: (1) that it remains in its original state wherein nothing has become mixed with it, like the water of the sea and wells, and the water collected from rain (dew) and what has melted after having been solid, like ice; (2) its color and smell have not been changed by anything which causes a separation in it, whether by something pure or impure.

س  _ ما هو حكم الماء المتغير

What is the ruling with regards to الـْمَاءُ  الـْمُتَغَيِّّرُ (water that has been altered)?

ج  _ إن تغير الماء بنجس فلا  يستعمل للعادة ولا للعبادة كالدم والجيفة والخمر وإن تغير بطاهر  غير ملازم له استعمل للعادة دون العبادة  كاللبن والسمن والعسل وإن تغير بطاهر ملازم له استعمل للعادة كالمتغير بأجزاء الأرض كالـمغرة والملح والكبريت والتراب وبما  يلقى فيه  من أجزائها كالطَّفْلِ  ولو قصدا وكالمتغير بِطْولِ  مَكْثٍ  أو بما تَوَلَّدَ  فيه كالسمك والطَّحْلَبِ  أو بما  يعسر الإحتراز منه كالتبن  وورق الشجر

If the water has been changed6 by an impure substance, like blood, a corpse and wine, it can not be used for a common purpose nor worship, while if it is changed by a pure substance, it must be used for a common purpose, for example the water that has been changed by a something out of the earth, like: red soil, salt, sulphur, and pure earth, and by other things that comes in contact with the water, like potter‘s clay, and when not intended like the water has been changed by something that has been in it a long time or by what has been procreated in it like fish or moss, or  what is difficult to prevent from falling into it, like straw and leaves from trees.

س  _ ما هو الماء الذي  يكره استعماله في  الطهارة

What is dislike about the water which has already been used for purification?7

ج  _ يكره التوضؤ والغسل بالماء القليل الذي  كان استعمل في  واحد منهما والماء الذي  حلت فيه نجاسة ولم تغيره لقلتها ولو كان استعماله في  طهارة الخبث والماء الذي  ولغ  فيه كلب

What is disliked about it is the performance of wuduu‘ and ghusl with a small amount of water which has already been used in the performance of one of them (wuduu‘ or ghusl), and water in which there is an impure substance that has change it, and even if it hasn‘t changed the least of it, and if the water was used for purification from  an impure substance, and the water which a dog has licked.8

Footnotes:

