Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 12 – (The Chapter About Al-ʿAṭf [The Conjoining Of Words])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَطْفِ

12 – (The Chapter About Al-ʿAṭf  [The Conjoining Of Words])

ʿArabic Text:

( وَحُرُوُفُ‏  الْعَطْفِ‏  عَشَرَةٌ‏  وَهِيَ‏ الْوَاوُ‏  وَالْفَاءُ‏  وَثُمَّ‏  وَأََوْ‏  وَأََمْ‏  وَإِِمَّا وَبَلْ‏  وَلاَ‏ وَلَــكِنْ‏  وَحَتَّى فِي‏ بَعْضِ‏ الـْمَوَاضِعِ‏  فَإِنْ‏  عَطَفْتَ‏  بِهَا عَلَى مَرْفُوعٍ‏  رَفَعْتَ‏  أَوْ‏  عَلَى مَنْصُوبٍ‏  نَصَبْتَ‏  أَوْ‏  عَلَى مَخْفُوضٍ‏  خَفَضْتَ‏  اَوْ‏  عَلَى مَجْزُومٍ‏  جَزَمْتَ‏  تَقُولُ‏  قَامَ‏  زَيْدٌ‏  وَعَمْرٌو وَرَأَيْتُ‏  زَيْدًا وَعَمْرًا وَمَرَرْتُ‏  بِزيْدٍ‏  وَعَمْرٍو وَزَيْدٌ‏  لَمْ‏  يَقُمْ‏  وَلَمْ‏  يَقْعُدْ‏ )‏

English Translation:

وَحُرُوُفُ‏ ‬الْعَطْــفِ‏ ‬(And the conjoining particles are) عَشَرَةٌ (ten): وَهِيَ (They are): الْوَاوُ (and), وَالْفَاءُ (and so), وَثُمَّ (then), وَأَوْ (or), وَأَمْ (or), وَإِمَّا (or), وَبَلْ (but rather / on the contrary), وَلاَ (nor), وَلَـــكِنْ (but), وَحتَّى (until), فِي‏ ‬بَعْضِ‏ ‬الـْمَوَاضِعِ‏ ‬(in some places).  ‏ ‬فَإِنْ‏ ‬عَطَفْتَ‏ ‬بِهَا (And so, when you conjoin [words] with them), عَلَى مَرْفُوعٍ‏ ‬رَفَعْتَ‏ ‬(you apply the rafʿ case to a word that has been [conjoined to] a word in the case of rafʿ) أَوْ (or) عَلَى مَنْصُوبٍ‏ ‬نَصَبْتَ (you apply the naṣb case to a word that has been [conjoined to] a word in the case of naṣb) أَوْ (or) عَلَى مَخْفُوضٍ‏ ‬خَفَضْتَ (you apply the khafḍ case to a word that has been [conjoined to] a word in the case of khafḍ أَوْ (or) عَلَى مَجْزُومٍ‏ ‬جَزَمْتَ (you apply the jazm case to a word that has been [conjoined to] a word in the case of jazm.

تَقُولُ (You say): قَامَ‏ ‬زَيْدٌ‏ ‬وَ‏ ‬عَمْرٌو (Zayd and ʿAmr stood) وَرَاَيْتُ‏ ‬زَيْدًا وَ‏ ‬عَمْرًا  and (I saw Zayd and ʿAmr) وَ‏ ‬مَرَرْتُ‏ ‬بِزيْدٍ‏ ‬وَ‏عَمْرٍو and (I passed by Zayd and ʿAmr) زَيْدٌ‏ ‬لَمْ‏ ‬يَقُمْ‏ ‬وَ‏ ‬لَمْ‏ ‬يَقْعُدْ and (Zayd did not stand and he did not sit).

