Clarification About the Obligation of Hijrah Which is Placed Upon the Slaves of Allah

At this time in history, a large number of people are accepting Islam in non-Muslim countries. As a result, the question of whether or not it is still compulsory for Muslims to emigrate from daru-l-kufr (the land of disbelief) also referred to as daru-l-harb to daru-l-Islam (the land of Islam) becomes a very important matter. The legal status according to Islamic law of Muslims who continue to reside in non-Muslim lands has been debated for centuries. The sound Sunni scholars have always used the Kitaab (Qur’an), the Sunnah (The precedents established Prophet Muhammad) and Ijmaaʿ (the consensus of the most outstanding and trustworthy scholars). The most pressing questions being asked about the matter are the following:

1) Is this a land of disbelief or a land of peace? That is to say, what is the definition of daru-l-Islam and daru-l-kufr.

2) Is it still compulsory for those who Muslim continue to reside in the countries in rule by non-Muslims to make hijrah to a land of Islam or not?

3) In the case that hijrah is compulsory for the Muslim, and he does not do it, and he prefers to stay and help the forces who are against Islam and Muslims with his person or his wealth, is he committing  a sin when he does this?

We hope that the following discussion will shed more light on this matter and will clarify the position of the traditional Sunni scholars in regards to it.

The following discussion about hijrah is an abridged version of a broader discussion which  has been taken from Shaykh ʿUthmaan Dan Fodio’s book entitled:

بيان وجوب الهجرة على العباد وبيان وجوب نصب الإمام وإقامة الجهاد

Clarification About the Obligation of Hijrah which is Placed Upon the Slaves of Allah and Clarification About the Obligation to Appoint an Imām and to Initiate the Jihād

في‮ ‬وجوب الهجرة من بلاد الكفار

The Chapter: On the Obligation of Hijrah from the Land of the Unbelievers

فأقول بالله التوفيق‭:‬‮ ‬إنَ‮ ‬الهجرة من بلاد الكفّار واجبة كتابا وسنّة وإجماعا

I say, success is from Allah. Emigration from the land of the kuffaar is an obligation according to the Kitaab, the Sunnah and and ʿIjmaa’.

أما الكتاب فقوله تعالى‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬إنَّ‮ ‬الّذِينَ‮ ‬تَوَفَّاهُمُ‮ ‬الْـمَلاَئِكَةُ‮ ‬ظَالِـمِي‮ ‬أَنْفُسِهِمْ‮ ‬فِيمَ‮ ‬كُنْتُمْ‮ ‬قَالُواكُنَّا إِنَّ‮ ‬الَّذِينَ‮ ‬تَوَفَّاهُمُ‮ ‬الْمَلَائِكَةُ‮ ‬ظَالِـمِي‮ ‬أَنفُسِهِمْ‮ ‬قَالُوا فِيمَ‮ ‬كُنتُمْ‮ ‬قَالُوا كُنَّا مُسْتَضْعَفِينَ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الْأَرْضِ‮ ‬قَالُوا أَلَمْ‮ ‬تَكُنْ‮ ‬أَرْضُ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬وَاسِعَةً‮ ‬فَتُهَاجِرُوا فِيهَا فَأُولـاـئِكَ‮ ‬مَأْوَاهُمْ‮ ‬جَهَنَّمُ‮ … ‬النساء‭:‬‮ ‬97‮ ‬قال مفسّرون وفي‮ ‬هذه الآية دليل على‮  ‬وجوب الهجرة من بلاد الكفّار قال الـجلال عبد الرحمن السيوطي‮ ‬في‮ ‬التكملة تفسيره في‮ ‬بيان معنى قوله‮ [‬ظَالِـمِي‮ ‬أَنفُسِهِمْ‮] ‬بالـمُقام مع الكفّار وترك الهجرة انتهَى