1 الطَّهَارَة (Purity) قِـسْمَانِ (is of two kinds): طَـاهَـرَةُ‏ حَـدَثٍ (purity from minor or major impurities of the body) وَطَـاهَـرَةُ‏  خَـبَثٍ  (and purity from impure substances which pollutes the body, clothing, the place of worship or any other thing connected with worship) – Matn al Akhḍarii – from The Section about الطَّهَارَة – At-Ṭahaarah (Purity)
2  مَـيْتَةُ  الآدَمِِـيِّ (The human corpse ), غَـيْرَ  الأَمْـبِيَاءِ (all except the prophets) نَـجِسَةٌ (are impure),  وَمَيْتَةَ  مَالاَ  نَفْسَ  لَهُ  سَائِلَةٌ (as well as the dead thing, that unquestionably has no breath) كَالقَسَلَةِ (like the louse) عَـلَى الْـمَشْهُورِ (as is well known), وَالْـبَرْغُوثِ (as well as the flea) عِنْدَ  ابْنِ  الْقَصَّارِ (according to Ibn Qassār), وَمَا أُبِـينَ  مِـنَ  الْـحَيِّ (and what has become physically detached from the living) أَوِ  الْـمَيِّتِ (or the dead), مِـمَّا تَـحُـلّهُ  الْـحَاةُ (from what is lawful while alive) كَـالقَرْنِ (like the horn),  وَالعَظَمِ (the bone),  وَالظُّفْرِ ((the fingernail), وَالـجِـلْدِ (the hide or the skin) نَـجِسَةٌ (are impure), وَلَـبَـنُ  الْـمَـيْتَةِ (as is the milk of the corpse) وَمُحَـرِّمِ  الأَكْـلِ  كَالْكِرْزِيرِ (and that which is is unlawful to eat), كَـالْـكِرْزِيرِ (like the pig), وَالأَتَـان (the female donkey), وَبَولُ  الْـجَلاَّلَـةِ (the urine of most animals) ورَجِـيعُهُ (and their faeces), وَهِـيَ  كُـلُّ   حَـيَوَان (and they are every animal) يَسْـتَعْمِِلُ  النَّجَاسَةَ (that eats things are impure), وَالْـبَوْلُ  وَالْعَذِرَةُ مِـنَ  الآدَمِىِّ (and the urine and the faeces of the human being), غَـيْرَ  فَـضَلَاتِ  الأَنْـبِيَاءِ (except the faeces of the prophets) وَمِـنْ  مُحَـرِّمِ  الأَكْـلِ (and that which is unlawful to eat) وَمَـكْرُوهِـهِ (or is disliked [for consumption]) كَـالسَّبُعِ (like the lion), وَالذِّئْـبِ (and (the wolf), القَيْحُ (and pus), الصَّدِيدُ (festering matter),  الدَّمُّ  الـمَسْفُوحُ (blood pouring out), مِـنَ  الآدَمِـيِّ (from the human being) أًوْ  غَـيرِهِ (or non-human), الْـقَيْءُ (vomit) الْـمُتَغَيِّرُ (which has changed) عَـنْ حَـالَـةِ  الطَّعَامِ (from the condition of being food), وَالـمُسْكِرُ (and the intoxicant) كَـالـخَـمَرِ (such as wine), وَالـمَنِيُّ (and sperm) وَهُـوَ  مِـنَ  الرَّجُـلِ  (which is the from the man);  مَـاءٌ أَبْـيَضُ  ثَّخِينٌ  (it is thick white water) بِـمُثَلَّثَةِ (in appearance);  أَيْ  غَـليظٌ  يَـتَذَفَّقُ (that is to say, it is thick when it gushes out) فِـي  خُـروجِـهِ (of the opening of the penis). رَائِـحَتُهُ  كَـرَائِـحَة الطَّلْعِ (Its smell is like the smell of pollen); وَقَـرِيبٌ  مِـنْ  رَائِـحَةِ  الْـعَجِينِ (while it is closer in smell to dough). وَإِذَا  يَـبِسَ   (when it has dried),  كَـانَ  كَـرَائِـحَةِ  الْبَيْضِ (it smells like the egg). وَمِـنَ الْـمَرْأَةِ (and that which comes from the the woman)مَـاءٌ  أَصْـفَرُ  رَقِـيقٌ (which is a thin yellow water), وَالوَدْيُ  بِـدَالِ  مَـهْمَلَةٍ  وَفِـي  الُـيَاءِ   وَجْـهَانِ (andwadii which is spelled with the letters daaland yaa has two characteristics): التَّشْـدِيدُ  وَالْـخَفِيفُ (intense and light); وَهُـوَ  مَاءٌ  أَبْيَضُ  ثَخِينٌ (it is a white thick liquid) يَخْـرُجُ  غَـالِـبًا (that discharges in most cases) عَـقِبَ  الْـبَولِ (immediately after urine),  وَالـمَذْيُّ (and prostatic fluid) مَـاءٌ أَبْـيَضُ رَقِـيقٌ  (is a white thin liquid) يَخْـرُجُ  عِـنْدَ  اللَّذَّةِ (which is discharged as a result of pleasure) بِالإنْـعَاظِ   (from sexual excitement) أَيْ  قِيَامِ  الذَّكَرِ (that is to say, when the penis is erect),  عِـنَدَ الـمُلَاعَـبَة (either during romance) أَوْ  التَّذْكَـار (or the recollection of it): أَيِ  التَّفَكُّر (that is to say thinking about it), رَمَـاد النِّـجِسِ (The ashes of what is impure) وَالدُّخَـانُهُ (and the smoke from it) نَـجِسٌ ( are [all] impure). [that is to say all the above-mentioned]. – Matn al ʿIzziyah – from The section about The Status of Substances That Come in Contact with Body or Come from the Body both Externally and Internally
3 فَـأَمَّا أَحْـدَاث (As for impurities of the body), فَخَـمْسَةٌ (they are five kinds): ثَـلاَثةٌ  مِـنْ  الْـقُبُلِ (three are from  the front of the body) وَهِـيَ (and they are): الْـمَذْيُ (prostatic fluid), وَالْـوَديُ (a thick white fluid which flows out immediately after urine)  وَالْـبَوْل (and urine); وَاثْـنَانِ (and two are) مِـنَ  الدُّبْـر  (from the rear of the body) وَهُمَا (and they are): الغَائِطُ (faeces)  وَالرِّيحُ (and gas) – Matn al Ashmaawiyyah – from The Chapter About نَوَاقِض الْوُضُوءِ (the Things That Nullify Wuḍuu’ [Minor Ablution])
عْـلَمْ  4 (Know) – وَفََّـقَكَ  اللَّهُ (May Allah, Exalted is He grant you success) – أَنَّ  الْـمَاءَ  عَـلَى قِـسْمَيْـنِ (that water is of two kinds): مَـخْـلُوطٍ (mixed)   وَغَـيرِ مَـخْـلُوطٍ  (and unmixed). فَـأَمَّا  غَـيرُ مَـخْـلُوط (As for   unmixed)   فَهُوَ  طُـهُورٌ (it is pure)  وَهُوَ  الْـمَاء الـمُطْلَق (and it is valid water free from impurities);  يَـجُوزُ  مِـنْهُ  الْـوُضُـوءُ (wuḍuu’ can be performed with it), سَـوَاءً (equally whether) نَـزَلَ  مِنَ  السَّمَاء (it has fallen from the sky) أَوْ  نَـبَعَ  مِـنَ  الأَرْضِ (or it has sprung out of the ground). – Matn al Ashmaawiyyah – from The Chapter About أَقْسَام الْـمِيَاهِ (the Kinds of Water) That Can Be Used To Perform Wuḍuu’
5 قَـال الله تَـعَالَى   (Allah the Most High has said [in His Noble Book]): وَاَنْزَلْـنَا مِنَ  السَّمَاءِ  مَـاءً  طَـهُورًا (We have sent down from the sky pure water). الْـمَاءُ الطَّهُورُ (Pure water is) مَـا كَـانَ  طَـاهِـرًا (what is pure) فِـي  نَـفْسِهِ (in itself) مُطَهِّرًا (and a purifier) لِـغَيْرِهِ (for other substances) – كَـمَاءِ  الْبَحْـرِ (like the water of the sea [for example]), وَالْـبِئْرِ (and the well)  وَالْـمَطْرِ (and the rain), إذَا لَـمْ  يَـتَغَيَّرْ  شَـيْءٌ (as long as nothing has been changed) مِـنْ أَوْصَـافِـهِ  الثَّلاَثِ (in one of its three characteristics), وَهِـيَ (and they are): اللَّوْنُ (the color), وَالطَّعْمُ (the taste), والرِّيحُ (and the smell) – بِـمَا  يَـنْفَكُّ  عَـنْهُ  غَالِبًا (by something that causes a predominant changes in it),  كَـاللَّبنِ (like milk), وَالْعَسَـلِ (honey), وَالْـبَوْلِ (urine) وَالْعَذِرَةِ (and faeces).
