التَّيَمُّمُ at-Tayammum (Dry ablution) from Matn al ʿIzziyyah

التَّيَمُّمُ at-Tayammum (Dry ablution) from Matn al ʿIzziyyah

التَّيَمُّمُ (Dry ablution) طَهَارَةٌ تُرابِيَّةٌ (is purification with earth). تَشْتَمِلُ عَلَى (It consists of)  مَسْحِ الْـوَجْهِ (wiping the face) وَالْـيَدَيْنِ (and the hands). وَسَـبَبُهُ (The reason for this),  فَقَدُ الْـمَاءِ حَـقِيقَةَ (is the failure to actually find water)  أَوْ مَـا هُـوَ فِـي حُـكْمِهِ (or the water has a ruling in regards to its use), مِثْلُ أَنْ يَكُونَ  مَعَهُ مِنَ الْـمَاءِ مَا لاَ يَكْفِيهِ (for example: the water isn’t enough) أَوْ مَاءٌ يُخَافُ بِـاسْـتِعْمَالِـهِ فَـوَاتَ نَـفْسِهِ (or it’s water, about which there is feared that its usability has passed),أَوْ  فَـوَاتَ مَـنْفَعَتٍ (or its usefulness has passed), أَوْ زِيَـادَةَ مَـرْضٍ (or it may increase an illness),  أَوْ تَأَخُّرَ بُرْءٍ (or delay recovery) أَوْ حَـدُوث مَـرضٍ (or can cause of illness).

يُـبَاحُ التَيَمُّمُ (Dry ablution is recommended)  مِـنَ الْـحَـدَثِ الأَصْـغَرِ وَلأَكْـبَرِ (for both small and large impurity) إِذَا وُجِدَ سَـبَبَهُ (when the reason for performing it is)  لِـلْمَرِيضِ (that the worshipper is  sick) وَالْـمُسَافِرِ (or he is traveling).  لِـكُلِّ صَـلاَةٍ  ([it can be performed] for every prayer).  وَلِـلصَّحيحِ الْـحَاضِـرِ ([It is also recommended] for the healthy person who is not traveling)  لِـصَلاَةِ الْـجَنَازَةِ ([who is] attending the funeral prayer),  إِذَا تَـعَيْـنَتْ (if it is incumbent upon him). وَلِـفَرْضِ (Iit is recommended] for obligatory prayers)  غََـيْرِ الْـجُـمُعَةِ (other than Jumuʿah prayer), بِشَـرْطِ (on the condition) أَنْ يَخْشَـى (that it is feared) فَـوَاتِ الْوَقتِ (that the time will pass) بِاسْتِعْمَالِ الْـمَاءِ (before water can be used). وَلاَيُعِيدُ (These prayers are not redone).  بِـخِلاَفَةِ الْـجَنَازَةِ (The exception, [where in tayammum may not be performed] is the funeral prayer)   إِذَا لَـمْ تَـتَعَيَّنْ (if it is not incumbent upon the person)  وَ فَـرْضِ الْـجُـمُعَةِ (and the obligatory Friday prayer)  وَلَـوْ خَشِـيَ فَـوَاتَـهُ (even if he fears the time for it will pass), وَسَـائِـرِ النَّوَافِـلِ (and the rest of supererogatory prayers)  سُـنَنِهَا (including those that are sunnah) وَمُسْـتَحَبَّاتِـهَا (and the ones that are meritorious).

وَيىَبْطَلُ التَّيَمَّمُ (Dry ablution becomes nullified)  بِـمَا يَبْطُلُ بِهِ الْوُضُوءُ (by the same things that nullify wuduu’),  وَبِـوُجُـودِ الْـمَاءِ (as well as the discovery of water)  قَـبْلَ الصَّلاَةِ (before the prayer), إِلاَّ أَنْ يَخْشَى فَوَاتِ الْوَقْتِ (unless the worshipper fears the time will pass) بِاسْتِعْمَالِهِ (by waiting to use water).

وإِذَا رَأَى الْـمَاءَ (If he sees water) وَهُوَ فِي الصَّلاَةِ (while he is praying), لَمْ تَبطُلْ صَلاَتِهِ (his prayer does not become nullified).