As for the Kitaab [the Qur’an], there the Word of Allah, “Surely those whom the angels cause to die while they are wronging themselves, the angels will say, ‘In what circumstance were you?’ They will say. ‘We were weak in the earth.’ The angels will say. ‘Was not Allah’s Earth spacious, so that you might have emigrated in it?’ As for such, their abode will be hell.’” The commentators of the Qur’an have said, “And in this verse is a proof of the obligation of emigrating from the land of the kuffaar.” al-Jalaalu-d-Din Abdur Rahmān As-Suyuutī1 said in [his tafsīr] at-Takmilah2, explaining the meaning of the Words of Allah “wronging themselves,” [to mean], by remaining among the unbelievers and neglecting the command to make hijrah.

وأمّا السنّة فقوله عليه السلام‭:‬‮ ‬إنَّ‮ ‬الله بريء من مسلم ساكن بين الـمشركين وقوله عليه السلام الْـمومن والكفّار لاَ‮ ‬تُرَاءَى نَارُهُمَا أَوردهما سيدنا مختار بن أحمد الكنتي‮ ‬في‮ ‬النصيحة الكافي‮ ‬وقوله عليه الصلاة والسلام من جامع الـمشرك أو سكن معه فإنّه مثله ورواء أبو داود عن سَمُورة

As for the Sunnah, There is the saying of the Prophet عليه السلام, “Allah has nothing to do with the Muslim who lives among the people who commit shirk.” And his saying, “The fires of the of a believer and an unbeliever should not be in sight of one another.” These two hadiths were sited by our master Mukhtār  bin Aḥmad al-Kuntī3 in [his book] an-Nasīḥatu-l-Kāfīyyah4. There is also his saying عليه الصلاة والسلام, “He who mixes with the people who commit shirk (associate partners with Allah) is the same as they are.” this has been related by Abu Dawud from Samūrah.

وأمّا الإجماع فقد قال الونشريسي‮ ‬في‮ ‬الـمعيار والإجماع على وجوب الهجرة الإنتهى ولا تكونُ‮ ‬مراعاة حقوق القرابة والزوجية عذرا الأحد في‮ ‬ترك الهجرة فالأموال والـمساكين من باب أحرى قَالَ‮ ‬تعالى‭:‬‮ ‬قُلْ‮ ‬إِن كَانَ‮ ‬آبَاؤُكُمْ‮ ‬وَأَبْنَاؤُكُمْ‮ ‬وَإِخْوَانُكُمْ‮ ‬وَأَزْوَاجُكُمْ‮ ‬وَعَشِيرَتُكُمْ‮ ‬وَأَمْوَالٌ‮ ‬اقْتَرَفْتُمُوهَا وَتِجَارَةٌ‮ ‬تَخْشَوْنَ‮ ‬كَسَادَهَا وَمَسَاكِنُ‮ ‬تَرْضَوْنَهَا أَحَبَّ‮ ‬إِلَيْكُم‮ ‬مِّنَ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬وَرَسُولِهِ‮ ‬وَجِهَادٍ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬سَبِيلِهِ‮ … ‬التوبة‭:‬24‮ ‬فقعدتم لأجله عن الهجرة كما في‮ ‬التكملة تفسير عبد الرّحمن السيوطي‭:‬‮ [‬فَتَرَبَّصُوا حَتَّي‮ ‬يَأْتِيَ‮ ‬اللَّهُ‮ ‬بِأَمْرِهِ‮]‬ وفي‮ ‬تفسير الخازن أن سبب تزول هذه الآية قول الذين أسلموا ولم‮ ‬يهاجروا‮ ‬‭:‬‮ [‬إن نحن هاجرنا ضاعت أموالنا وذهبت تجارتنا وخربت دورنا قَطَعْنَا أرحامنا‮] ‬ثم قال في‮ ‬هذه الآية دليل على أنه إذا وقع تعارض بين مصالح الدين ومصالح الدنيا وجب على الـمسلم ترجيع مصالح الـدين على الدنيا إنتهى‮ ‬

