Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 12 – (The Chapter About Al-ʿAṭf [The Conjoining Of Words])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَطْفِ

12 – (The Chapter About Al-ʿAṭf  [The Conjoining Of Words])

ʿArabic Text:

( وَحُرُوُفُ‏  الْعَطْفِ‏  عَشَرَةٌ‏  وَهِيَ‏ الْوَاوُ‏  وَالْفَاءُ‏  وَثُمَّ‏  وَأََوْ‏  وَأََمْ‏  وَإِِمَّا وَبَلْ‏  وَلاَ‏ وَلَــكِنْ‏  وَحَتَّى فِي‏ بَعْضِ‏ الـْمَوَاضِعِ‏  فَإِنْ‏  عَطَفْتَ‏  بِهَا عَلَى مَرْفُوعٍ‏  رَفَعْتَ‏  أَوْ‏  عَلَى مَنْصُوبٍ‏  نَصَبْتَ‏  أَوْ‏  عَلَى مَخْفُوضٍ‏  خَفَضْتَ‏  اَوْ‏  عَلَى مَجْزُومٍ‏  جَزَمْتَ‏  تَقُولُ‏  قَامَ‏  زَيْدٌ‏  وَعَمْرٌو وَرَأَيْتُ‏  زَيْدًا وَعَمْرًا وَمَرَرْتُ‏  بِزيْدٍ‏  وَعَمْرٍو وَزَيْدٌ‏  لَمْ‏  يَقُمْ‏  وَلَمْ‏  يَقْعُدْ‏ )‏

English Translation:

وَحُرُوُفُ‏ ‬الْعَطْــفِ‏ ‬(And the conjoining particles are) عَشَرَةٌ (ten): وَهِيَ (They are): الْوَاوُ (and), وَالْفَاءُ (and so), وَثُمَّ (then), وَأَوْ (or), وَأَمْ (or), وَإِمَّا (or), وَبَلْ (but rather / on the contrary), وَلاَ (nor), وَلَـــكِنْ (but), وَحتَّى (until), فِي‏ ‬بَعْضِ‏ ‬الـْمَوَاضِعِ‏ ‬(in some places).  ‏ ‬فَإِنْ‏ ‬عَطَفْتَ‏ ‬بِهَا (And so, when you conjoin [words] with them), عَلَى مَرْفُوعٍ‏ ‬رَفَعْتَ‏ ‬(you apply the rafʿ case to a word that has been [conjoined to] a word in the case of rafʿ) أَوْ (or) عَلَى مَنْصُوبٍ‏ ‬نَصَبْتَ (you apply the naṣb case to a word that has been [conjoined to] a word in the case of naṣb) أَوْ (or) عَلَى مَخْفُوضٍ‏ ‬خَفَضْتَ (you apply the khafḍ case to a word that has been [conjoined to] a word in the case of khafḍ أَوْ (or) عَلَى مَجْزُومٍ‏ ‬جَزَمْتَ (you apply the jazm case to a word that has been [conjoined to] a word in the case of jazm.

تَقُولُ (You say): قَامَ‏ ‬زَيْدٌ‏ ‬وَ‏ ‬عَمْرٌو (Zayd and ʿAmr stood) وَرَاَيْتُ‏ ‬زَيْدًا وَ‏ ‬عَمْرًا  and (I saw Zayd and ʿAmr) وَ‏ ‬مَرَرْتُ‏ ‬بِزيْدٍ‏ ‬وَ‏عَمْرٍو and (I passed by Zayd and ʿAmr) زَيْدٌ‏ ‬لَمْ‏ ‬يَقُمْ‏ ‬وَ‏ ‬لَمْ‏ ‬يَقْعُدْ and (Zayd did not stand and he did not sit).

Explanation in ʿArabic:

االعطف اتباع الثاني‏‮ ‬‬للاول بواسطة حرف من حروف العطف ان حروف العطف عشرة و هي‏‮ ‬‬الْوَاوُ‏‮  ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬ثُمَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬إِمَّا وَ‏‮ ‬‬بَلْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬لَكِنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬حَتَّى في‏‮ ‬‬بعض المواضع فان عطِفت بها على مرفوع او على منصوب او على مخفوض رفعت المعطوف او نصبته او خفضته فتقول‏‮  ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬العطف على المرفوع جَاَء زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو على المنصوب رَأيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا و على المخفوض مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٍو و كذلك ان عطفت بها على المجزوم جزمت نحو لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَقُمْ‏‮ ‬‬و‏‮ ‬‬يَقْعُدْ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وهكذا احكامها كلها‏‮  ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـعَطْفُ (The conjoining of words) is the joining of the second word to the first word (which immediately precedes it) by means of حَرْفٌ (a particle) from حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَطْفِ (the conjoining particles).  حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَطْفِ (The conjoining particles) are ten. They  are: الْـوَاوُ (and),  الْفَـــــاءُ (and so),  ثُـمَّ (then), ‏‮ ‬‬أَو(or),  أَمْ (or), إِمَّا (or), بَـلْ (but rather / on the contrary), لاَ (nor), لَــكِنْ (but) and حَـتَّى (until) in some places.  And so if you conjoin by them what is in the case of rafʿ, naṣb and khafḍ you put the conjoined word also in the case of rafʿ or naṣb or khafḍ. And so, you say في‏ العطف when (conjoining words) that  are in the case of rafʿ: جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَمْرُو (Zayd and ʿAmr came) and for what is in the case naṣb رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَعَمْرًا (I saw Zayd and ʿAmr) and for what is in the case of khafḍ مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْروٍ (I passed by Zayd and).  And it is like that if you conjoin by them (حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَطْفِ [the conjoining particles]) words in the case of jazm.  You put them in the case of jazm like when you say: زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬لَـمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَقُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَـمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَـقْعُدْ (Zayd didn’t stand and he didn’t sit) and similar are the rules for each of them.

