فصل – Section: التَّيَمُّمُ (Dry Ablution) from Matn al ʿIzziyah

فصل – Section: التَّيَمُّمُ (Dry Ablution)

التَّيَمُّمُ (Dry ablution) طَهَارَةٌ‮ ‬تُرابِيَّةٌ (is purification with earth). تَشْتَمِلُ‮ ‬عَلَى (It consists of) ‮ ‬مَسْحِ‮ ‬الْـوَجْهِ (wiping the face) وَالْـيَدَيْنِ (and the hands). وَسَـبَبُهُ (The reason being), ‮ ‬فَقَدُ‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ‮ ‬حَـقِيقَةَ (the failure to actually find water) ‮ ‬أَوْ‮ ‬مَـا هُـوَ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬حُـكْمِهِ (or the water has a ruling in regards to it), مِثْلُ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬يَكُونَ‮  ‬مَعَهُ‮ ‬مِنَ‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ‮ ‬مَا لاَ‮ ‬يَكْفِيهِ (like: the water isn’t enough), أَوْ‮ ‬مَاءٌ‮ ‬يُخَافُ‮ ‬بِـاسْـتِعْمَالِـهِ‮ ‬فَـوَاتَ‮ ‬نَـفْسِهِ (or it is water, about which there is feared that its usability has passed),أَوْ‮  ‬فَـوَاتَ‮ ‬مَـنْفَعَتٍ (or its usefulness has passed)1,‮ ‬أَوْ‮ ‬زِيَـادَةَ‮ ‬مَـرْضٍ (it may increase an illness), ‮ ‬أَوْ‮ ‬تَأَخُّرَ‮ ‬بُرْءٍ (or delay recovery) أَوْ‮ ‬حَـدُوث مَـرضٍ (or can cause of illness). ‮

يُـبَاحُ‮ ‬التَيَمُّمُ (Dry ablution is recommended) ‮ ‬مِـنَ‮ ‬الْـحَـدَثِ‮ ‬الأَصْـغَرِ‮ ‬وَلأَكْـبَرِ (for both small and large impurity) إِذَا وُجِدَ‮ ‬سَـبَبَهُ (when the reason for performing it is) ‮ ‬لِـلْمَرِيضِ (because someone is  sick) وَالْـمُسَافِرِ (or because someone is traveling); لِـكُلِّ‮ ‬صَـلاَةٍ‮ ‬ ([it can be performed] for every prayer).  ‬وَلِـلصَّحيحِ‮ ‬الْـحَاضِـر([It is also recommended] for the healthy person who is not traveling) لِـصَلاَةِ‮ ‬الْـجَنَازَةِ ([who is] attending the funeral prayer), ‮ ‬إِذَا تَـعَيْـنَت(if it is incumbent upon him).2,  ‬وَلِـفَرْضِ (and [it is recommended] for obligatory prayers)  غََـيْرِ‮ ‬الْـجُـمُعَةِ (other than Jumuʿah prayer) بِشَـرْطِ (on the condition)‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬يَخْشَـى (that it is feared) فَـوَاتِ‮ ‬الْوَقتِ (that the time will pass) بِاسْتِعْمَالِ‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ (before water can be used), وَلاَيُعِيدُ (and it (these prayers are not redone). ‮ ‬بِـخِلاَفَةِ‮ ‬الْـجَنَازَة

(The exception is the funeral prayer) ‮  ‬إِذَا لَـمْ‮ ‬تَـتَعَيَّنْ (if it is not incumbent upon the person) ‮ ‬وَ‮ ‬فَـرْضِ‮ ‬الْـجُـمُعَة(and the obligatory Friday prayer), ‮ ‬وَلَـوْ‮ ‬خَشِـيَ‮ ‬فَـوَاتَـه(even if he fears the time for it will pass), وَسَـائِـرِ‮ ‬النَّوَافِـلِ (and the rest of supererogatory prayers) ‮ ‬سُـنَنِهَا (including those that are sunnah) وَمُسْـتَحَبَّاتِـهَا (and the ones that are meritorious).

وَيىَبْطَلُ‮ ‬التَّيَمَّمُ (Dry ablution becomes nullified) ‮ ‬بِـمَا‮ ‬يَبْطُلُ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬الْوُضُوءُ (by the same things that nullify wuduu’), ‮ ‬وَبِـوُجُـودِ‮ ‬الْـمَاء(as well as the discovery of water) ‮ ‬قَـبْلَ‮ ‬الصَّلاَة(before the prayer),إِلاَّ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬يَخْشَى فَوَاتِ‮ ‬الْوَقْتِ (unless the worshipper fears the time will pass) بِاسْتِعْمَالِهِ (by waiting to use water).