As for Ijmaaʿ, al-Wansharīsī5 has said in [in his book] al-Miʿyaar6, “Ijmaaʿ upholds the obligation of hijrah (emigration).” Consideration of blood relations and marriage should not be an excuse for anyone failing to emigrate, how much less wealth and dwellings. Allah has said, “Say: If your fathers and your sons and your brothers and your wives and your kinsfolk and wealth which you have acquired, and the loss of trade which you fear and dwellings which you like, are dearer to you than Allah and His Messenger and striving in His way… 9:24 – so that you fail to emigrate because of it – as as what is found in at-Takmilah, the the tafsīr of as-Suyuutī: “then wait till Allah brings about His command…

According to the tafsīr7 of al-Khaazin8 the reason for the revelation of this verse was the saying of those who accepted Islam, but who didn’t emigrate, “If we had emigrated, our possessions would have been lost, our commerce wasted, and our dwellings ruin, and we would have cut off relations with our kinsfolk.” He [al-Khaazin] then said, “In this verse is proof that whenever there is a conflict between matters  of the Dīn and worldly matters, a Muslim must give preference to the matters of Dīn over the worldly matters.

قلت كما‮ ‬يجب ترجيع حفظه على باقى الكليات الخمس التي‮ ‬هي‮ ‬حفظ النفس والعقل والسب والـمال وألحق بعضهم العِرض قال عبد السلام بن إبرهيم‮ ‬اللَّقاني‮ ‬عند قول الناظم‭:

وحفظ دين نفس مال نسب‮                 ‬ومثلها عقل وعِرض

I [ShaykhʿUthmaan] would add that it is likewise necessary to give preference to its preservation over the rest of the five universal rules which are preservation of the soul. the intellect and lineage and wealth, while some also added honor. Abdus-s-Salaam Al-Laqqaanī9 said in [his book] al-Ithāfu-l-Murīd10 which is the sharḥ for Jawhaaratu-t-Tawhīd, in regards to the words of the poet:

And the preservation of religion, soul, wealth and lineage,

Likewise, of intellect and body is obligatory.

وآكد الـخمسة الدين لأن حفظ‮ ‬غيره وسيلة لحفظه ثم حفظ النفوس ثم العقول ثم الأساب ثم الأموال وفي‮ ‬مرتبتها الأعراض أن لم تؤد الأذية فيها إلى قطع النَّسَب وإلاّ‮ ‬كانت في‮ ‬مرتبة الأنساب ثم قال وجب حفظ الـجميع في‮ ‬جميع الشرا ئع لشرفها إنتهى

The most important of the five is [preservation of] the Dīn, because the preservation of the others is a means of preserving it [the Dīn]. Then comes the preservation of the soul, then of the minds, then of lineage, then of possessions. As important as the latter is the preservation of honor, so long as injury to it does not lead to breaking bonds with kinfolk, otherwise it comes on a level with the preservation of lineage.” Then he [al-Laqqaanī] said, “In all systems of divine law, it is essential to preserve all of them, because of their noble status…”

Shaykh Uthmaan continues saying:

وما ذكرناه من أول هذا الفصل من أن الهجرة من بلاد الكفار واجبة على جميع الـمسلمين لا‮ ‬يختلف فيه اثنان ولا عذر لأحد في‮ ‬تركها إلاَّ‮ ‬الـمستضعفين قال تعالى‭:‬‮[‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬الْـمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ‮ ‬مِنَ‮ ‬الرِّجَالِ‮ ‬وَالنِّسَاءِ‮ ‬وَالْوِلْدَانِ‮ ‬لَا‮ ‬يَسْتَطِيعُونَ‮ ‬حِيلَةً‮ ‬وَلَا‮ ‬يَهْتَدُونَ‮ ‬سَبِيلًا‮] ‬النساء 98 طَرِيقًا إلى أرض الهجرة كما في‮ ‬التكملة تفسير عبد الرحمن السيوطي‮ ‬وفي‮ ‬تفسير الـخازن في‮ ‬بيان معني‮ ‬قوله‮ [‬لَا‮ ‬يَسْتَطِيعُونَ‮ ‬حِيلَةً‮]‬‮ ‬يعني‮ ‬لا‮ ‬يقلرون على حِيلَةً‮ ‬ولا نفقة ولا قوة لهم على الـخروج‮  ‬من مكة وقال تعالى في‮ ‬حق هؤلاء‭:‬‮ [‬فَأُولآئِكَ‮ ‬عَسَى اللَّهُ‮ ‬أَن‮ ‬يَعْفُوَ‮ ‬عَنْهُمْ‮] النساء 89 قال الـمفسيرون ذُكِرَ‮  ‬بكلمة الأطماع ولفظ العفو إيذانا ترك الهجرة أمر خطر حتى أن الـمضطر من حقه أن لا‮ ‬يأمن ويترصد الفرضية ويعلق‮ ‬بها قلبه انتهى

What we have discussed since the beginning of this chapter with regard to the fact that emigration from the lands of the unbelievers is obligatory on all Muslims cannot be disputed, and nobody is excused for neglecting it except the weak. Allah has said, “Except for the weak from among men, women and children who can’t  devise a plan”. They are unable to make hijrah; they don’t have no means of support; “they don’t have a way” to get to the land where they might emigrate,” as was is mentioned in at-Takmilah of ʿAbdur Raḥman as-Suyuutī. In his commentary, explaining the meaning of His [Allah’s] word, “who can’t  devise a plan”,  al-Khaazin said, “It means they are unable to devise a plan, they don’t have the means of support, nor are they able to emigrate from Makkah.” Concerning such people Allah has said, “As for those, it may be that Allah will pardon them.

Those who commentate on the Qur’an have said that the expression indicating hope and the  one indicating pardon were mentioned to warn people that failure to emigrate is a grave matter that even a man in difficult circumstances should not feel at ease, and should continuously look for a way  to obey the divine precept and set his heart upon it…

Shaykh Uthmaan takes the discussion about hijrah further in the next chapter which followed the above-mentioned entitled:

في‮ ‬تأويل قوله عليه الصلاة والسلام‭:‬‮ ‬لا هجوة بعد الفتح

What is Meant by the Prophet’s Saying: No Emigration After the Conquest of Makkah

He begins by saying:

فأقول بالله التوفيق ورد في‮ ‬صحيح البخاري‮ ‬عن ابن عباس قال‭:‬‮ ‬قال النبي‮ ‬صلى الله عليه وسلم‮ ‬يوم فتح مكة لا هجرة بعد الفتح وفي‮ ‬صحيح البخاري‮ ‬أيضا عن مجاشع بن مسعود قال جاء مجاشع بأخيه مجالد بن مسعود إلى النبي‮ ‬صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال هذا مجالد ببايعك على الهجرة‮  ‬فقال لا هجرة بعد فتح مكة‮  ‬وفي‮ ‬صحيح البخاري‮ ‬أيضا قال عمرو بن دينار وابن جريج سمعت عطاء‮ ‬يقول ذهبت مع عبيد بن عمير إلى عائشة وهي‮ ‬مجاورة بثبير فقالت لنا‭:‬‮ ‬انقطعت الهجرة منذ الله على نبيه مكة‮ ‬

I say success is from Allah. It has been mentioned in as-Ṣaḥīh al-Bukhārī from of Ibn ʿAbbās, that the Prophet صَـلّى الله عليه وسلّم said on the day of the conquest of Makkah, “No emigration after the conquest.” It is also related in as-Ṣaḥīh al-Bukhārī on the authority of Mujaashiʿ bin Masʿūd that Mujaashiʿ brought his brother Mujaalid bin Masʿūd to the Prophet صَـلّى الله عليه وسلّم and said, “This is Mujaalid who has come to pledge allegiance to you as well as to emigrate. The Prophet said,‘No hijrah after the conquest of Makkah.’” It is also related in al-Bukhārī Ṣaḥīh that ʿAmar bin Dinār and Ibn Jurayj said that they heard ʿAṭā say, “I went with ʿUbayd bin ʿUmayr to ʿĀishah when she was in the vicinity of Thabir and she said to us, ‘Emigration has ceased since Allah opened up Makkah to His Prophet.’