فَـإنْ  تَـغٌيَّرَ (If something changes) مِـنْ  أَوْصَـافِـهِ  الثَّلاَثِ (one of its three characteristics of the water) ذُكِـرَ (that have been mentioned) وَنَـحْوِهِ (or something similar happens), فَـلاَ  يَـصِحُّ  الوُضُـوعُ  مِـنْهُ (then wuḍuu’ is not valid from its use) وَلاَ  الْغُسْـلُ (nor is (ghusl)  وَلاَ الاِسْـتِنْجَاءُ (or istinjaa’).  الـْـمُتَغَيَّرُ (That which has been changed) بِـالطَّاهِـرِ (by (the pure) طَاهِـرٌ (is clean) غَـيْرُ  طُـهُورٍ (but not pure enough). يَسْـتَعْمَلُ  فِـي  الْـعَادَتِ (It can be used for a common purpose use), وَلاَ  يَسْـتَعْمَلُ  فِـي  عِـبَادَاتِ (but cannot be used for purposes of worship). الـْـمُتَغَيَّرُ (that which has been changed) بِـالنَّجِسِ (by the impure) نـَـجِسٌ (is impure) وَلاَ  يَسْـتَعْمَلُ  فِـي  شَـيْءٍ   مِـنَ  الْـعَادَاتِ (and can neither be used for common purposes) وَلاَ فِـي شَـيْءٍ مِـنَ العبادات (nor purposes of worship).
وَإِذَِا تَـغَيَّرَ (If the change) بِـمَا هُـوَ  مِـنْ  قِرَارِهِ (is from what has settled at the bottom of it [the water]), كَالتُّرَابِ (such as dust), وَالـْـمِلْحِ (salt), وَالنُّورَة (lime) أَوْ  بِـمَا تَوَلَّدَ  مِنْهُ (or what grows from it [the water]),  كَـالطُّهْـلُب (like moss) أَوْ  بِـطُولِ  الْـمُكْثِ (or because it has been sitting for a long time), فَـإِنَّهُ  لاَ  يَـضُرُّ (then it is not considered noxious) وَيَسْـتَعْمَلُ  فِـي  الْـعَادَتِ (and it can be used for common purposes)  وَالْعِبَادَاتِ (and worship).
وَإِذَا وَقَـعَ  ُفِـي  الْـمَاءِ  الْـقَلِيلِ (If it falls into a small amount of water), كَـآنِـيَةِ  الْـوُضُـوءِ (like [what may be found in] the vessel containing water for ablution) لِـلْـمُتَوَضِّي (for the one who needs to perform wuḍuu’), وَآنِـيَةِ  الْغُسْـلِ (and a vessel containing water for performing major ablution) لِلْـمُغْتَسِـلِ (for the person who is performing major ablution), نَـجَاسَـةً (an impure substance) , ولَـمْ تُـغَيِّرْهُ (and it did not alter it [the water]), فَـإنَّهُ  يَـصِحُّ  الطَّهِـيرُ  بِـههِ (then purification with it is valid), لَـكِنْ  يَـكْرَهُ (but it is disliked) إِذَا وَجَـدَ غَـيْرَهُ (if other [water] is found). – Matn al ʿIzziyah – from The section about The Characteristics of the Water Used for Minor and Major Ablution
6 وَأَمَّا الْـمَـخْـلُوط (As for mixed water), إذَا تَـغَيَّرَ أَحَـدَ أَوْصَـفِهِ الثَّلاَثَـة (one of it’s three characteristics): لَـوْنِـهِ [it’s color], أَوْ طَـعْمِهِ [it’s taste] أَوْ رِيحِهِ [or it’s smell] has been altered) بِشَيْءٍ (by something). وَهُوَ  عَـلَى قِـسْمَيْـنِ  (Mixed water  is of two kinds):
1) تَـارَةً (Sometimes), يَـخْتَلِطُ (water becomes mixed) بِـنَـجَسٍ (with an impure substance) and فَـيَـتَغَيَّرُ  بِـهِ (the water becomes alters by the impure substance). فَـالْـمَاءُ  نَـجَسٌ (Water that contains an impure substance) لاَ  يَـصِحُّ  مِـنْهُ  الْـوُضُـوءُ (is not valid for wuḍuu’). وَإِنْ  لَـمْ  يَـتَـغَيَّرْ  بِهِ  (If the water has not been altered by the impure substance),  فَإِنْ  كَانَ  الْـمَاءُ  قَـلِيلًا (but the water is a small amount), كُـرِهَ  الْـوُضُـوءُ  مِـنْهُ (the performance of wuḍuu’ with it is disliked). عَـلَى الْـمَشْهُورِ (This is in accord with what is well known in the madh-hab of Imām Mālik).
2)  وَتَـارَةً (Sometimes), ‬يَـخْتَلِط (water becomes mixed) بِـالطَّاهِـرِ (with a pure substance)فَـيَـتَغَيَّرُ  بِـهِ (and the water becomes alters by the pure substance). فَـإِنْ كَـانَ الطَّاهِـرُ (If the pure substance is) مَِـمَّا يُـمْكِنُ الاِحْـتِرَازُ مِـنْه (is a substance  that can be prevented from being mixed with the water), كَـالْـمَاءِ مَخْـلُوطٌ (like water which has been mixed)  بِـالزَّعْـفَرَان (with saffron), وَالْـوَرْد (rose), وَالْـعَجِين (dough)  وَأَشْـبَهُ  ذَالِـكَ (and what is similar to these things), فَهَـذا الْـمَاء (then this water) طَّاهِـرِ فِـي نَـفْسِهِ (is pure in its essence), غَـيْرُ مُطَهَـرُ لِـغَيْرِهِ (but not a purifier for anything else). فَيُسْـتَعْمَلُ فِـي الْـعَادَاتِ (It can be used for ordinary purposes) مِـن طَبْخٍ (such as cooking), وَعَـجْنٍ (making dough), وَشُرْبٍ (drinking) وَنَحْوِ  ذَالِـكَ (and things of that nature).وَلاَ  يُسْـتَعْمَلُ  فِـي الْـعِبَادَاتِ (It can not be use for purposes of worship) وَلاَ  فِـي  وُضُـوءِ (nor for wuḍuu’)  وَلاَ فِـي غَـيْرِهِ (nor anything else in that category).
وَإِنْ  كَـانَ بِـمـا  يُـمْكِنُ  الاِحْـتِرَازُ  مِـنْهُ (If the water can not be preserved from the pure substance being mixed with it), كَـالْـمَاءِ  الْـمُتَغَيَّرِ  (like water that has been changed)  بِـالسَّبْخِ (by salt from the salt marsh),   أَوِ  الْـحَـمَأَةِ (or mud),   أَوِ  الْـجارِي  عَـلَى مَعْدنِ  زِرنِـيخٍ  أَوْ  كِـبْرِيتٍ (or the run off from a source where arsenic or sulfur originates) أَوْ نَـحْوُ ذَالِـكَ (or what is similar to these things), فَهَـذا كُـلُّهُ  طُـهُورٌ (this water in it’s entirety is pure) and يَـصِحُّ مِـنْهُ الْـوُضوءُ (the wuḍuu’ that is perform with it is valid). وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ (Allah is the Best Knower) – Matn al Ashmaawiyyah  – from The Chapter About أَقْسَام الْـمِيَاهِ (the Kinds of Water) That Can Be Used To Perform Wuḍuu’
وَالْـمَـاءُ  الْـمُسْـتَعْمَلُ  فِـي  الْـوُضُـوء  وَالْغُسْـل 7(Water previously used for wuḍuu’ and ghusl) طَـهُورٌ (is pure); يَـكْرَهُ  الطَّهِـيرُ بِـهِ (but purification with it is disliked) مَـعَ  وُجُـود (if other water is found). وَفِـي الْـمُسْـتَعْمَلُ  فِـي غَـيْرِهِ (In regards to used water) which is used for other than wuḍuu’, like كَـالْـمُسْـتَعْمَلِ  فِـي  التَّبَرُّدِ (the water used to refresh oneself or cool off) وَغَسْـلِ الْـجُـمُعَةِ (and used for the ghusl the Jumuʿah prayer), قَـوْلاَنَ (there are two views) بِـالْـكَرَاهَـةِ (concerning the disliked of it) عَدَمِهَا (and the absence of a dislike for it) – Matn al ʿIzziyah – from the section about The Characteristics of the Water Used for Minor and Major Ablution