(*note in ʿArabic)

إن حَتَّى لاَ‏‮ ‬‬تكون عاطفة إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬إذا أدخلت ما بعدها في‏‮ ‬‬حكم ما قبلها نحو أَكَـلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬السَّمَكَةَ‏‮ ‬‬حَتَّى رَأَسَهَا أي‏‮ ‬‬إن رَأَسَهَا ما كول أيضًا ونحو مَاتَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّاسُ‏‮ ‬‬حَتَّى الأَنْبِيَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬أي‏‮ ‬‬إن الأَنْبِيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الذين قد مَاتوا أيضًا وقد تكون‏‮ ‬‬غير عاطفة إذا لم تكن كذلك كما اذا خفضت الرّأس أو الأَنْبِيَاء بعدها و تكون حينئذ حرف جرّ‏‮ ‬‬بمعنى‏‮ “‬‬إِلى‏‮” ‬‬ويكون ما بعدها‏‮ ‬‬غير داخل في‏‮ ‬‬الحكم ما قبلها أي‏‮ ‬‬إن رأسها‏‮ ‬‬غير مأكول والأَنْبِيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬غير مِمَّنْ‏‮ ‬‬مات

(*note in English)

حتّى ([hattaa] – until) is not عَاطِف (a conjoining particle) unless it includes what comes after it in الْحُكْم (the decree) for what comes before it, (that is to say what has been decreed for the word preceding حَـتَّى [hattaa] must have also been decreed for the word that follows it) – like when you say: أَكِلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬السَّمَكَةَ‏‮ ‬‬حَـتَّى رَأَسَـهَآ –  (I ate the fish even its head – that is to say that its head was eaten also) and  مَــاتَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّاسُ‏‮ ‬‬حَتَّى الأَنْبِيَاءُ (The people died even the prophets – that is to say: the prophets died also). It is not a conjoining particle if it is not being used like this.  For example, if the word الرَّأْس which came after حَـتَّى was caused to be in the case of  khafḍ, in that case حَـتَّى will be a preposition with its meaning being إِلَـى (up to the time; until) and what comes after it is not included in the decree for what is coming before it – that is to say, that the head was not eaten and the prophets were not among those who died.

 

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Published in: on March 22, 2011 at 19:18  Leave a Comment  

Allah is the Walī of Those Who Believe



Allah is the Walī of Those Who Believe

Khuṭbah 
by 
Sheikh Muḥammad Saʿīd Ramaḍān Al-Būṭī

All praise is due to Allah[1], praise that complies with His blessings and compensates His abundance. Our Lord, for You is all praise as befits the majesty of Your countenance and the might of Your authority. O Allah, I cannot sufficiently enumerate praises upon You; You are as You have praised Yourself. I bear witness that there is no god but Allah alone and He has no partner, and I bear witness that Muḥammad is His slave and Messenger and His sincere and intimate friend, the best prophet that Allah sent to the entire world as a herald of glad tidings and admonition. O Allah, pray upon, give peace and give blessings upon our Sayyid[2] Muḥammad and upon the family of ourSayyid Muḥammad, prayers and peace that last inseparably until the Day of Judgement. I advise you and my sinning self to have fearful awareness of Allah the Exalted.

To proceed, dear slaves of Allah:

Recently, an āya from Allah’s Book, Mighty and Majestic caught my attention and held it for a long time, and it stirred up overflowing feelings of security, tranquillity, pride and joy, and it is the statement of Allah, the Glorified and Exalted:

“Allah is the Protector (Walī) of those who believe. He brings them out of the darkness into the light. But those who disbelieve have false gods as protectors. They take them from the light into the darkness.” [Al-Baqara 2:257]

Then, more feelings of joy entered my thoughts when I came across the other āya that confirms and increases the meaning of this āya that caught my attention, and it is the one in which Allah says:

“This is because Allah is the Protector of those who believe and because those who disbelieve have no protector.” [Muḥammad 47:11]

Therefore, I am Allah’s pampered slave, living under His shade. I am His slave, safe under His guardianship and care, because I am from amongst those who believe in Him and know Him as One, Unique, Eternal Lord. From Him is the beginning and to Him is the end. I certainly haven’t been abandoned in the earth. I am not an orphan nor have I been orphaned in the deserts of the world. Psychological problems will never ensnare me. The maladies of depression will never ensnare me. The traps of transgressors and the forces of evil will never catch me, because I am shaded by Allah’s protection, because I am from those of whom Allah has said:

“This is because Allah is the Protector of those who believe.” [Muḥammad 47:11]

Indeed – dear brothers – indeed overflowing joy entered my being and a spirit of pride overwhelmed my feelings. Me! Who am I?  I am Allah’s pampered slave, as I’ve told you, under His shade, and I believe that these feelings that entered my being when this āya in the Book of Allah, Mighty and Majestic, caught my attention, must inevitably enter the thoughts of each one of you. Each of you must be struck by this āya and made to reflect on it:

“Allah is the Protector (Walī) of those who believe. He brings them out of the darkness into the light.” [Al-Baqara 2:257]

This overflowing joy will undoubtedly enter you. You will inevitably feel the tranquillity that you have certainly not been abandoned in the earth. You are not orphans and you haven’t been orphaned in the deserts of the world. Indeed, neither psychological problems nor maladies of depression will ever ensnare you. Various psychological problems will never lead you to drugs and intoxicants, and other such things, because you are living under the shade of Allah’s protection. You are living under the shade of Allah’s guardianship:

“This is because Allah is the Protector of those who believe and because those who disbelieve have no protector.” [Muḥammad 47:11]

Once this joy has entered your being, each one of you must rejoice and recite this verse that Allah, Mighty and Majestic, has taught us when He addressed us, informing us:

“My Protector is Allah, who sent down the Book. He takes care of the righteous.” [Al-ʾAʿrāf 7:196]

Yes, yes my Lord:

“My Protector is Allah, who sent down the Book. He takes care of the righteous.” [Al-ʾAʿrāf 7:196]

Indeed I believe that these feelings should enter the thoughts of all Muslims. They should enter the being of the entire Islamic world, embodied by its people and its leaders, as long as we have been honoured by true faith in Allah, as long as we have been honoured by knowing that we are His owned slaves and that we are connected to this protection – His protection of us and His guardianship over us – that is because He is the Creator of the entire universe. That is because He is the administrator of the entire world. These feelings must enter the being of the entire Islamic world, wherever it is, and be embodied – as I have said – by its people and its leaders.

I am amazed, dear slaves of Allah, I am amazed at those who know Allah and know how they are under Allah’s protection and know how they are under Allah’s guardianship, yet they insist on falling down from the throne of Allah’s protection over them and submitting to the transgressors and the forces of evil, and then making themselves enslaved prisoners before them, enslaved prisoners of the transgressors. I am amazed at those who exchange Allah’s protection for the protection of the transgressors from amongst Allah’s slaves, Mighty and Majestic.

These forces of evil, which kick the Muslims around, left and right, right and left, play about with them as if they were playing with a ball; they proclaim democracy[3] and they call to it, and they threaten those who haven’t enjoined it upon themselves, and they do this as long as it is the vessel that they are able to ride in order to realise their interests, as long as it is the trustworthy servant that the forces of evil are able to herd towards their benefits and their stolen goods, for when the forces of evil see that democracy only serves its adherents and that democracy only guides its adherents towards the truth and they cling to it, and they turn away from falsehood and reject it,[4] see then how quickly the forces of evil turn and call for despotism and for the protection of despots, until the very last drop. Indeed it is not democracy or despotism, but rather special interests that the forces evil desire to make use of. The forces of evil desire to ride us like a vessel in order to realise their benefits and achieve their goals.

I am amazed at those who exchange Allah’s protection and shade and insist on falling from the throne of this divine protection, and then surrender to the prison of these transgressors, or surrender to the forces of evil, dear slaves of Allah.

As for us, we are Allah’s believing slaves, we believe in Him. We are His slaves who know Him as One Lord Who has no partner and we know that we are His slaves. We have pledged ourselves to Him to be upon that way that He has commanded us to be upon, with our utmost effort. We pledged ourselves to Him to turn away from everything that Allah, Mighty and Majestic, has warned us against, with our utmost effort.

Therefore, our Protector is Allah, Glorified and Exalted. This is our identity, dear slaves of Allah. This is our reality. We will never fall down from the throne of Allah’s protection over us. We will never turn our faces towards any direction in the world that entices us towards it for its own interests and its own benefits, desiring to control us and our rights. How? How can we exchange felicity for wretchedness? How can we leave the felicity that Allah, Mighty and Majestic, has assuaged us with and let ourselves drool at wretchedness? Who would drool at the wretchedness that is enticing him for its own purposes, dear slaves of Allah!

This is a summary, which I have mentioned to you, of the revelation of joy that entered my being, and I am saying the truth: when I recently came across this beloved āya, which is so dear to us:

“Allah is the Protector (Walī) of those who believe. He brings them out of the darkness into the light.” [Al-Baqara 2:257]

Indeed I say to you in truth, bring glad tidings, and I say to myself: as long as we live within Allah’s shade, Mighty and Majestic, as long as we are proud of Allah’s protection over us, as long as we are truthful in our pledge to Allah, Mighty and Majestic, that we will never take anyone besides Him as a protector, then I give myself and you the glad tidings that security will never desert us, that tranquillity will remain inseparable from us and that the joy of felicity will remain within us. Who is it that doubts that when Allah’s protection, Glorified and Exalted, follows an Ummah, then this Ummah will achieve every kind of felicity?

Dear slaves of Allah, the last thing that I want to say to you is an answer to a question that may have entered the thoughts of many of you: do you think that these tribulations that keep coming from all around us, from the east of the earth and the west, will any of it reach us? I give you this answer: Have you heard the speech of Allah, Glorified and Exalted? Indeed, He responds to you, and it’s as if it were revealed yesterday. Indeed it is the answer that is contained with this good news for you:

“Those who believe and do not mix their faith with any wrongdoing, they are the ones who are safe; it is they who are guided.” [Al-Anʿām 6:82]

Have you heard? Have you reflected on this speech?

“Those who believe and do not mix their faith with any wrongdoing, they are the ones who are safe; it is they who are guided.”

Indeed I declare, in my name, in your name, in the name of our Ummah here in our Shām, that we are believers in Allah. We are confident that we will adhere to the covenant of Allah, Mighty and Majestic, as far as we are able. Therefore, security and safety will be our ally. Security and safety will never desert us. This is glad tidings from the Lord of all Creation to us.

“Those who believe and do not mix their faith with any wrongdoing, they are the ones who are safe; it is they who are guided.”

O Allah, indeed we call on You as our witness, that we are believers in You, so make all of us, O Allah – leaders and people – O Allah, make all of us from amongst “Those who believe and do not mix their faith with any wrongdoing” so that we can be safe and secure in this life and the next.