Explanation in ʿArabic:

االعطف اتباع الثاني‏‮ ‬‬للاول بواسطة حرف من حروف العطف ان حروف العطف عشرة و هي‏‮ ‬‬الْوَاوُ‏‮  ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬ثُمَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬إِمَّا وَ‏‮ ‬‬بَلْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬لَكِنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬حَتَّى في‏‮ ‬‬بعض المواضع فان عطِفت بها على مرفوع او على منصوب او على مخفوض رفعت المعطوف او نصبته او خفضته فتقول‏‮  ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬العطف على المرفوع جَاَء زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو على المنصوب رَأيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا و على المخفوض مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٍو و كذلك ان عطفت بها على المجزوم جزمت نحو لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَقُمْ‏‮ ‬‬و‏‮ ‬‬يَقْعُدْ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وهكذا احكامها كلها‏‮  ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـعَطْفُ (The conjoining of words) is the joining of the second word to the first word (which immediately precedes it) by means of حَرْفٌ (a particle) from حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَطْفِ (the conjoining particles).  حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَطْفِ (The conjoining particles) are ten. They  are: الْـوَاوُ (and),  الْفَـــــاءُ (and so),  ثُـمَّ (then), ‏‮ ‬‬أَو(or),  أَمْ (or), إِمَّا (or), بَـلْ (but rather / on the contrary), لاَ (nor), لَــكِنْ (but) and حَـتَّى (until) in some places.  And so if you conjoin by them what is in the case of rafʿ, naṣb and khafḍ you put the conjoined word also in the case of rafʿ or naṣb or khafḍ. And so, you say في‏ العطف when (conjoining words) that  are in the case of rafʿ: جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَمْرُو (Zayd and ʿAmr came) and for what is in the case naṣb رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَعَمْرًا (I saw Zayd and ʿAmr) and for what is in the case of khafḍ مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْروٍ (I passed by Zayd and).  And it is like that if you conjoin by them (حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَطْفِ [the conjoining particles]) words in the case of jazm.  You put them in the case of jazm like when you say: زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬لَـمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَقُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَـمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَـقْعُدْ (Zayd didn’t stand and he didn’t sit) and similar are the rules for each of them.

(*note in ʿArabic)

إن حَتَّى لاَ‏‮ ‬‬تكون عاطفة إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬إذا أدخلت ما بعدها في‏‮ ‬‬حكم ما قبلها نحو أَكَـلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬السَّمَكَةَ‏‮ ‬‬حَتَّى رَأَسَهَا أي‏‮ ‬‬إن رَأَسَهَا ما كول أيضًا ونحو مَاتَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّاسُ‏‮ ‬‬حَتَّى الأَنْبِيَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬أي‏‮ ‬‬إن الأَنْبِيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الذين قد مَاتوا أيضًا وقد تكون‏‮ ‬‬غير عاطفة إذا لم تكن كذلك كما اذا خفضت الرّأس أو الأَنْبِيَاء بعدها و تكون حينئذ حرف جرّ‏‮ ‬‬بمعنى‏‮ “‬‬إِلى‏‮” ‬‬ويكون ما بعدها‏‮ ‬‬غير داخل في‏‮ ‬‬الحكم ما قبلها أي‏‮ ‬‬إن رأسها‏‮ ‬‬غير مأكول والأَنْبِيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬غير مِمَّنْ‏‮ ‬‬مات

(*note in English)

حتّى ([hattaa] – until) is not عَاطِف (a conjoining particle) unless it includes what comes after it in الْحُكْم (the decree) for what comes before it, (that is to say what has been decreed for the word preceding حَـتَّى [hattaa] must have also been decreed for the word that follows it) – like when you say: أَكِلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬السَّمَكَةَ‏‮ ‬‬حَـتَّى رَأَسَـهَآ –  (I ate the fish even its head – that is to say that its head was eaten also) and  مَــاتَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّاسُ‏‮ ‬‬حَتَّى الأَنْبِيَاءُ (The people died even the prophets – that is to say: the prophets died also). It is not a conjoining particle if it is not being used like this.  For example, if the word الرَّأْس which came after حَـتَّى was caused to be in the case of  khafḍ, in that case حَـتَّى will be a preposition with its meaning being إِلَـى (up to the time; until) and what comes after it is not included in the decree for what is coming before it – that is to say, that the head was not eaten and the prophets were not among those who died.

 

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Published in: on March 22, 2011 at 19:18  Leave a Comment  

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