8 ‬ قَالَ‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الإِنَاءِ‮ ‬يَكُونُ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬الْـمَاءُ‮ ‬يَلَغُ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬الْكَلْبُ‮  ‬قَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬إنْ‮ ‬تَوَضَّأَ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬وَصَلَّى أَجْزَأَهُ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬وَلَمْ‮ ‬يَكُنْ‮ ‬يَرَى الْكَلْبَ‮ ‬كَغَيْرِهِ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬إنْ‮ ‬شَرِبَ‮ ‬مَائًا مِنْ‮ ‬الإِنَاءِ‮ ‬مَا‮ ‬يَأْكُلُ‮ ‬الْـجِيَفَ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬الطَّيْرِ‮ ‬وَالسِّبَاعِ‮ ‬لَمْ‮ ‬يَتَوَضَّأْ‮ ‬بِهِ

He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “Maalik said, If a water container has water in it that the dog has licked.” He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “Maalik said, ‘If he performed wuḍuu’ with it and prayed it is allowed.” He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “He (Maalik) was was not of the opinion that the dog was similar to other (animals).”  He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “Maalik said, ”If he (the dog) drank water from a container when he has eaten  الْـجِيفَ‮ ‬مَـنْ‮ ‬الطَّيْرِ (the dead bird) or السِّبَاعِ (animal), then he (the worshipper) should not perform Wuḍuu’ with it (that water).”