I say this statement of mine and I seek forgiveness from Allah the Most Great.

Translated by Mahdi Lock – Mahdi Lock’s Blog

Click here for: Khutbah in Arabic



[1] tn:This Khutbah was given on February 25th, 2011.
[2] tn: This word means master and is only used for human beings.
[3] tn: For more information on democracy, please have a look at this article which explains Plato’s position on democracy.  Plato, one of the fathers of western civilisation, enumerated five types of government, from the most desirable to the least desirable:
  • Aristocracy this is the best form of government, according to Plato, in which the ruler is a philosopher, someone whose soul has been educated through the contemplation of arts and the exercise of the intellect. Having studied philosophy, this ruler would know the true virtues and, therefore, he would be able to lead people towards wellness and prosperity. Since the ruler would be virtuous, he would not want to deceive and abuse the citizens;
  • Timocracy this is the form of government ruled by warriors in which all the political decisions aim to bring military power and status. Timocrats may seek virtues just as the aristocrats, but they also pursue power, which can lead them to wars and combats. Timocracy, according to Plato, is a kind of government that arises when aristocracy starts to degenerate;
  • Oligarchy this is the system of government that establishes a division between the rich and the poor. The rich ones, which are fewer, rule and the poor must subject. This, according to Plato, is a problem because rich people are not necessarily virtuous, and when the power is in the hands of non-virtuous people, the rich will attempt to become richer and the poor might become even poorer due to bad policy, generating revolutions;
  • Democracy democracy is the child of oligarchy. Since people cannot agree with the rich ruling and deceiving the poor, people start to believe that if they could choose the ruler, their interest would prevail. The poor are greater in numbers so they elect one of them to be in charge. However, since the masses aren’t educated to become virtuous or to exercise the intellect, they are not apt to make political decisions that prioritize their real needs;
  • Tyranny democracy naturally degenerates into tyranny and society becomes a total chaos in which there’s no rule, no priorities and no laws. Whoever is stronger takes charge and does as he pleases. Nobody is able to remove a tyrant man from the power, as there’s no law to be obeyed.
You will notice that democracy lies between oligarchy and tyranny, and it is effectively the oligarchy remaining firmly in control while giving the masses the impression that they have freedom of choice. In reality, they are easily taken advantage of because they are poorly educated; which would include being intellectually dependent and therefore incapable of making proper, meaningful decisions that would benefit them. Please see the post “Western Mass Education” for further details. For an article about how this does indeed work today, please read this article, in which the author says:
‘As Plato and Aristotle observed, the system allows the rich and powerful to manipulate the ill-informed and to influence policy to further their personal interests.’
As for tyranny, what Plato says is more or less a description of how Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party came into power in Germany. Norman Davies, in his seminal work Europe: A History, states:

‘Hitler’s democratic triumph exposed the true nature of democracy. Democracy has few values of its own: it is as good, or as bad, as the principles of the people who operate it. In the hands of liberal and tolerant people, it will produce a liberal and tolerant government; in the hands of cannibals, a government of cannibals. In Germany in 1933-44 it produced a Nazi government because the prevailing culture of Germany’s voters did not give priority to the exclusion of gangsters.’ (p.969)

Allah the Exalted has said: “Allah never changes a people’s state until they change what is in themselves.” [Ar-Raʿd 13:11]

The Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, said: “As you are, you will be ruled over.” (كما تكونوا يولى عليكم), as mentioned by Imam As-Suyūṭī in Al-Jāmiʿ As-aghīr.
For more details on authority and ruling in Islam, please see the series 13 Centuries of Islamic History.
[4] tn: i.e. allowing people to govern themselves, in whatever form of government,  may not suit their interests.

 

Published in: on March 16, 2011 at 01:13  Leave a Comment  

The Explanation of the Second Foundational Principle [Pillar] of Islam

The following discussion has been taken from the book الإعْـلاَمُ  بِـحُـدُودِ  قَـوَائِدِ  الإسْـلاَمِ ([Advice Concerning the Boundaries of the Foundational Principles [Pillars] of Islam]) by Qaadī ʿIyaad.

شَرْح الْقاعِـدَةِ  الثَّانِيَةِ

(The Explanation of the Second Foundational Principle [Pillar] of Islam)

وَهِيَ  الصَّلاَة (which is prayer)  وَهِيَ  عَلَى سِتَّةِ  أَقْسَامٍ (It has six divisions):

1 -فَـرضٌ  عَـلَى الأَعْـيَانِ  (The prayers that are placed as an obligation on the individual) – وَهِيَ (are): الصًّلَوَتُ  الْـخَـمْسَةُ (the five daily prayers), وَالْـجُـمُعَةُ (and the Friday Prayer) فَـرضُ  عَـيْنٍ (which is obligatory for the individual to perform) لِأَنَّهَا بَـدَلٌ  مِـنَ  الظَّهْـرِ (because it stands in the place of the Ḍhur prayer), وَلكِنْ  لَهَا أَحْكَامٌ  تُخَالِفُهَا (but it has its own rules).

