The Explanation of the Second Foundational Principle [Pillar] of Islam

The following discussion has been taken from the book الإعْـلاَمُ  بِـحُـدُودِ  قَـوَائِدِ  الإسْـلاَمِ ([Advice Concerning the Boundaries of the Foundational Principles [Pillars] of Islam]) by Qaadī ʿIyaad.

شَرْح الْقاعِـدَةِ  الثَّانِيَةِ

(The Explanation of the Second Foundational Principle [Pillar] of Islam)

وَهِيَ  الصَّلاَة (which is prayer)  وَهِيَ  عَلَى سِتَّةِ  أَقْسَامٍ (It has six divisions):

1 -فَـرضٌ  عَـلَى الأَعْـيَانِ  (The prayers that are placed as an obligation on the individual) – وَهِيَ (are): الصًّلَوَتُ  الْـخَـمْسَةُ (the five daily prayers), وَالْـجُـمُعَةُ (and the Friday Prayer) فَـرضُ  عَـيْنٍ (which is obligatory for the individual to perform) لِأَنَّهَا بَـدَلٌ  مِـنَ  الظَّهْـرِ (because it stands in the place of the Ḍhur prayer), وَلكِنْ  لَهَا أَحْكَامٌ  تُخَالِفُهَا (but it has its own rules).

2 -فَـرضٌ  عَـلَى الْـكِفَايَـةِ  (The prayer that is placed as an obligation on the entire community) وَهِـيَ  الصًّلاَةُ  الْـجَنَازَةِ (and it is the funeral prayer);

3 –  وَسُـنَّةٌ (and Sunnah Prayers) وَهِـيَ  عَشَْـرُ  الصَّلَوَاتٍ (which are also ten):

[1] –  صًّلاَةُ  الْوِتْرِ  (Witr Prayer),

[2] and [3] –  وَالْعِيدينِ  (The Two ʿId Prayers [ʿIdu-l-Fiṭr and Idu-l-Aḍ-ḥaa]),

[4] and [5] – وَكُـسُوفِ  الشَّسِ  وَالقَمَرِ (The Prayer for the Eclipse of the Sun and the Eclipse of the  Moon),

[6] – وَالإسْـتِسقَاءِ (The prayer for Rain),

[7] –  وَرَكَْْتَى الْفَجْرِ (The Two Rakʿahs of the Fajr Prayer), وَقِـيلَ  فَـضِيلَة (and it has been said it is a Meritorious Prayer),

[8] – وَرَكْعَتَى الطَّوَاف (The Two Rakʿahs of the Circumambulation of the Kaʿbah),

[9] – وَرَكْعَتَى الإحْرَامِ (The Two Rakʿahs at the Place of Iḥraam [Mīqātu-l-Iḥraam]),

[10] – وَسُجُودِ  الْـقُرْآنِ (The Prayers in the Eleven Places of Prostration in the Qur’an);

4 – وَفَـضِيلَةٌ (and The Meritorious Prayers); وَهِـيَ  عَشَْـرُ  أَيْـضًا (which are also ten):

[1] وَرَكْـعَتَان بَـعْدَ  الْـوُضُـوءِ (two rakʿahs after performing wuduu’),

[2] وَتَـحِيَّةُ  الْـمَسْجِدِ (the prayer that is performed upon entering the masjid), وَرَكْـعَتَان (it is two rakʿahs),

[3] وَقِـيَامِ  [ شَهْـر ] رَمَـضَانَ (standing for prayer during Ramaḍaan [The Taraawih Prayer]),

[4]  وَقِـيَامُ  اللَّيلِ   (night prayers [Tahajjud]),

[5] وَأَرْبَـعُ  رَكْعَاتٍ  قَـبْلَ  الظُّهْـرِ (four rakʿahs before Ḍhur prayer),

[6] وَإِثنَانِ  بَـعْدَهَـا (two rakʿah after Ḍhur prayer),  وَرُوِيَ  أَرْبَـعُ (while some transmission mention four),

[7] وَإِثنَانِ قَـبْلَ الْـعَصْرِ (two rakʿah before ʿAsr prayer), وَرُوِيَ  أَرْبَـعُ (while some transmission mention four), وَإِثنَانِ  بَـعْدَ  الْـمَغْرِبِ

[8] (two rakʿahs after Magrib prayer, وَرُوِيَ  سِـتٌّ (while some transmission mention six) وَرُوِيَ  عِشْـرُونَ (and others mention twenty),

[9] وَالصَّلاَةُ  الضُّحَى (The Ḍuḥaa Prayer) وَهِـيَ  ثَـمَانُ  رَكْـعَاتٍ (which consist of eight rakʿahs), وَاخْـتَلاَفَـتِ  الرِّوًايَـة فِيهَا (and the transmissions differ concerning it), مِنْ  اثْنَتَيْنِ  إِلَى اثْـنَتِي  عَشْـرَةَ (from two to twelve [rakʿahs]),

[10] وَإِحْـيَاءُ  مَـا بَـيـْنَ  الْـعِشَاءَيْـنِ (Giving attention of what is between the two evening prayers [Maghrib and ʿIshaa’] – [that is to say, the performance of two rakʿahs between them has also been mentioned]).

وَقَـدْ  عَـدَّتْ  هَـاـذِهِ  [ مِـنَ ] السُّنَـنِ (All of above-mentioned can be included among the Sunnah prayers) أَيْـضًا (as well); وَتَـطَوُّعٌ (and a voluntary prayers) كُـلُّ  صَـلاَةٍ (is every prayer) تُـنُقِّلَ بِـهَا  (which has designated for it)  فِي  الأَوْقَاتِ  (times) الَّتِي  أُيِحَتِ  الصَّلاَةُ  فِيهَا (for which the [performance of the] prayer is suggested).

5 -يَـخْتَصُّ  بِـلأَسْـبَابِ  (The Prayers That Have Special Reasons for Their Performance); وَهِـيَ  عَشَْـرُ  أَيْـضًا (which are also ten):

[1] and [2] الصَّلاَةُ  عِـنْدَ  الْـخُـرُوجِ  إِلَى السَّفَرِ (the prayer performed when starting out on a journey) وَعِـنْدَ  قُـدُومِ  مِـنْهَا (and the prayer performed upon arrival),

[3] وَصَّلاَةُ  الإسْـتِخَارَةِ (the prayer for Allah’s guidance in making a decision) رَكْـعَتَانِ  (which is two rakʿaks),

[4] وَصَّلاَةُ حَاجَةِ (the prayer of the one who has a need) رَكْـعَتَانِ (which is two rakʿaks),

[5] وَصَّلاَةُ  تَسْـبِيحِ (the prayer for glorification of Allah), أَرْبَـعُ (which is four rakʿaks),

[6] وَرَكْـعَتَانِ  بَيْـنَ  الأَذَانِ  وَالإقَامَةِ (two rakʿahs performed between the adhān and the iqāmah),

[7] وَرَكْـعَتَانِ  لِـمَنْ  قُـرِّبَ  لِـلْقَتْلِ (two rakʿahs of the one who is about to be killed),

[8] وَرَكْـعَتَانِ  قَـبْلَ  الدُّعَـاءِ (two rakʿahs before the supplication [of repentance from the being on the verge of sin or unlawful action]),

[9] وَرَكْـعَتَانِ  عِـنْدَ  التَّوْبَـةِ  مِنَ  الذَّنْبِ (two rakʿaks after repenting from a sinful action) وَالاسْـتِغٌفَارِ مِـنْهُ (seeking forgiveness for it),

[10]  وَأَرْبَـعُ  رَكْـعَاتٍ (four rakʿahs) بَـعْدَ الزَّوَالِ (after the setting of the sun).

6 – مَـمْنُوعٌ (The Prohibited Prayers); وَهِـيَ  عَشَْـرُ  أَيْـضًا (which are also ten):

[1] عِـنْدَ  طُـلُوعِ  الشَّمْسِ (during the rising of the sun) وعِـنْدَ  غُـرُوبِـهَا (and the setting of it), إِلاَّ لِـمَنْ  تََذَكَّرَ  فَرْضًا (except for the one who remembers an obligatory prayer) أَوْ  نَامَ  عَنْهَا (or was asleep during the time of the prayer) أَوْ  لَـزِمَـهُ  قَـضَاؤُهُ (or he has to perform it [because the time of the prayer has passed]),

[2] وَالصَّلاَة بَـعْدَ  الصّبْحِ   (praying after Ṣubḥ Prayer) حَـتَّى تَشْرِقَ  الشَّمْسُ  (until the sun has fully risen),

[3] بَـعْدَ  الْـعَصْرِ (or after ʿAsr Prayer) حَـتَّى تُغِيبَ (until the sun has disappeared),

[4] وَبَعْدَ  طُـلُوعِ  الْفَجْرِ (after dawn has come in), إِلاَّ  رَكْـعَتَى الْفَجْـرِ   (except for the two rakʿahs of  the Fajr Prayer [Dawn Prayer]), والصّبْحِ (the two rakʿahs Ṣubḥ Prayer), أَوْ  مَـنْ  تَـرَكَ الْـوِتْـرِ (or the one who didn’t perform the Witr prayer) أَوْ  نَـامَ  (or slept) عَـنْ  حِـزْبِـهِ  (during the time he usually performs his portion) مِنَ  اللَّيْلِ (of the Night Prayer [Tahajjud]),  فَـلَهُ صَـلاَةُ  ذَلِـكَ (he [the person who missed] these prayers can perform them), مَـا لَـمْ  يُـصَلِّي الصّبْحَ (as long as he hasn’t prayed the Ṣubḥ Prayer,

[5] وَبَعْدَ  الْـجُمُعَةِ (after Jumuʿah prayer) فِـى الْـمَـسْجِـدِ (in the masjid) فِـي  مُـصَلاَّهُ (in its prayer hall); وَهِيَ  لِلإمَامِ (and for the Imām), أَشَـدُّ  كَـرَاهِـيَةً (it is strongly dislike),

[6] and [7] وَقَبْلَ  الْـعِيدَيْنِ (praying before the two ʿIds) وَبَـعْدَهُـمَا (and praying after them), إِذَا صُـلِّيَا فِـي  الصَحْرَاءِ (if they are prayed in the desert),

[8] وَقَبْلَ  الصًّلاَةِ  الْـمَـغْرِبِ (before the Maghrib Prayer),

[9] وَبَـيـْنَ  الصَّلاَتَـيْـنِ (between the two prayers) لِـمَنْ  جَـمَعَ  بِـعَرَفَـةَ  وَمُزْدَلِفَة (for the one who joins together the prayers when on Mount ʿArafat or Muzdalifah), أَوْ  لِـمَطْرِ (or because of rain); وَتَـنَقُّلُ (while going from one place to another) لِـمَنْ  عَـلَيْْهِ  فَـزْضٌ (by the person who has to perform an obligatory prayer), خَـرَجَ  وَقْـتُهُ (when time for it has gone) أَوْ  ضَـاقَ (or is about to go out) [is also prohibited],

[10] وَصَـلاَةُ  الرَّجُـلِ (the prayer of the man), وَحْـدَهُ (praying alone) أَوْ  فِـي  جَـمَاعَـةٍ (or in congregation) مُخَالِفًا لِلإمَامِ (who is opposed to the Imām).

Click here to link to The First Foundational Principle [Pillar]: Shahaadah

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