وَيَـتَيَمَّمُ بِـالصَّعِيدِ الطَّيِّبِ (The worshipper should perform dry ablution with pure earth). وَهُـوَ التَّرَابُ (It could be soil), وَالْـحَجَرُُ (stone) وَالرَّمْلُ (or sand)  وَجَمِيع أجْـزَاءِ الأَرْضِ (and all types of  natural earthly material)  مَــا دَامَـتْ عَـلَى هَـيْئَتَهَا لَمْ تُـغَيِّرْهَـا (as long as its condition has not been changed) صَـنْعَةُ آدَمِـيٍّ (by human fabrication) بِـطَبْخٍ (through [the process of] baking) وَنَـحْوِهِ (and what is similar). وَالتَّرَابُ أَفْضَلُ مِنْ غَيْرِهِ (Soil is better than the other things mentioned).

وَلاَيَتَيَمَّمُ (A worshipper should not perform dry ablution) عَلَى شَيْءٍ  نَـفِيسٍ (on precious things)  كَالْـذَهْـبِ وَالْـفِضَّةِ (like gold or silver) وَلاَ عَـلَى لِـبْدٍ  (nor on wool)  وَلاَ عَـلَى بِسَاطٍ (or carpets) وَلاَحَـصِيرٍ (or on mats) وَإِنْ كَـانَ فِـيهَا غُـبَارٌ (even if dust is on them).

وَيَـجُوزُ لِـلْمَرِيضِ (It is permissible for the sick person) إِذَا لَمْ نَـجِدْ (who can’t find) مَنْ يُنَاوِلُهُ تُرَابًا (someone to bring him earth) أَنْ يَـتَيَمَّمَ (to perform dry ablution) بِـالْـجِـدَارِ (on a wall)  الْـمَبْنِيِّ بِـطُوبِ النِّيءِ (which has been constructed from unbaked brick) أَوْ بِـالْـحِجَارَةِ (or stone) إِذَا كَانَتْ غَـيْرَ مَسْـتُورَةٍ (if it is not covered)  بِالْـجِيرِ (lime).

وَمَـنْ تَـيَمَّمَ (Whoever performs dry ablution)  عَـلى مَـوْضِـعِ نَـجَسٍ (on an unclean place) وَلَـمْ يَـعْلَمْ بِـنَجَاسَـتِهِ (while not knowing about its uncleanliness), أَعَادَ فِـي الْـوَقْـتِ (should repeat the [dry ablution] within the designated time [for the prayer]).

وَلاَ يُكْرَهُ التَّيَمَّمُ (Dry ablution is not disliked)  بِتُرَابٍ تُيُمَّمَ بِهِ (with earth that has been used to perform dry ablution) مَرَّةً أُخْرَى (more than once).

وَلاَ يَصِحُّ التَّيَمَّمُ (It is not sound to perform dry ablution) قَبْلَ دَخُولِ الْوَقْتِ  (before the time [of the specific prayer] comes in).