قَالَ‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬إنْ‮ ‬وَلَغَ‮ ‬الْكَلْبُ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬إنَاءٍ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬لَبَـنٌ‮ ‬فَلاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬بِأَنْ‮ ‬يُؤْكَلَ‮ ‬ذَلِكَ‮ ‬اللَّبَـنُ‮ ‬قُلْتُ‮ ‬هَلْ‮ ‬كَانَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬يَقُولُ‮ ‬يُغْسَلُ‮ ‬الإِنَاءُ‮ ‬سَبْعَ‮ ‬مَرَّاتٍ‮ ‬إذَا وَلَغَ‮ ‬الْكَلْبُ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الإِنَاءِ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬اللَّبَـنِ‮ ‬وَفِي‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ؟ قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬قَدْ‮ ‬جَاءَ‮ ‬هَذَا الْـحَدِيثُ‮ ‬وَمَا أَدْرِي‮ ‬مَا حَقِيقَتُهُ‮ ‬

Maalik said, “If a dog licks from a container in which there was milk, there was no objection to that milk being drunk.”  I said, “didn’t Maalik used to say, “the bowl that a dog licked  should be washed seven times when the dog licked milk or water in the bowl ?”  He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “Maalik said, “This hadiith has come and I do not know about its authenticity.”

قَالَ‮ ‬وَكَأَنَّهُ‮ ‬كَانَ‮ ‬يَرَى أَنَّ‮ ‬الْكَلْبَ‮ ‬كَأَنَّهُ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬أَهْلِ‮ ‬الْبَيْتِ‮ ‬وَلَيْسَ‮ ‬كَغَيْرِهِ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬السِّبَاعِ‮ ‬،‮ ‬وَكَانَ‮ ‬يَقُولُ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬إنْ‮ ‬كَانَ‮ ‬يُغْسَلُ‮ ‬فَفِي‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ‮ ‬وَحْدَهُ‮ ‬وَكَانَ‮ ‬يُضَعِّفُهُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮  ‬لاَ‮ ‬يُغْسَلُ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬سَمْنٍ‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬لَبَـنٍ‮ ‬وَيُؤْكَلُ‮ ‬مَا وَلَغَ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬ذَلِكَ‮ ‬وَأَرَاهُ‮ ‬عَظِيمًا أَنْ‮ ‬يَعْمِدَ‮ ‬إلَى رِزْقٍ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬رِزْقِ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬فَيَلْقَى الْكَلْبَ‮ ‬وَلَغَ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬

He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said it seemed he (Maalik) viewed the dog as being part of the household and not wild or from among predatory creatures.  He used to say, “If he washes, it should be the bowl containing water solely, and he said (the opinion) was weak.  He (Maalik) said, “It is not washed when it contains fat nor milk, though what has been licked from among these things can be eaten. I view it as magnificent that it is intended as رِزْق (a blessing) from  رِزْقِ (the blessings) of Allah.  Its the dog’s share, so he licks it.”

قَالَ‮ ‬عَلِيُّ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬زِيَادٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬مَالِكٍ‮  ‬فِي‮ ‬الَّذِي‮ ‬يَتَوَضَّأُ‮ ‬بمَاءٍ‮ ‬قَدْ‮ ‬وَلَغَ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬الْكَلْبُ‮ ‬ثُمَّ‮ ‬صَلَّى‮ ‬،‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬أَرَى عَلَيْهِ‮ ‬إِعَادَةً‮ ‬وَإِنْ‮ ‬عَلِمَ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الْوَقْتِ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬عَلِيٌّ‮ ‬وَابْنُ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬مَالِكٍ‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬يُعْجِبُنِي‮ ‬الْوُضُوءُ‮ ‬بِفَضْلِ‮ ‬الْكَلْبِ‮ ‬إذَا كَانَ‮ ‬الْـمَاءُ‮ ‬قَلِيلاً‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬إذَا كَانَ‮ ‬الْـمَاءُ‮ ‬كَثِيرًا كَهَيْئَةِ‮ ‬الْـحَوْضِ‮ ‬يَكُونُ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬مَاءٌ‮ ‬كَثِيرٌ‮ ‬أَوْ‮ ‬بَعْضُ‮ ‬مَا‮ ‬يَكُونُ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ‮ ‬الْكَثِيرِ‮ ‬

ʿAlī bin Ziyaad related from Maalik concerning the person who performed wuḍuu’ with water which a dog had licked then prayed, “I am not of the opinion he has to repeat the prayer even if he knows on time.”  He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “ʿAlī and Ibn Wahb related from Maalik, “The wuḍuu’ (with water) that has the remnant of the dog in it is not appealing to me if it is a small amount of water.  Its not objectionable it is a lot of water like the case of the الحوض (cistern) wherein there is a lot of water in it or whatever water is in it is a good amount.

ابْنُ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬ابْنِ‮ ‬جُرَيْجٍ‮ ‬إنَّ‮ ‬رَسُولَ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬صَلَّى اللَّهُ‮ ‬عَلَيْهِ‮ ‬وَسَلَّمَ‮ ‬وَرَدَ‮ ‬وَمَعَهُ‮ ‬أَبُو بَكْرٍ‮ ‬وَعُمَرُ‮ ‬عَلَى حَوْضٍ‮ ‬فَخَرَجَ‮ ‬أَهْلُ‮ ‬الْـحَوْضِ‮ ‬فَقَالُوا‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬يَا رَسُولَ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬إنَّ‮ ‬الْكِلابَ‮ ‬وَالسِّبَقَالَ‮ ‬تَلَغُ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬هَذَا الْـحَوْضِ‮ ‬،‮ ‬فَقَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬لَهَا مَا أَخَذَتْ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬بُطُونِهَا وَلَنَا مَا بَقِيَ‮ ‬شَرَابًا وَطَهُورًا وَأَخْبَرَنَي‮ ‬عَبْدُ‮ ‬الرَّحْمَنِ‮ ‬بْنُ‮ ‬زَيْدٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬زَيْدِ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬أَسْلَمَ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬عَطَاءِ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬يَسَارٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬أَبِي‮ ‬هُرَيْرَةَ‮ ‬بِهَذَا عَنْ‮ ‬رَسُولِ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬صَلَّى اللَّهُ‮ ‬عَلَيْهِ‮ ‬وَسَلَّمَ