وإِذَا رَأَى الْـمَاءَ (If he sees water) وَهُوَ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الصَّلاَةِ (while he is praying), لَمْ‮ ‬تَبطُلْ‮ ‬صَلاَتِهِ (his prayer does not become nullified).

وَيَـتَيَمَّمُ‮ ‬بِـالصَّعِيدِ‮ ‬الطَّيِّبِ (The worshipper should perform dry ablution with pure earth). وَهُـوَ‮ ‬التَّرَابُ (It could be soil), وَالْـحَجَرُُ (stone) وَالرَّمْلُ (or sand) ‮ ‬وَجَمِيع أجْـزَاءِ‮ ‬الأَرْضِ (and all types of  natural earthly material) ‮ ‬مَــا دَامَـتْ‮ ‬عَـلَى هَـيْئَتَهَا لَمْ‮ ‬تُـغَيِّرْهَـ(as long as its condition has not been changed) صَـنْعَةُ‮ ‬آدَمِـيٍّ (by human fabrication) بِـطَبْخٍ (through [the process of] baking) وَنَـحْوِهِ (and what is similar). وَالتَّرَابُ‮ ‬أَفْضَلُ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬غَيْرِهِ (Soil is better than the other things mentioned).

وَلاَيَتَيَمَّمُ (A worshipper should not perform dry ablution) عَلَى شَيْءٍ‮  ‬نَـفِيسٍ (on precious things)  كَالْـذَهْـبِ‮ ‬وَالْـفِضَّةِ (like gold or silver) وَلاَ‮ ‬عَـلَى لِـبْدٍ‮ ‬ (nor on wool) ‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬عَـلَى بِسَاطٍ (nor on carpets) وَلاَحَـصِيرٍ (nor on mats) وَإِنْ‮ ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬فِـيهَا‮ ‬غُـبَارٌ (even if dust is on them).

وَيَـجُوزُ‮ ‬لِـلْمَرِيضِ (It is permissible for the sick person) إِذَا لَمْ‮ ‬نَـجِدْ (who can’t find) مَنْ‮ ‬يُنَاوِلُهُ‮ ‬تُرَابًا (someone to bring him earth) أَنْ‮ ‬يَـتَيَمَّمَ (to perform dry ablution) بِـالْـجِـدَارِ (on a wall) ‮ ‬الْـمَبْنِيِّ‮ ‬بِـطُوبِ‮ ‬النِّيءِ (which has been constructed from unbaked brick)  ‬أَوْ‮ ‬بِـالْـحِجَارَةِ (or stone) إِذَا كَانَتْ‮ ‬غَـيْرَ‮ ‬مَسْـتُورَةٍ (if it is not covered) ‮ ‬بِالْـجِيرِ (lime).

وَمَـنْ‮ ‬تَـيَمَّمَ (Whoever performs dry ablution) ‮ ‬عَـلى مَـوْضِـعِ‮ ‬نَـجَسٍ (on an unclean place) وَلَـمْ‮ ‬يَـعْلَمْ‮ ‬بِـنَجَاسَـتِهِ (while not knowing about its uncleanliness),‮ ‬أَعَادَ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬الْـوَقْـت(should repeat the [dry ablution] within the designated time [for the prayer]).

وَلاَ‮ ‬يُكْرَهُ‮ ‬التَّيَمَّمُ (Dry ablution is not disliked) ‮ ‬بِتُرَابٍ‮ ‬تُيُمَّمَ‮ ‬بِهِ (with earth that has been used for dry ablution)3)‮ ‬مَرَّةً‮ ‬أُخْرَ(more than once). ‮ ‬

وَلاَ‮ ‬يَصِحُّ‮ ‬التَّيَمَّمُ (It is not sound to perform dry ablution) قَبْلَ‮ ‬دَخُولِ‮ ‬الْوَقْتِ  (before the time [of the specific prayer] comes in).