أما‮  ‬تأويل قوله عليه الصلاة والسلام‭:‬‮ ‬لا هجوة بعد الفتح فقد قال العلماء‭:‬‮ ‬أي‮ ‬لا هجرة من مكة بعد الفتح بعد أن صارت دار الإسلام‮  ‬

As for the interpretation of the Prophets saying عليه الصلاة والسلام, “No emigration after the conquest,” the scholars have said that it means there is no emigration from Makkah after conquest and after it became dar al-Islam.

وفي‮ ‬تفسير الخازن عند قوله تعالى‭:‬‮ [‬إنَّ‮ ‬الّذِينَ‮ ‬تَوَفَّاهُمُ‮ ‬الْـمَلاَئِكَةُ‮ ‬ظَالِـمِي‮ ‬أَنْفُسِهِمْ‮]‬يعني‮ ‬بالشرك وقيل بالمقام في‮ ‬دار الشرك وذلك لأن الله لم‮ ‬يَقْبَل الإسلام من أحد بعد هجرة النبي‮ ‬صلى الله عليه وسلم حتى‮ ‬يهاجر إليه ثم نسخ ذلك بعد فتح مكة بقوله‮ ‬صلى الله عليه وسلم لا هجوة بعد الفتح أخر جاء في‮ ‬الصحيحين‮ ‬

Regarding Allah’s word, “Surely those whom the angels cause to die while they are wronging themselves…,” al-Khaazin said in his commentary, “It means, by practicing shirk (associating partners with Allah) and by remaining in the land of the mushrikīn.” The reason for this was that Allah would not accept the declaration of Islam from anyone after the hijrah of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم until he emigrated to him. Then this was abrogated after the conquest of Makkah by the saying of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, “No emigration after the conquest,” as mentioned in the two Ṣaḥīhs.

وفي‮ ‬تفسير الخازن أيضا في‮ ‬سورة الأنفال عند قوله تعلى‭:‬‮ [‬وَالَّذِينَ‮ ‬آمَنُوا مِن بَعْدُ‮ ‬وَهَاجَرُوا وَجَاهَدُوا مَعَكُمْ‮] ‬اختلافوا‮ ‬في‮ ‬قوله‮ [‬مِن بَعْدُ‮] ‬فقيل من بعد صلح الحدبية وهي‮ ‬الهجرة الثانية وقيل من بعد نزول هذه الآية وقيل بعد‮ ‬غزوة بدر‮ ‬

It’s also found in the commentary of al-Khaazin, in Sūratu-l-Anfāl in the words of the Most High :

And those who afterwards believed and emigrated and strove hard along with you,” ‘scholars have interpreted the meaning of the word ‘afterwards’ in different ways. Some say it meant after the treaty of Ḥudabiyyah which was the second hijrah; some took it to mean after, the revelation of this verse. Others said it meant after battle of Badr.

ثم قال والأصح أن الـمراد به أهل الهجرة الثانية لأنها بعد الهجرة الأولى لأن الهجرة الأولى انقـظعت بعد فتح مكة لأنها صارت دار الإسلام بعد الفتح ويدل عليه قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم لا هجوة بعد الفتح

He (al-Khaazin) then said, “ The most correct interpretation in terms of what is meant by it [مِـن بَـعْدُ],  is that [it is referring to] people of the second hijrah, since it  occurred after first hijrah. This is because the first hijrah ceased after the conquest of Makkah since it became Dār al-l-Islam after the conquest.” This has been proven by the Prophets saying,  “No emigration after the conquest.