2 -فَـرضٌ  عَـلَى الْـكِفَايَـةِ  (The prayer that is placed as an obligation on the entire community) وَهِـيَ  الصًّلاَةُ  الْـجَنَازَةِ (and it is the funeral prayer);

3 –  وَسُـنَّةٌ (and Sunnah Prayers) وَهِـيَ  عَشَْـرُ  الصَّلَوَاتٍ (which are also ten):

[1] –  صًّلاَةُ  الْوِتْرِ  (Witr Prayer),

[2] and [3] –  وَالْعِيدينِ  (The Two ʿId Prayers [ʿIdu-l-Fiṭr and Idu-l-Aḍ-ḥaa]),

[4] and [5] – وَكُـسُوفِ  الشَّسِ  وَالقَمَرِ (The Prayer for the Eclipse of the Sun and the Eclipse of the  Moon),

[6] – وَالإسْـتِسقَاءِ (The prayer for Rain),

[7] –  وَرَكَْْتَى الْفَجْرِ (The Two Rakʿahs of the Fajr Prayer), وَقِـيلَ  فَـضِيلَة (and it has been said it is a Meritorious Prayer),

[8] – وَرَكْعَتَى الطَّوَاف (The Two Rakʿahs of the Circumambulation of the Kaʿbah),

[9] – وَرَكْعَتَى الإحْرَامِ (The Two Rakʿahs at the Place of Iḥraam [Mīqātu-l-Iḥraam]),

[10] – وَسُجُودِ  الْـقُرْآنِ (The Prayers in the Eleven Places of Prostration in the Qur’an);

4 – وَفَـضِيلَةٌ (and The Meritorious Prayers); وَهِـيَ  عَشَْـرُ  أَيْـضًا (which are also ten):

[1] وَرَكْـعَتَان بَـعْدَ  الْـوُضُـوءِ (two rakʿahs after performing wuduu’),

[2] وَتَـحِيَّةُ  الْـمَسْجِدِ (the prayer that is performed upon entering the masjid), وَرَكْـعَتَان (it is two rakʿahs),

[3] وَقِـيَامِ  [ شَهْـر ] رَمَـضَانَ (standing for prayer during Ramaḍaan [The Taraawih Prayer]),

[4]  وَقِـيَامُ  اللَّيلِ   (night prayers [Tahajjud]),

[5] وَأَرْبَـعُ  رَكْعَاتٍ  قَـبْلَ  الظُّهْـرِ (four rakʿahs before Ḍhur prayer),

[6] وَإِثنَانِ  بَـعْدَهَـا (two rakʿah after Ḍhur prayer),  وَرُوِيَ  أَرْبَـعُ (while some transmission mention four),

[7] وَإِثنَانِ قَـبْلَ الْـعَصْرِ (two rakʿah before ʿAsr prayer), وَرُوِيَ  أَرْبَـعُ (while some transmission mention four), وَإِثنَانِ  بَـعْدَ  الْـمَغْرِبِ

[8] (two rakʿahs after Magrib prayer, وَرُوِيَ  سِـتٌّ (while some transmission mention six) وَرُوِيَ  عِشْـرُونَ (and others mention twenty),

[9] وَالصَّلاَةُ  الضُّحَى (The Ḍuḥaa Prayer) وَهِـيَ  ثَـمَانُ  رَكْـعَاتٍ (which consist of eight rakʿahs), وَاخْـتَلاَفَـتِ  الرِّوًايَـة فِيهَا (and the transmissions differ concerning it), مِنْ  اثْنَتَيْنِ  إِلَى اثْـنَتِي  عَشْـرَةَ (from two to twelve [rakʿahs]),

[10] وَإِحْـيَاءُ  مَـا بَـيـْنَ  الْـعِشَاءَيْـنِ (Giving attention of what is between the two evening prayers [Maghrib and ʿIshaa’] – [that is to say, the performance of two rakʿahs between them has also been mentioned]).

وَقَـدْ  عَـدَّتْ  هَـاـذِهِ  [ مِـنَ ] السُّنَـنِ (All of above-mentioned can be included among the Sunnah prayers) أَيْـضًا (as well); وَتَـطَوُّعٌ (and a voluntary prayers) كُـلُّ  صَـلاَةٍ (is every prayer) تُـنُقِّلَ بِـهَا  (which has designated for it)  فِي  الأَوْقَاتِ  (times) الَّتِي  أُيِحَتِ  الصَّلاَةُ  فِيهَا (for which the [performance of the] prayer is suggested).

5 -يَـخْتَصُّ  بِـلأَسْـبَابِ  (The Prayers That Have Special Reasons for Their Performance); وَهِـيَ  عَشَْـرُ  أَيْـضًا (which are also ten):

[1] and [2] الصَّلاَةُ  عِـنْدَ  الْـخُـرُوجِ  إِلَى السَّفَرِ (the prayer performed when starting out on a journey) وَعِـنْدَ  قُـدُومِ  مِـنْهَا (and the prayer performed upon arrival),

[3] وَصَّلاَةُ  الإسْـتِخَارَةِ (the prayer for Allah’s guidance in making a decision) رَكْـعَتَانِ  (which is two rakʿaks),

[4] وَصَّلاَةُ حَاجَةِ (the prayer of the one who has a need) رَكْـعَتَانِ (which is two rakʿaks),

[5] وَصَّلاَةُ  تَسْـبِيحِ (the prayer for glorification of Allah), أَرْبَـعُ (which is four rakʿaks),

[6] وَرَكْـعَتَانِ  بَيْـنَ  الأَذَانِ  وَالإقَامَةِ (two rakʿahs performed between the adhān and the iqāmah),

[7] وَرَكْـعَتَانِ  لِـمَنْ  قُـرِّبَ  لِـلْقَتْلِ (two rakʿahs of the one who is about to be killed),

[8] وَرَكْـعَتَانِ  قَـبْلَ  الدُّعَـاءِ (two rakʿahs before the supplication [of repentance from the being on the verge of sin or unlawful action]),

[9] وَرَكْـعَتَانِ  عِـنْدَ  التَّوْبَـةِ  مِنَ  الذَّنْبِ (two rakʿaks after repenting from a sinful action) وَالاسْـتِغٌفَارِ مِـنْهُ (seeking forgiveness for it),

[10]  وَأَرْبَـعُ  رَكْـعَاتٍ (four rakʿahs) بَـعْدَ الزَّوَالِ (after the setting of the sun).

6 – مَـمْنُوعٌ (The Prohibited Prayers); وَهِـيَ  عَشَْـرُ  أَيْـضًا (which are also ten):

[1] عِـنْدَ  طُـلُوعِ  الشَّمْسِ (during the rising of the sun) وعِـنْدَ  غُـرُوبِـهَا (and the setting of it), إِلاَّ لِـمَنْ  تََذَكَّرَ  فَرْضًا (except for the one who remembers an obligatory prayer) أَوْ  نَامَ  عَنْهَا (or was asleep during the time of the prayer) أَوْ  لَـزِمَـهُ  قَـضَاؤُهُ (or he has to perform it [because the time of the prayer has passed]),

[2] وَالصَّلاَة بَـعْدَ  الصّبْحِ   (praying after Ṣubḥ Prayer) حَـتَّى تَشْرِقَ  الشَّمْسُ  (until the sun has fully risen),

[3] بَـعْدَ  الْـعَصْرِ (or after ʿAsr Prayer) حَـتَّى تُغِيبَ (until the sun has disappeared),

[4] وَبَعْدَ  طُـلُوعِ  الْفَجْرِ (after dawn has come in), إِلاَّ  رَكْـعَتَى الْفَجْـرِ   (except for the two rakʿahs of  the Fajr Prayer [Dawn Prayer]), والصّبْحِ (the two rakʿahs Ṣubḥ Prayer), أَوْ  مَـنْ  تَـرَكَ الْـوِتْـرِ (or the one who didn’t perform the Witr prayer) أَوْ  نَـامَ  (or slept) عَـنْ  حِـزْبِـهِ  (during the time he usually performs his portion) مِنَ  اللَّيْلِ (of the Night Prayer [Tahajjud]),  فَـلَهُ صَـلاَةُ  ذَلِـكَ (he [the person who missed] these prayers can perform them), مَـا لَـمْ  يُـصَلِّي الصّبْحَ (as long as he hasn’t prayed the Ṣubḥ Prayer,

[5] وَبَعْدَ  الْـجُمُعَةِ (after Jumuʿah prayer) فِـى الْـمَـسْجِـدِ (in the masjid) فِـي  مُـصَلاَّهُ (in its prayer hall); وَهِيَ  لِلإمَامِ (and for the Imām), أَشَـدُّ  كَـرَاهِـيَةً (it is strongly dislike),

[6] and [7] وَقَبْلَ  الْـعِيدَيْنِ (praying before the two ʿIds) وَبَـعْدَهُـمَا (and praying after them), إِذَا صُـلِّيَا فِـي  الصَحْرَاءِ (if they are prayed in the desert),

[8] وَقَبْلَ  الصًّلاَةِ  الْـمَـغْرِبِ (before the Maghrib Prayer),

[9] وَبَـيـْنَ  الصَّلاَتَـيْـنِ (between the two prayers) لِـمَنْ  جَـمَعَ  بِـعَرَفَـةَ  وَمُزْدَلِفَة (for the one who joins together the prayers when on Mount ʿArafat or Muzdalifah), أَوْ  لِـمَطْرِ (or because of rain); وَتَـنَقُّلُ (while going from one place to another) لِـمَنْ  عَـلَيْْهِ  فَـزْضٌ (by the person who has to perform an obligatory prayer), خَـرَجَ  وَقْـتُهُ (when time for it has gone) أَوْ  ضَـاقَ (or is about to go out) [is also prohibited],

[10] وَصَـلاَةُ  الرَّجُـلِ (the prayer of the man), وَحْـدَهُ (praying alone) أَوْ  فِـي  جَـمَاعَـةٍ (or in congregation) مُخَالِفًا لِلإمَامِ (who is opposed to the Imām).

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Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 11 – (The Chapter About An-Naʿt [The Adjective])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬النَّعْتِ

11 – (The Chapter About An-Naʿt [The Adjective])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬النَّعْتُ‏‮ ‬‬تَابِعٌ‏‮ ‬‬لِلْمَنْعُوتِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬رَفْعِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَنَصْبِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَفْضِهِ‏‮  ‬‬وَتَعْرِيفِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَنْكِيرِهِ‏‮ ‬‬تَقُولُ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬العَاقِلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَرَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا الْعَاقِلَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَاقِلِ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

النّعت  تَابِعٌ‏‮ ‬‬لـِ (The adjective agrees with) الـْمَنْعُوت (the noun being described) فِي‏‮ ‬‬رَفْعِهِ (in its rafʿ case) وَنَصْبِهِ (and in its naṣb case) خَفْضِهِ (and in its khafḍ case) وَتَعْرِيفهِ (and in its definiteness) وَتَنْكِِـرهِ (and in its indefiniteness). ‏‮ ‬‬تَقُولُ(You say): قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَاقِلُ (The intelligent Zayd stood) وَرَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا الْعَاقِلَ (and I saw the intelligent Zayd) وَمَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَاقِلِ (and I passed by the intelligent Zayd).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