وَصِفَتُهُ (The characteristics of dry ablution are):  أَنْ يَنْوِيَ اسْتِبَاحَةَ الصَّلاَةِ (to intend to make the performance of prayer permissible)   وَيَـنْوِيَ مِـنَ الْـحَـدَثِ الأَكْـبَرِ (and to intend [to make prayer permissible] under the condition of major impurity),  إِنْ كَـانَ مُحْدِثًا حَدَثًا  أَكْبَرَ (when the impurity is major). ثُـمَّ يَـقُولُ (Then the worshipper says:) بِـسْمِ اللَّهِ (In the Name of Allah) وَيَسْـتَعْمِلُ الصَّعِيدَ (using pure earth).  يَـضْرِبُ عَـلَيهَا (He pats on it) بِـيَدَيْـهِ جَـمِيعًا (with both hands) ضَرْبَةً وَاحِدَةً (with one patting).  وإِنْ تَـعَلَّقَ بِـهِمَا شَـيْءٌ (If anything sticks to them [the hands]) (he should dust them)  نَـفْضًا خَـفِيفًا ( lightly),  وَيَـمْسَحُ بِـهَا وَجْـهَهُ (Then he wipes his face) ولِـحيَتَهُ (and beard). يَبْدَأُ مِنْ أَعْلاَهُ (He should start from the top [of the face]) إِلَـى أَنْ يَسْـتَوْفِيَهُ (until [he wipes over] it completely).  ثُمَّ يَضْرِبُ (Then the worshipper should pat [the the soil]) الأُخْرَى (another time) لِيَدَيْهِ (with his hands), ثُمَّ يَـمْسَحُ (then he should wipe) ظَاهِرَ يَدِهِ الْيُمْنَى (the outside of the right hand) بِيَدِهِ الْيُسْرَى (with his left hand) حَتََّى يَنْتَهِي إِلَى الْـمَرْفَقِ (until he finishes at the elbow)  ثُمَّ يَـمْسَحُ (then he wipes)  بَاطِنَهَا (over the inside of it [the of the right arm])  إِلى آخِرَ الأَصَـابِـعِ (to the tips of the fingers).  ثُمَّ يَـمْسَحُ (Then he should wipe) ظَاهِرَ الْيُسْـرَى (the outside of the left hand)  بِـيَدِهِ الْـيُمْنَى (with his right hand)  إِلَـى الْـمَرْفَقِ (to the elbow)  ثُـمَّ يَـمْسَحُ (Then he should wipe)  بَـاطِـنَهَا (over the inside of it [the of the left arm])  إِلى آخِرَ الأَصَابِعِ (to the tips of the fingers)  ويَجِبُ تَخْلِيلُ الأَصَابِعِ (and comb through the fingers is a necessity) وَنَـزْعُ الْـخَاتِـمِ (and [so is] removing the ring).  فَـإنْ لَـم يَـنْزِعْهُ (Not removing it)  لَـمْ يَجْزِهِ (is not permissible).

وَالضَّرْبَةُ الثَّانِيَّةُ (The second patting of the earth) سُنَّةٌ (is a prophetic practice)  وَكَدَا الـْمَسْحُ (and so is wiping) إلَـى الْـمَرْفَـقَيْـنِ (to the elbows).

[If the worshipper decides to]  وَلَوِ اقْـتَصَرَ عَـلَى ضَـرْبَـةٍ وَاحِـدَةٍ (limits [his dry ablution] to one patting of the earth)  لِـلْوَجْـهِ وَالْـيَدَينِ (for the face and the hands), أَجْـزَأَهُ (it’s permissible),  وَلَوِ اقْتَصَرَ (but if he limits it) فِي مَسْحِ يَدَيْهِ ( to wiping his hands) عَـلَى الْـكَوْعَينِ (up to his wrist) وَصَـلَّى (and prays), أَعَادَ فِي الْوَقْتِ (he should repeat [the dry ablution] within the time [of the specific prayer]).

فصْلٌ (Section)