Ibn Wahb has related from Ibn Jarayj that “the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلّم had returned to a ḥawd along with Abū Bakr and ʿUmar, and the people who owned the ḥawd came and said, “Oh Messenger of Allah, the dogs and beast of prey have drunk from this ḥawd.”  He صلى الله عليه وسلّم said, ‘For them is what they take in their stomachs and for us is what is left; a drink that is pure.’ ”  He told me ʿAbdur Rahmaan bin Zayd related this from Zayd bin Aslam from ʿAtaa bin Yasaar from Abū Hurayrah from the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلّم.

وَقَدْ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬عُمَرُ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬تُخْبِرْنَا‮ ‬يَا صَاحِبَ‮ ‬الْـحَوْضِ‮ ‬فَإِنَّا نَرِدُ‮ ‬عَلَى السِّبَاعِ‮ ‬وَتَرِدُ‮ ‬عَلَيْنَا فَالْكَلْبُ‮ ‬أَيْسَرُ‮ ‬مُؤْنَةً‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬السِّبَاعِ‮ ‬،‮ ‬وَالْهِرُّ‮ ‬أَيْسَرُهُمَا لأَنَّهُ‮ ‬مِمَّا‮ ‬يَتَّخِذُهُ‮ ‬النَّاسُ

ʿUmar said, “Do not tell us oh owner of the ḥawd; for we come behind the beasts of prey and they come behind us.”  Thus, the dog is an easier burden on us than the beast of prey and the cat is an easier burden than both of them, because of what human beings receive from it.

قَالَ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬الْقَاسِمِ‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬بِلُعَابِ‮ ‬الْكَلْبِ‮ ‬يُصِيبُ‮ ‬ثوْبَ‮ ‬الرَّجُلِ‮ ‬وَقَالَهُ‮ ‬رَبِيعَةُ‮ . ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬شِهَابٍ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬إذَا اُضْطُرِرْتَ‮ ‬إلَى سُؤْرِ‮ ‬الْكَلْبِ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬يُتَوَضَّأَ‮ ‬بِهِ

Ibn al-Qaasim said, “Maalik said, ‘there is no harm if اللُّعَاب (the saliva) of the dog comes in contact with the garment of a man’ and Rabiiʿah said it (also).”  Ibn Shihaab said, “There is no objection if you perform Wuḍuu’ with water that has the remnants of a dog. Al-Mudawwana – from the chapter about Wuḍuu’With (Water That Has) السُّؤْر (The Remnants) of Animals, Chickens, and Dogs’ (That Have Drank From It)  
Advertisements

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 16 – (The Chapter About Al – Mafʿuul Bihi [The Object of the Verb])

     بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَفْعُول بِهِ‏‮ ‬‬

16 – (The Chapter About Al – Mafʿuul Bihi [The Object of the Verb])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَهُو الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬الذِي‏‮ ‬‬يَقَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَرَكَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬قِسْمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬ظَاهِرٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَمُضْمَرٌ‏‮ ‬‬فَالظَّاهِرُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا تَقَدَّمَ‏‮ ‬‬ذِكْرُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـمُضْمَرُ‏‮ ‬‬قِسْمانِ‏‮ ‬‬مُتَّصِلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَمُنْفَصِلٌ‏‮ ‬‬فَالـْمُتَّصِلُ‏‮ ‬‬إِثْنَا عَشَرَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَنِي‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَنَا وَضَرَبَكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكِ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكمُا وَضَرَبَكُم‏‮ ‬‬ْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهَا وَضَرَبَهُمَا وَضَرَبَهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَهُنُّ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُنْفِصِلُ‏‮ ‬‬إِثْنَا عَشَرَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬إِيَّايَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬إِيَّانَا وَ‏‮ ‬‬إِيَّاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكِ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكُمَا وَإِيَّاكُمْ‏‮  ‬‬وَإِيَّاكُنَّ‏‮  ‬‬وَإِيَّاهُ‏‮  ‬‬وَإِيَّاهَا وَإِيَّاهُمَا وَإِيَّاهُمْ‏‮  ‬‬وَإِيَّاهُنَّ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَهُـــو (And it [الـْمَفْعُــــولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِـــهِ (the direct object)] is)  الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُـوبُ (the  noun  in  the  case  of naṣb)  الذِي‏‮ ‬‬يَقَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ (upon which falls) الْفِعْلُ (the action of the verb) – نَحْو (like  when  you  say): ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـــدًا (I beat Zayd) وَرَكَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ and (I mounted the mare).  وَهُو (It is) قِسْمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬ (of two kinds): ظَاهِرٌ (a distinct noun) وَمُضْمَرً (and a pronoun).   فَالظَّاهِرُ (And so the clearly distinct noun), مَا تَقَدَّمَ‏‮ ‬‬ذِكْرُهُ (is that which has already been mentioned previously) وَالْـمُضْمَرُ (and the   pronoun is) قِسْمَانِِِ (of two kind): مُـتَّصِلٌ (attached) and وَمُـنْفَصِلٌ (and detached).   فَالـْمُتَّصِــــلُ (And so the attached pronouns are) إِثْنَا عَشَرَ (twelve kinds): وَهِيَ (They are): ضَرَبَني (he beat me), وَضَرَبَنَا and (he beat us) وَضَرَبَكَ and (he beat you [masc. singular]) وَضَرَبَكِ and (he beat you [fem. singular]), ضَرَبَكُمَا and (he beat the two of you [two males or two females]) وَضَرَبَكُمْ and (he beat you  [three or more males]) وَضَرَبَكُنَّ and (he beat you [three or more females]) وَضَرَبَهُ and (he beat him) وَضَرَبَهَا  and (he beat her) وَضَرَبَهُمَا and (he beat the two of them) وَضَرَبَهُمْ and (he beat them – three or more males) وَضَرَبَهُنَّ and (he beat them [three or more females]).  وَالـْمُنْفِصِلُ (And the detached pronouns are) إِثْنَا عَشَر (twelve).  وَهِيَ (And they are): إِيَّايَ (I) وَإِيَّانَا and (we) وَإِيَّكَ and (you [masc. sing.]) وَإِيَّاكِّ and (you [fem. sing.]) وَإِيَّاكُمَا and (you [two males or two females]) وَإِيَّاكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬and (you [three or more males]) وَإِيَّاكُنَّ and (you [three or more females]) وَإِيَّاهُ and‏‮ ‬‬(he) وَإِيَّاهَا and (she) وَإِيَّاهُمَا and (they [two males or two females]) وَإِيَّاهُمْ and (they [three or more males]) وَإِيَّاهُنَّ and (they three or more females]).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