النعت تابع‏‮ ‬‬يدلّ‏‮ ‬‬على صفة من صفات منعوته وهو‏‮ ‬‬يتبع الـمنعوت في‏‮ ‬‬رفعه إن كان‏‮  ‬‬مرفوعًا وفي‏‮ ‬‬نصبه إن كان منصوبًا وفي‏‮ ‬‬خفضه إن كان مخفوضًا وفي‏‮ ‬‬تعريفه إن كان مَعْرِفَةً‏‮  ‬‬وفي‏‮ ‬‬تنكيره إن كان نكرة مثال ذلك في‏‮ ‬‬الرفع جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَاقِلُ‏‮ ‬‬وفي‏‮ ‬‬النّصب رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا الْعَاقِلَ‏‮  ‬‬وفي‏‮ ‬‬الخفض مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيدٍ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَاقِلِ‏‮ ‬‬ومثل ذلك جَاءَنِي‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬مَومِنٌ‏‮ ‬‬وفي‏‮ ‬‬النّصب أَكْرَمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلاً‏‮ ‬‬مُومِنًا ومَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬ِ‏‮ ‬‬بِرَجُلٍ‏‮ ‬‬مُومِنٍ‏‮  ‬‬فالعاقل ومومن نعت لزيد ورجل‏‮ ‬‬يتبعانهما في‏‮ ‬‬إعرابهما رفعًا ونصبًا وخفضًا والعاقل تابع لزيد في‏‮ ‬‬تعريفه ومومن تابع لرجل في‏‮ ‬‬تنكيره وقس على ذلك‏‮ ‬

Explanation of Text in English:

النَّعْتُ (the adjective) تَابِعٌ (is an appositive) which demonstrates صِفَــةٌ (a characteristic) from the صِفَاتٌ (characteristics) of مَنْعُوتِهِ (the noun it characterizes).  It follows the الْـمَنْعُوت (the characterized noun) in its  rafʿ case, if it is in the case of rafʿ, and in its naṣb case if it is in the case of naṣb, and in its khafḍ if it is in the case of khafḍ, and in its definiteness if it is definite,  and in its indefiniteness if it is  indefinite.   The example of this in the case of raf’ is: جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَاقِلُ (The intelligent Zayd has come);‏‮ ‬‬and in the case of naṣb: رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا الْعَاقِلَ (I saw the intelligent  Zayd);  `and  in  the  case  of   khafḍ:    مَـــرَرْتُ بِزَيــــــدٍ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَــــاقِلِ (I passed by the intelligent Zayd).  And similar to these you say:  جَاءَنِي‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬مَومِنٌ (a believing man came to me) in the case of rafʿ, and in the case of naṣb: أَكْرَمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلاً‏‮ ‬‬مُومِنًا (I honored a believing man) and in the case of khafḍ: مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِرَجُلٍ‏‮ ‬‬مُومِنٍ (I passed by a believing man) and so الْعَاقِل and مُومِن are attributes of زَيْدٍ and رَجُلٌ which agree with them in their iʿraab, in the case of rafʿ, naṣb and khafḍ and الْعَاقِل agrees with زَيْد  in its definiteness  and  مُومِـن  agrees  with رَجُل  in  its  indefiniteness and so forth.

(*note in ʿArabic)

التّوابع هي‏‮ ‬‬كل ثان تبع ما قبله في‏‮ ‬‬إعرابه وهي‏‮ ‬‬أربعة النّعت والعطف والتوكيد والبدل

(*note in English)

التَّوَابِعُ (The appositives) are every second noun which agrees with what comes before it in its iʿraab.  They are four (kinds): النَّعْتُ (the descriptive word),‏‮ ‬‬الْعَطْفُ (the conjoining word , التَّوْكِيدُ (the emphasizing word), and الْبدَلُ (the substitute word).

ʿArabic Text:

‮(‬‬وَالـْمَعْرِفَةُ‏‮ ‬‬خَمْسَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشَيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضْمَرُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنَا وَأَنْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَلَمُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَكَّةَ‏‮ ‬‬وَالإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُبْهَمُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬هَذَا وَهَذِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهَؤُلاَءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الِذي‏‮ ‬‬فِيهِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَلِفُ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللاَّمُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬الْغُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا أُضِيفَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَى وَاحِدٍ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬هَذِهِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَرْبَعَةِ‏‮)‬

English Translation:

وَالْـمُعْرِفَةُ (And the definite noun is) خَمْسَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشَيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬(five things): الْـمُضْمَرُ (the pronoun) – نَحْوُ (like) أَنَا (I) وَأَنْتَ and (you)‏‮ ‬‬وَالإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَلَمُ (and the proper noun) – نَحْوُ (like): زَيْدٌ (Zayd) وَمَكَّة and (Makkah) وَالإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُبْهَمُ (and the demonstrative pronoun) – نَحْوُ  (like): هَذَا (this – masc.), وَهَذِهِ and (this – fem.) وَهَؤُلاَءِ and (these – masc. & fem. pl.) وَالإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الِذي‏‮ ‬‬فِيهِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَلِفُ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَمُ (and the definite noun to which اَلْ has been prefixed) – نَحْوُ (like): الرَّجُلُ (the man) وَالْغُلاَمُ and (the servant)وَمَا أُضِيفَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَى (and that which has been constructed to) وَاحِدٍ‏‮ ‬‬(one) مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬هَذِهِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَرْبَعَةِ (of these four [above mentioned kinds]).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الـمَعْرِفَة هي‏‮ ‬‬ما وُضِعَ‏‮ ‬‬لِيدلّ‏‮ ‬‬علي‏‮ ‬‬شيء بعينه وأنواعها خمسة الأوّل‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬الإسم الـمضمر مثل أَنَا وأَنْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وهُوَ‏‮  ‬‬الثّاني‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬الإسم العلَم مثل زَْيد و فَاطِمَة ومَكَّة الثّالث‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬إسم الإشارة مثل هذا وهذه وهؤلآء الرّابع‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬الإسم الـمعرَّف بأَلْ‏‮ ‬‬مثل الفرس والفارس الخامس‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬ما أُضِيف الى كلٍ‏‮ ‬‬من هذه الأنواع الأربعة مثل‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِي‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وغُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬هذا وغُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَْجُلِ‏‮ ‬‬وهكذا النّكرة الـمضافة الى ما أُضِيف إلى أحد هذه الأنواع الأربعة نحو اِبْنُ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِي‏‮ ‬‬وابْنُ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وإلى آخره

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـمَعْرِفَةُ (the definite noun) is that word which has been constructed to indicate the individuality of a thing.  Its kind is five.  The first is  الْـمُضْمَــــرُ  (the pronoun) – like:  أَنَا وَأَنْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُوَ.  The second is الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬اْلعَلَمُ (the proper noun) – like زَيْد (Zayd) and فَاطِمَةُ (Faatimah) and  مَكَّةُ (Makkah).  The third is إِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الإِشَارَةِ (the demonstrative pronoun) – like: هَذَا وَهَذِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهَؤُلاَءِ.  The fourth is الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُعَرَّفُ‏‮ ‬‬بِال  (the definite noun prefixed with ال) like: الْفَرَسُ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَارِسُ.  The fifth is the noun which is joined to any of the other above mentioned four kinds  like: غُلاَمِي  (my servant)  and   غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (the servant of Zayd) and غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬هَذَا (the servant of this [one]) and غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلِ‏‮ ‬‬(the servant of the man). Thus the case is similar with the indefinite noun that has been constructed to a noun which has been joined to one of the four above mentioned  kinds: like اِبْنُ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِي ( The son of my servant) and اِبْنُ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (The son of the servant of Zayd) and so forth.

(*note in ʿArabic)

ن كل نكرة أُضِيفَت إلى أحد هذه الأنواع الأربعة تصير مَعْرِفَةً‏‮ ‬‬بإِضافتها إليها فغلام مثلاً‏‮ ‬‬نكِرة فإن أضفته إلى الضّمير فقلت‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِي‏‮ ‬‬صار معرفة و كذا إن اضفته إلى العَلَم الباقي‏‮

(*note in English)

Every indefinite noun that is constructed to one of the four kinds of definite nouns (mentioned above) becomes definite as a result of its construction to it (the definite noun).  And so غُلاَمٌ for example is indefinite, however if you construct it to the pronoun and say غُلاَمِي it becomes definite.  And similarly, if you construct it to the rest of the definite words (mentioned above it becomes definite).

ʿArabic Text:

‮(‬‬وَالنَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬كُلُّ‏‮ ‬‬اسْمٍ‏‮ ‬‬شَائِعٍ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬جِنْسِهِ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْتَصُّ‏‮  ‬‬بِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَاحِدٌ‏‮ ‬‬دُونَ‏‮ ‬‬ءَاخَرَ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَقْرِيبُهُ‏‮ ‬‬كُلُّ‏‮ ‬‬مَا صَلُحَ‏‮ ‬‬دُخُولُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَلِفِ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللاَّمِ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَيْهِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْفَرَسُ‏‮)‬

English Translation:

وَالنَّكِرَةُ (And the indefinite noun is) كُلُّ‏‮ ‬‬اسْمٍ‏‮ ‬‬شَائِعٍ (every common  noun) [wherein] ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬جِنْسِــهِ (in  its  class), ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْتَصّ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَاحِدٌ (one noun is not distinguishable) دُونَ‏‮ ‬‬آخَرَ (from another). وَتَقْرِيبُهُ (One of its characteristics is) [that]‏‮ ‬‬كُلُّ‏‮ ‬‬مَا صَلُحَ‏‮ ‬‬دُخُولُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَلِفِ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللاَّمِ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَيْهِ‏‮ ‬‬ (it is every noun for which the prefixing of اَلْ is allowed) – نَحْوُ (like when you say): الرَّجُلُ (the man) وَالْفَرَسُ (and t he mare).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن النّكرة هي‏‮ ‬‬كل اسم شائع في‏‮ ‬‬جنسه لا‏‮ ‬‬يختص به واحد دون‏‮ ‬‬غيره مثل رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬فإنه إسم شائع في‏‮ ‬‬جنس الرّجال لأنّه‏‮ ‬‬يطلق على كل فرد منهم و لا‏‮ ‬‬يختص به واحد دون‏‮ ‬‬غيره و علامة النكرة أن‏‮ ‬‬يصلح دخول أَلْ‏‮ ‬‬عليها نحو‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمٌ‏‮ ‬‬و فَرَسٌ‏‮ ‬‬فإنّهما‏‮ ‬‬يصلح دخول أَلْ‏‮ ‬‬عليهما فتقول الْغُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬و الْفَرَسُ‏‮ ‬

Explanation of Text in English:

النَّكِرَةِ (the indefinite noun) is every common noun among its kind.  One thing is not distinguished by it from another like رُجُلٌ.  And so it (رُجُلٌ) is a noun common to the species of men, because it applies to everyone of them while one is not distinguished from another.  The sign of the indefinite noun is that the prefixing of اَلْ is permissible for it – like (the words) غُلاَمٌ  and فَرَسٌ; the prefixing of اَلْ is permissible for them and so you say: الْغُلاَمُ and اَلْفَرَسُ.

Published in: on March 3, 2011 at 01:01  Leave a Comment  
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