وقال الحسن الهجرة‮ ‬غير منقطعة ثم قال ويجاب عن هذا بأن الـمراد من الهجرة من مكة إلى الـمدينة‮ ‬

Al-Ḥasan said, “Emigration has not ceased.” Then he [al-Khaazin] said, “To answer this, what is meant specifically by [the word] hijrah, is the hijrah from Makkah to Madinah.

فأما من كان من الـمؤمنين في‮ ‬بلد‮ ‬يخاف على إظهار دينه من الكفار وجب عليه أن‮ ‬يهاجر إلى بلد لا‮ ‬يخاف فيه على إظهار دينه

As for the believer who is in a place where he is afraid to display his religion because of unbelievers, he has to emigrate to a place where he practice it [his religion] freely.

وقال القسطلاني‮ ‬في‮ ‬الإرشاد شرح البخاري‮ ‬ما دام في‮ ‬الدنيا دار الكفر فالهجرة منها واجبة والحكم‮ ‬يدور مع علته

Al-Qastallaanī11 said in al-Irshaad12, “As long as a land of unbelief exists in the world, emigration from it is obligatory, for the law applies wherever the relevant circumstances exist.

ويدل على ذلك قوله عليه الصلاة والسلام‭:‬‮ ‬لا تنقطع الهجرة حتى تنقطع التوبة ولا تنقطع التوبة حتى تطلع الشمس من الـمغرب وراه أبو داوود عن معاوية وفي‮ ‬ابن عبد السلام‭:‬‮ ‬الهجرة تجب في‮ ‬آخر الزمان كما تجب في‮ ‬أول الإسلام انتهى‮ ‬

That is further proven by the saying of the Prophet صَـلّى الله عليه وسلّم, “Emigration will not stop until repentance ceases and repentance will not cease until the sun rises in the West.” This has been related by Abu Dāwūd on the authority of Muʿāwiyyah. And according to Ibn ʿAbdu-s-Salaam: “Emigration will be obligatory at the end of time just as it was obligatory at the beginning of Islam.

فإن قلت هل‮ ‬يصح الإسلام‮  ‬من أسلم في‮ ‬بلد الكفر ولم‮ ‬يهاجر قلت جوابه كما قال النفراوي‮ ‬في‮ ‬الفواكه الدواني‮ ‬شرح الرسالة لم‮ ‬يبين الـمضف‮ ‬حكم من أسلم من الحربين هل‮ ‬يجوز لهم البقاء في‮ ‬دار الحرب أو‮ ‬يهاجرون منها إلى بلاد الإسلام وبينه‮ ‬غيره بقوله ولو أسلم قوم كفار حيث تنالهم أحكام الكفار وجب عليهم الأرتحال منهم فأن لم‮ ‬يرتحلوا‮ ‬يكونون عاصين لله رسوله وإسلامهم صحيح انتهى‮ ‬

If you said, “Is the Islam of the person who became a Muslim in the land of unbelief valid while he did not emigrate? I would say that the answer is as given by an-Nafraawī13 [in his book] al-Fawaakihu-d-Dawaanī14 a sharḥ for the Risaalah15of Ibn Abī Zayd: “The author [Ibn Abī Zayd al-Qayrawaanī16 in his book ar-Risaalah] did not make clear the law concerning people who live in the abode of war or whether they should emigrate to the land of Islam. However, it has been made clear by another scholar who said, ‘If unbelievers become Muslims, they have to emigrate if they are in a place where they come under the jurisdiction of the unbelievers, for if they do not emigrate, they will be disobedient to Allah and his Messenger although their Islam will still be valid.’”

وكما لا‮ ‬يختلف اثنان أن الـمقيم ببلد الحرب اختيارا عاص لله ورسوله لا‮ ‬يختلقان أيضا أن شهادته لا تجوز وفي‮ ‬الـمعيار لا شهادة الدجن وقضائهم لأنهم رضوا أن‮ ‬يكونوا تحت إبالة النصاري‮ ‬وفيه أيضا سئل الـمازري‮ ‬عن أحكام تأتي‮ ‬من صقلية من عند قاضيها أو شهود عدول هل‮ ‬يقبل ذلك أو لا ولا ندري‮ ‬إقامتهم هناك تحت أهل الكفر هل اضطر ار أو اختيار فأجاب هذا الـمقيم ببلد الحرب إن كان اضطرارا فلا شك أنه لايقدح‮ ‬في‮ ‬عدالة وكذلك إن تاويلة صحيحا مثل إقامة‮ … ‬لرجاء هداية أهل الحرب‮ … ‬وأما لو أقام بحكم الجاهلية والإعراض عن التأويل اختيارا فلا شك‮ ‬أنه‮ ‬يقدح في‮ ‬عدلته‮ … ‬ومن ظهرت عدالته وشك في‮ ‬إقامة على أي‮ ‬وجه فالأصل عذره‮ … ‬إلا أن تكون قرائن تشهد على أن أقامة كانت إختيارا‮ … ‬

Similarly no one disputes that whoever remains, by choice, in dar al-harb is disobedient to Allah and His Messenger, or that such a man’s testimony is invalid. It has been said in al-Miʿyaar, “The testimony of  ad-dajin17is not valid nor is that of their judges, because they are content to remain under the sovereignty of the Christians.” In al-Miʿyaar, “Al-Maazarī18 was asked whether decisions arrived at in Sicily by its qādī or upright witnesses (ʿuḍūl) could be accepted or not, assuming we do not know whether their stay there by choice or out of necessity. He replied, ‘There is no doubt that the testimony of man remaining in dar al-harb out of necessity. Likewise, if his reasons for staying there was sound, for example, if he hoped to guide the people in dar al-harb. However, if he chose to stay there, while living under the rule of jaahiliyyah (rule of those who have no knowledge of Islam) without any sound reason, then there is no doubt that his uprightness comes under question, while he whose uprightness is clear but whose reason for staying there is not clear, then the rule is to give him the benefit of the doubt, unless circumstantial evidence points to to the fact that his stay there was of his own choosing.

وتولية الكفار للقاضي‮ ‬باطبة ومع ذلك لا‮ ‬يقدح في‮ ‬تنفيذ أحكامه إذ حجر الناس بعضهم بعضا واجب

If an unbeliever appoints a man to the position of qādī, that appointment is invalid, nevertheless, the qādī’s decrees are binding because it is essential to protect people from one another.’

قلت هذا كله فيمن لم‮ ‬يقاتل الكفار حتى‮ ‬غلبهم وقدر على إظهار الدين وصار البلد به دار الإسلام إد قال القسطلاّني‮ ‬في‮ ‬الإرشاد شرح البخاري‮ ‬قال الـماوردي‮ ‬إذا قدر على إظهار الذين في‮ ‬بلد من بلاد الكفر قد صارت البلد به دار الإسلام فالإقامة فيها أفضل من الرحلة لـما‮ ‬يرجي‮ ‬من دخول إسلام إنتهى

I (Shaykh ʿUthmaan) have said all of this about those who have fought the unbelievers until they overcame them, and were in a position to render Islam a victory; the place then becomes dar al-Islam.  In this respect, al-Qastallaanī in his book al-Irshaad quotes al-Maawardī19 as saying, “If Islam can be granted victory in a land of unbelief, then it is better to remain there than to leave, since it is expected that others will accept Islam.

For the Shāfī position on Hijrah click the following link: The Abodes of the Earth

For the Hanbalī position on Hijrah click the following link: Mardin Fatwa: Madness And Muffling Falsehood 1

For a further and more extensive study, read the following scholarly text by Sh. Muhammad Shareef: Zaman’ n-Naasara

Footnotes:

1 He is Jalaalu-d-Dīn Adur Rahmān bin Abi Bakr as-Suyuutī a Shāfī scholar also known as Ibn al-Kutub (the son of books) had a great influence on many West African scholars.  He was an Egyptian writer, religious scholar, juristic expert and teacher whose works deal with a wide variety of subjects in Islamic theology.
2 At-Takmilah is a tafsīr  of as-Suyuutī’s
3 He is al-Mukhtaar bin Ahmad al-Waafi al-Kuntī, a Mālikī scholar from the Kunta tribe found in West Africa, and he is also a shaykh of the Qādirī tarīqah. He was born in Arawan to the North of Timbuktu.
4 Written by al-Mukhtaar al-Kuntī
5 He is Aḥmad bin Yaḥya al-Wansharīsī, Mālikī mufti of Fez (1430-1508) scholar born in Tlemcen (present-day Algeria). Principally known for his compilation of North African and Andalusian legal opinions (fatwas).
6 Its full title name is Al Miʿyaaru-l-Muʿrib Wa-l-Jaamiʿu-l-Mughrib ʿan Fatāwī Ahli-l-Ifriqiyyah, Wa-l-Andalus Wa-l-Maghrib (Click on link to see text). Referred to as a ‘mountain walking on the Earth’, Al-Miʿyaar is a compilation of North African and Andalusian legal opinions (fatwas) which is a source of information on the social, cultural, economic, and juridical practices of medieval al-Andalus and the Maghreb.
7 The tafsīr of al-Khaazin is known as  ’Lubab at-Taʿwīl fi Maʿānī at-Tanzil‘.
8 His name is ʿAlā ad-Dīn ʿAli bin Muḥammad bin Ibrahīm  al-Baghdādī as-Sufī (d 725/1340).
9 He is Abdus-s-Salaam Al-Laqqaanī a Mālikī jurist and scholar of Egypt.
10 Al-Laqqaanī’s sharḥ for Jawhaaratu-t-Tawhīd
11 He is Imām Shihaabu-d-Dīn Abu-l-ʿAbbaas Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Abu Bakr, al-Qastallaanī al-Qutaybī ash-Shafiʿī (d. 923H)
12 Irshaadu-s-Saari li Sharḥ Saḥīḥ al-Bukhārī by al-Qastallanī. It is one of the most well known commentary on Saḥīḥ al-Bukhārī.
13 He is Ahmad bin Ghunaym an-Nafrāwī,  a Mālikī scholar of Egypt (d. 1713).
14 al-Fawaakihu-d-Dawaanī a sharḥ for the Risaalah
15 Ar-Risaalah is an instructional book devoted to the education of young children which  is a summary of the main aspects of aqīdah (Faith), fiqh (Jurisprudence) and akhlaaq (character).  It is divided into 45 chapters. ibn Abī Zayd wrote this book at the age of seventeen.
16 He is Abū Muhammad Abdullah ibn Abī Zayd al-Qayrawaani who was a Malīkī scholar and teacher from Qayrawaan in Tunisia (922–996).
17 The verb dajana means to become domesticated, tame; to remain; to stay; to get used to; to become habituated; to be accustomed to. Therefore ad-dājin is one who remains or stays behind because he has become accustomed to his current habitat (preferred surroundings) and because of this, he’s afraid of emigrating or refuses to do so.
18 He is Muḥammad bin ʿAlī al-Maazarī of Sicilian origin who settled in Maḥdiyyah, Tunisia (1058-1141)
19 He is ʿAbu al-Hasan Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Habib al-Mawardi a Shāfī faqih of Persian origin; qādi of Ustawa near Nīsāpūr. Al-Mawardi’s works on Islamic governance are recognized as classics in the field. He is well remembered for his treatise  Al-Aḥkaam as-Sulṭaniyyah w-a-d-Dīniyyah on ‘The Ordinances of Government‘ which provides a detailed a definition of the functions of the khalifate.

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