إِذَا كَـانَ (If there is) فِي أَعْضَاءِ الْوُضُوءِ  (on one of the limbs which require wuduu’)  أَو غَيْرِهَا (or any other limb) جُرْحٌ (a wound), وَخَـافَ مِـنْ غَسْـلِِهِ (and the worshipper fears that washing it)  بِـالْـمَاءِ  (with water ) فَـوَاتَ نَـفْسِهِ (will cause his passing [death]) أَوْ مَـنْفَعَةٍ (or incapacity) أَوْ زِيَادَةَ مَرْضٍ (or an increase in sickness) أَؤ تَـأَخُّرَ بُرْءٍ (or delay recovery) أَؤْ حُدُوثُ مَرْضٍ (or the occurrence of sickness)  فَـإِنَّّـهُ يَـمْسَحُ عَـلَيْهِ (then the worshipper should wipe over it). فَـإِنْ لَـمْ يَسْتَطِعِ الْـمَسْحَ عَـلَيْهِ (If he is not able to wipe over it), مَسَحَ عَلَى الْـجَبِيرَةِ  (then he should wipe over the dressing)  وَهِـيَ الدَّوَاءُ (which is the medical treatment and dressing)  الَّذِي يَـجْعَلُ عَـلَيْهِ (which he placed it  [on a wound]). فَإِنْ لَـمْ يَسْـتَطِعِ الْـمَسْحَ عَـلَيْهَا  (If he is not able to wipe over that), مَسَحَ عَـلَى الْـعِصَابَةِ (then he should wipe over the bandage) وَلَوْ عَلَى الزَّائِدِ غَيْرِ الْـمُقَابِلِ (even if it is bigger than the size)  لِلْجَـرْحِ (of the wound)  كَـفَصْدِ (it is similar in regards to a surgically opened or punctured vein) وَعِـمَامَـةٍ  (and a turban) خِيفَ بِنَزْعِهَا (when its removal is feared). وَيُشْـتَرطُ (There is a condition) فِي الْـمَسْحِ الْـمَذْكُـورِ (in regards to the wiping that has been mentioned)  أنْ يَـكُونَ جُـلُّّ جَسَـدِهِ  صَـحًيحًًا (that whether the majority of the body is uninjured) أَوْ جَرِيحًا (or wounded), وَلاَ يَـتَضَرَّرُ (it [the wounded are] should not be harmed)  إِذَا غَسْـلَ الصَّحِيحَ (by washing the uninjured area), فَـإِنْ كَـانَ يَـتَضَرَّرُ بِغَسْلِ الصَّحِيحِ (and if it is harmed by washing it [the uninjured area]) أَوْ كَانَ الصَّحِيحُ قَلِيلًا جِدًّا (or the uninjured area is very small) كَـانَ لَـمْ يَـبْقَ إِلاَّ يَـدٌ أَوْ رِجْـلٌ (to the extent that only a hand or leg remained [uninjured]),  فَإِنَّهُ لاَ يَغْسِلُ الصَّحِيحَ (then the worshipper should not wash the sound area)  وَلاَ يَـمْسَحُ عَلَى الْـجَرِيحِ (nor should he wipe over the wounded area),  بَـلْ يَـنْتَقِلُ  (but rather he should resort) إِلَى التَّيَمُّمِ (to dry ablution).  وَإِذَا تَعَذَّرَ مَسْحُ الْـجَـرِيحِ (If wiping over the wound is impractical),  بِـحََيْثِ لاَ يُـمْكِنُ  (because it is not possible) وَضْعُ شَيْءٍ  عَلَيّهِ (to put any thing on the wound)  وَلاَ مُلاَقَاتَهُ (and it should not come in contact)  بِالْـمَاءِ (with water) فَإِنْ كَـانَ فِي مَوْضِـعِ التَّيَمُّمِ (and if in the area where dry ablution [would be performed]) وَلاَ يُـمْكِنُ أَيْـضًا (its also not possible)  بِـالتُّرَابِ (to used soil), تَـرَكَـهُ (the worshipper should leave it [the wound]) بِـلاَ مَـسْحٍ (without wiping) وَلا غَسْـلٍ  (or washing [it]).  وَغَسَـلَ مَـا سِـوَاهُ (He should wash what similar to it) وَإِنْ لَـمْ يَـكُنْ فِـي أَعْـضَاءِ التَّيَمُّمِ (if it is not one of limbs on which  dry ablution [would be performed]), فَـإِنَّهُ لاَ يَغْسِـلُ الصَّحِيحَ (then he should not wash the uninjured area) وَيَتَيَمَّمُ عَلَى الْـجَرِيحِ (and he should perform dry ablution on the wound) عَـلَى أَحَـدِ الأَقْـوَالِ الأَرْبَـعَةِ (according to one of four opinions),  وَإِذَا مَسَحَ عَلَى الْـجَبِيرَةِ (and if he wipes over the dressing)  ثُمَّ نَزَعَهَا لِدَوَاءٍ (and then removes it for [the application of ] medicine)  أَوْ غَـيْرِهِ (or something else), أَوْ سَـقَطَتْ (or falls off) بِـنَفْسِهَا (by itself) بَـطَلَ الْـمَسْحُ عَـلَيْهَا (the wiping which was performed on it becomes nullified)  وَإِذَا رَدَّهَا (and if the worshipers replaces it [the dressing]), فَـلاَ بُـدَّ (undoubted) مِـنَ الْـمَسْحِ ثَـانِـيًا (the wiping [should be repeated] a second time).

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