وَصِفَتُهُ (The characteristics of dry ablution are): ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬يَنْوِيَ‮ ‬اسْتِبَاحَةَ‮ ‬الصَّلاَةِ (to intend to make the performance of prayer permissible) ‮  ‬وَيَـنْوِيَ‮ ‬مِـنَ‮ ‬الْـحَـدَثِ‮ ‬الأَكْـبَر(and to intend [to make prayer permissible] while in a state of major impurity), ‮ ‬إِنْ‮ ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬مُحْدِثًا حَدَثًا‮  ‬أَكْبَرَ (when the impurity is major). ثُـمَّ‮ ‬يَـقُول (Then the worshipper says:) بِـسْمِ‮ ‬اللَّهِ (In the Name of Allah) وَيَسْـتَعْمِلُ‮ ‬الصَّعِيدَ (using pure earth).  يَـضْرِبُ‮ ‬عَـلَيهَا (He pats on it) بِـيَدَيْـهِ‮ ‬جَـمِيعًا (with both hands) ضَرْبَةً‮ ‬وَاحِدَةً (with one patting)4. ‮ ‬وإِنْ‮ ‬تَـعَلَّقَ‮ ‬بِـهِمَا شَـيْء(If anything sticks to them [the hands]) (he should dust them) ‮ ‬نَـفْضًا خَـفِيفً( lightly);  ‬وَيَـمْسَحُ‮ ‬بِـهَا وَجْـهَهُ (then he wipes his face) ولِـحيَتَهُ (and beard). يَبْدَأُ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬أَعْلاَهُ (He should start from the top [of the face])  إِلَـى أَنْ  يَسْـتَوْفِيَه (until [he wipes over] it completely). ‮ ‬ثُمَّ‮ ‬يَضْرِب(Then the worshipper should pat [the the soil])  ‬الأُخْرَى (another time) لِيَدَيْهِ (with his hands), ثُمَّ‮ ‬يَـمْسَحُ (then he should wipe) ظَاهِرَ‮ ‬يَدِهِ‮ ‬الْيُمْنَى (the outside of the right hand) بِيَدِهِ‮ ‬الْيُسْرَى (with his left hand) حَتََّى‮ ‬يَنْتَهِي‮ ‬إِلَى الْـمَرْفَقِ (until he finishes at the elbow). ‮ ‬ثُمَّ‮ ‬يَـمْسَح(Then he wipes) بَاطِنَهَا (over the inside of it [the inside of the right arm]) ‮ ‬إِلى آخِرَ‮ ‬الأَصَـابِـعِ (to the tips of the fingers). ‮ ‬ثُمَّ‮ ‬يَـمْسَحُ (Then he should wipe) ظَاهِرَ‮ ‬الْيُسْـرَى (the outside of the left hand) ‮ ‬بِـيَدِهِ‮ ‬الْـيُمْنَى (with his right hand) ‮ ‬إِلَـى الْـمَرْفَقِ (to the elbow) ‮ ‬ثُـمَّ‮ ‬يَـمْسَح(Then he should wipe) بَـاطِـنَهَا (over the inside of it [the of the left arm]) ‮ ‬إِلى آخِرَ‮ ‬الأَصَابِع(to the tips of the fingers), ‮ ‬ويَجِبُ‮ ‬تَخْلِيلُ‮ ‬الأَصَابِع(and comb through the fingers is a necessity), وَنَـزْعُ‮ ‬الْـخَاتِـمِ (and [so is] removing the ring), ‮ ‬فَـإنْ‮ ‬لَـم‮ ‬يَـنْزِعْهُ (while not removing it) ‮ ‬لَـمْ‮ ‬يَجْزِهِ (is not permissible).

وَالضَّرْبَةُ‮ ‬الثَّانِيَّةُ (The second patting of the earth) سُنَّةٌ (is a prophetic practice) ‮ ‬وَكَدَا الـْمَسْحُ (and likewise is wiping) إلَـى الْـمَرْفَـقَيْـنِ (to the elbows).

[If the worshipper decides to] ‮ ‬وَلَوِ‮ ‬اقْـتَصَرَ‮ ‬عَـلَى ضَـرْبَـةٍ‮ ‬وَاحِـدَة(limits [his dry ablution] to one patting of the earth) ‮ ‬لِـلْوَجْـهِ‮ ‬وَالْـيَدَينِ (for the face and the hands), أَجْـزَأَهُ (it’s permissible), ‮ ‬وَلَوِ‮ ‬اقْتَصَرَ (but if he limits it) فِي‮ ‬مَسْحِ‮ ‬يَدَيْهِ ( to wiping his hands) عَـلَى الْـكَوْعَينِ (up to his wrist) وَصَـلَّى (and prays), أَعَادَ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الْوَقْتِ (he should repeat [the dry ablution] within the time [of the specific prayer]).


1 That is to say, it is not fit to be used to perform wuduu’.

2 That is to say, if he has been chosen to perform the prayer.

3 That is to say, earth that has been previously used for dry ablution.

4 That is to say, pat the ground once.

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