Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 14 – (The Chapter About Al-Badal [The Substitute])

   بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَدَلِ 

14 – (The Chapter About Al-Badal [The Substitute])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮ (‬‬إِذَا أُبْدِلَ‏‮ ‬‬اسْمٌ‏‮ ‬‬مِنِ‏‮ ‬‬اسْمٍ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلٌٌ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلٍ‏‮ ‬‬تَبِعَهُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬جَمِيعِ‏‮ ‬‬إِعَرَابِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْبَعَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَقْسَامٍ‏‮ ‬‬بَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّيءِ‏‮ ‬‬مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّيءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَبَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬البَعَضِ‏‮ ‬‬مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الْكُلِّ‏‮ ‬‬وَبَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِشْتِمَالِ‏‮ ‬‬وَبَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬الْغَلَطِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَخُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَكَلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّغِيفَ‏‮ ‬‬ثُلُثَهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَنَفَعَنِي‏‮ ‬‬زَيُدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عِلْمُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَرَأَيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬أَرَدْتَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَقُولَ‏‮ ‬‬رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬فَغَلَطْتَ‏‮ ‬‬فَاَبْدَلْتَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا مِنْهُ‏‮)‏‮

English Translation:

إِذَا أُبْدِلَ‏‮ ‬‬اسْم (When a noun is substituted) مِنِ‏‮ ‬‬اسْمٍ‏ (for a noun) أَوْ (or) ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْل (a verb [is substituted]) مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلٍ‏ (for a verb), تَبِعَهِ (it agrees with it [the word for which it has been substituted])  فِي‏  جَمِيعِ‏ (in all [aspects] of) إِعَرَابِهِ‏ (its inflection)وَهُوَ (And  it  [الْبَدَلُ – the substitute]  is) ‏أَرْبَعَةُ‏  أَقْسَامٍ (four kinds): بَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّيءِ (the substitute of something) مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّيءِ ([for its equivalent] from something) وَبَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬البَعَض (and the  substitute for  some) مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الْكُلِّ (from all) وَبَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِشْتِمَالِ (and the substitute for containment – [that is to say, the substitute of a thing for what it contains]) وَبَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬الْغَلَطِ (and the substitute for the mistake)  – ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلــِكَ‏‮ ‬‬(like when you say): ‏ قَامَ‏  زَيْدٌ‏  أَخُــــوكَ(Zayd  your  brother  stood)  and  وَأَكَلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّغِيفَ‏‮ ‬‬ثُلُثَهُ (I ate the bread a third of it) وَنَفْعَنِي‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عِلْمُهُ and (Zayd, his knowledge was beneficial for me)  رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا الْفَرَسَ  (I saw Zayd the mare)  and أَرَدْتَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَقُــولَ (you  wanted to say): رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الفَرَسَ I saw the mare),‏‮ ‬‬فَغَلَطْت (but you made a mistake)فَاَبْدَلْتَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا (and substituted زَيْدًا (Zayd) مِنْهُ (for it).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

 إن البدل هو التابع الـمقصود بالواسطة نحو جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَخُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬فأخوك بدل من زيد وهو الـمقصود في‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَجِيءِ‏‮ ‬‬والبدل‏‮ ‬‬يتبع الـمُبْدَل منه في‏‮ ‬‬جميع إعرابه وأقسامُهُ‏‮ ‬‬أربعة الأول بدلُ‏‮ ‬‬كلٍ‏‮ ‬‬من كلٍ‏‮ ‬‬أي‏‮ ‬‬مساوٍ‏‮ ‬‬من مساوٍ‏‮ ‬‬له كما في‏‮ ‬‬المثال الـمتقدم الثاني‏‮ ‬‬بدل بعض من كل أي‏‮ ‬‬بدل شيء بعض الْـمُبدَل منه نحو أَكَلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّغِيف ثُلُثَهُ‏‮ ‬‬الثالث بدل الاشتمال أي‏‮ ‬‬بدل شيء مما هو مشتمل عليه نحو‏‮ ‬‬ نَفَعَنِي‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عِلْمُهُ  الرّابع بدل الغَلَط أي‏‮ ‬‬بدل من الذي‏‮ ‬‬ذُكِرَ‏‮ ‬‬غلطًا نحو‏‮ ‬‬رَكبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬أردت أن تقول ركبْت الفَرَسَ فغلطت

Explanation in  English:

الْبَدَلُ (the substitute) is a تَابِعٌ‏‮ ‬‬مَقْصُودٌ (noun for whom the statement is indirectly (intended – [that is to say an intended noun which is mentioned as a substitute for the noun which precedes it)] – like when you say: جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أخُوكَ‏ (Zayd your brother has come). And so أَخُوكَ (your brother) is a substitute for ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْد(Zayd) and is the noun for which the verb ‏‮ ‬‬جَاء(he came) was intended.

الْبَدَلٌ (The substitute) agrees with it الْـمُبْدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْهُ (the noun for which it has been substituted) in all (aspects) of إِعْرَابِــــهِ (its  i’raab).   It (الْبَدَلٌ [The substitute]) is of four kinds.   The first is: بَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬كُلٍ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كُلٍّ (a substitution of each for each) – that is to say: ‏مُسَاوٍ‏  مِنْ‏  مُسَاوٍ‏  لَهُ (a substitution of one thing for its equivalent) – like what occurred in the above mentioned example.  The second is بَدَلٌ‏‮ ‬‬بَعْضٍ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كُلٍ (a substitution for some a whole amount) – that is to say: بَدَلٌ‏  شَيْءٍ‏  بَعْضِ‏  الـْمُبْدَلِ‏  مِنْهُ (a substitution of a thing which is part of what it was exchanged for)  –  like when you say:  أَكَلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّغِيفَ ثُلُثَهُ ( I ate the bread a third of it).  The third is بَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِشْتِمَالِ (the substitute for containment) that is to say: بَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬شَيْءٍ‏‮ ‬‬مِمَا هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬مُشْتَمَلٌ‏‮ ‬‬عليه (the substitution of a thing  for  what  it  contains)  –  like when you say:    نَفَعَنِي‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عِلْمُهُ (Zayd – his knowledge has been beneficial to me). The fourth is بدل الغَلَط (the substitution of a mistake) – that is to say:بدل من الذي‏‮ ‬‬ذُُكِرَ‏‮ ‬‬غلطًا (the substitution of the expression which was mentioned by mistake) – like when you say: ركبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا الْفَرَسَ (I rode Zayd the mare) and you wanted to say: ركبْتُ الفَرَسَ (I rode the mare), but you made a mistake (and substituted زيد for الفرس).

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Published in: on June 15, 2011 at 18:19  Leave a Comment  
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