الـمفعول به هو الإسم الذي‏‮ ‬‬يقع عليه فعل الفاعل كقولك ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا ورَكَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬فزيدًا والْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬مفعولان بهما لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬قد وقع عليهما فعل الفاعل وهو الضَرْبُ‏‮ ‬‬والرُّكُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬فالـمفعول به قسمان ظاهر كزيد والفرس في‏‮ ‬‬الـمثالين الـمتقدمين ومضمر وهو‏‮ ‬‬ينقسم إلى متّصل ومنفصل وفالـمتّصل هو الياء ونا والكافات الخمسة وهي‏‮ ‬‬كَ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬كِ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬كُمَا‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬كُمْ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬كُن و الْهَاءاتُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَة وهي‏‮ ‬‬هُ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬هَا‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬هُمَا‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬هُمْ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬هُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬نحو قولك ضَرَبَنِي‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَنَا وَضَرَبَكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكِ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكُمَا وَضَرَبَكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهَا وَضَرَبَهُمَا وَضَرَبَهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهُنُّ‏‮ ‬‬فأما الضَّمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُنْفَصِل‏‮ ‬‬يدخله إِيَّا كقولك إِيَّايَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّانَا وَإِيَّاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكِ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكُمَا وَإِيَّاكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاهَا وَإِيَّاهُمَا وَإِيَّاهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاهُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬

فالياء ونا في‏‮ ‬‬إياى وإيانا حرفان دالاّن على الـمتكلِّم في‏‮ ‬‬الاول وعلى الـمتكلمين في‏‮ ‬‬الثّانى والكاف في‏‮ ‬‬ما بعد حرف خطاب والهاء في‏‮ ‬‬الخمسة الأخيرة حرف‏‮ ‬‬غيبة‏‮ ‬‬

وأمّا الأحرف اللاحقة للضمير متصلاً‏‮ ‬‬ومنفصلاً‏‮ ‬‬فهي‏‮ ‬‬للدلالة على معان مثلاً‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬الالف في‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَها وإِيَّاهَا للدلالة على الثّانيث في‏‮ ‬‬الـمفرد واالـميم والالف‏‮  ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبكُمَا وإِيَّاكُمَا وضَرَبَهُمَا وإِيَّاهُمَا للدلالة على التثنية مطلقًا في‏‮ ‬‬الـمذكّر والـمؤنّث والـميم في‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَكم وإِيَّاكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وضَرَبَهُمْ‏‮  ‬‬وإِيَّاهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬للدلالة على جمع‏‮     ‬‬الـمـذّكر والنّون الـمشدّدة في‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَكُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وإِيَّاكُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وضَرَبَهُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وإِيَّاهُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬لدلالة على جمع الإناث

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ (The direct object) is the noun upon which the action of الْفَاعِـــل (the doer) falls – like when you say: ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا (I beat Zayd) and  رَكَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ (I rode the mare). زَيْــدًا (Zayd) and الْفَـــرَسَ (the mare) are the الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬به of ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬ ‬(I beat) and رَكَبْتُ (I rode) because فِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَاعِلِ (the action of the doer) has fallen upon them, and it is the ‏‮ ‬‬الضَرْبُ (the beating) and‏‮ ‬‬الرُّكُوبُ (the riding).‏‮ ‬‬

الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ (The direct object) is of two kinds: ظَاهِرٌ (a clearly distinct noun) – like زَيْدٌ and الْفَرَسُ in the two previous examples and مُضْمَرٌ ( a pronoun) which is (also) divided between two kinds: مُتَّصِلٌ (attached) and مُنْفَصِلٌ (detached).  الـمُتَّصِلُ (The attached pronouns) are: الْيَاء = يَ and نَا and الْكَافَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْخَمَسَة (the five kaafs of the person being spoken to) and they are: كَ،‏‮ ‬‬كِِ،‏‮ ‬‬كُمَا،‏‮ ‬‬كُمْ،‏‮ ‬‬كُنَّ  and الْهَاءَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْخَمْسَة (the five haas of the person being spoken about) and they are: هُ،‏‮ ‬‬هَا،‏‮ ‬‬هَمَا،‏‮ ‬‬هُمْ،‏‮ ‬‬هُنَّ،. – like when you say:

 ضَرَبَنِي‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَنَا وَضَرَبَكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكِ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكُمَا وَضَرَبَكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهَا وَضَرَبَهُمَا وَضَرَبَهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهُنُّ‏‮     ‬‬

As for الضَّمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُنْفَصِلُ (the detached pronouns), they are prefixed with إِيَّ  – like when you say:

إِيَّايَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّانَا وَإِيَّاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكِ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكُمَا وَإِيَّاكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاهَا وَإِيَّاهُمَا وَإِيَّاهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاهُنَّ.

The yaa ( يَ ) and naa ( نَا ) in إيَّايَ and إِيَّانَا are two letters which are signs of الـْمُتَكَلِّم (the first person singular – the person speaking) in the first case and الـْمُتَكَلِّمُونَ (the first person plural) in the second..  الْكَافُ (The kaaf) in the next five (detached pronouns) is  حَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬اـْخِطَابِ (the letter for addressing the second person – the person being spoken to) and الْهَاءُ (the haa) in the last five is حَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْغَيْبَة (the letter for addressing the third person – the person absent from the conversation).

As for the affixed letters which belong to الْـمُتَّصِل (the attached pronouns) and الْـمُنْفَصِلُ (detached pronouns),   they are signs with meaning also.  For example, الأَلِفُ (the alif) in ضَرَبَهَا and إِيَّاهَا belongs to the signs of التَّأْنِيث (the feminine) in الْـمُفْرَد (the singular) pronoun; and الـْمِيم(the miim) and الأَلِفُ (alif) in ضَرَبكُمَا and إِيَّاكُمَا and ضَرَبَهُمَا and إيّاهما are all signs for التَّثْنِيَة (the dual) unrestricted in both الْـمُذَكِّر (the male) and الْـمُؤَنِّث (the female) pronoun; and  الْـمِيمُ in ضَرَبَكُمْ and إِيَّاكُــمْ and ضَرَبَهُــــمْ and إِيَّاهُــــمْ belong to the signs of  جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُذَكِّر (the masculine plural); and النُّونُ (the nuun bearing shaddah نّ) in ضَرَبَكُنَّ and إِيَّاكُنَّ and ضَرَبَهُنَّ and إِيَّاهُنَّ belong to the signs of جَمْع الإِنُاث (the feminine plural).

Published in: on September 24, 2011 at 18:26  Leave a Comment  

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 15 – (The Chapter About Al-Manṣuubaatu-l-Asmaa’i [The Nouns In The Case Of Naṣb])

   بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬مَنْصوُبَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَسْمَاءِ  

15 – (The Chapter About Al-Manṣuubaatu-l-Asmaa’i [The Nouns In The Case Of Naṣb])

ʿArabic Text: 

‏‮(‬‬الْـمَنْصُوبَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬خَمْسَةَ‏‮ ‬‬عَشَرَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمَصْدَرُ‏‮ ‬‬وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْحَالُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّمْيِيزُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـمُسْتَثْنَى وَاسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُـنَادَى وَالْـمَـفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْلِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـمَفْعُول مَعَهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَخََبَرُ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا وَاسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أخْوَاتِها وَالتَّابِعُ‏‮ ‬‬لِلْمَنْصُوبِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْبَعَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشْيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّعْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْعَطْفُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّوْكِيدُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْبَدَلُ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

الْـمَنْصُوبَاتُ (The nouns in the case of naṣb) خَمْسَةَ‏‮ ‬‬عَشَرَ‏‮ ‬‬ (are fifteen).  وَهِيَ (They are): الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ (the direct object) وَالْـمَصْدَرُ (and the verbal  noun), وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزّمَانِ (and the adverb time) وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ (and the adverb of place) وَالْـحَالُ (and the circumstantial noun) وَالتَّمْيِيزُ (and the accusative of specification) وَالْـمُسْتَـثْـنَى‏‮‬‬ (and the excluded noun) وَاسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ (and the noun of the laa [of negation for generic nouns]) وَالْـمُنَادَى (and the one who is addressed), وَالْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْلِهِ  (and the causative object)  وَالْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَهُ  (and the  object  that  accompanies the subject in the execution of an action) وَخَبْرُ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاِتهَا (and the predicate of kaana and its sisters) وَاسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا (the noun of inna and  its  sisters) وَالتَّابِعُ‏‮ ‬‬لِلْمَنْصُوبِ (and the  appositive for the nouns in the case of naṣb) وَهِي (and they are) أَرْبَعَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشْيَاءَ (four  things): النَّعْتُ (the adjective) الْعَطْفُ (the noun linked by the conjunction) التَّْوكِيدُ (the noun use for  emphasis) ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَدَلُ (and the noun used as the substitute).


Published in: on September 24, 2011 at 18:08  Leave a Comment  
%d bloggers like this: