Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 10 – (The Chapter About Al – ʿAwaamil [The Governors] That Enter Upon The Subject And The Predicate

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَوَامِلِ‏‮ ‬‬الدَّاخِلَةِ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى الـْمُبْتَدَإِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـخَبَرِ

10 – (The  Chapter  About  Al – ʿAwaamil [The Governors] That Enter Upon The Subject And The Predicate)

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬ثَلاَثَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشْيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتُهَا وَإِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتُهَا وَظَنَنْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتُهَا‏‮) ‬‬

English Translation:

وَهِيَ‏  ثَلاَثَةُ‏  أَشْيَاءَ‏ (And it is three things): كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَخْوَاتُهَا (kaana and its sisters), وَإِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَخْوَاتُهَا (and inna and its sisters) وَظَنَنْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَخْوَاتُهَا (and hanna and its sisters).

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬فَأَمَّا كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتُهَا فَإِنَّهَا تَرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمَ‏‮  ‬‬وَتَنْصِبُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَبَرَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَمْسَى وَأََصْبَحَ‏‮ ‬‬وََأََضْحَى وَظَلَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَبَاتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَصَارَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَيْسَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا زَالَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا اِنْفَكَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا فَتِئَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا بَرِحَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا دَامَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا تَصَرَّفَ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْهَا نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬كاَنَ‏‮ ‬‬وَيَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬وَكُنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَصْبَحَ‏‮ ‬‬وَيُصْبِحُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأََصْبَحْ‏‮ ‬‬تَقُولُ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدُ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمًا وَلَيْسَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو شَاخِصًا وَمَاأََشْبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

فَأَمَّا كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتُهَا (As  for  kaana  and  its  sisters) تَرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمَ (they cause the noun to be in the case of rafʿ) وَتَـنْصِبُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَبَرَ (and they cause the predicate to be in the case of naṣb). ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِي(And they are): كَانَ (he/it was), وَأَمْسَى and (he/it became), وَأَصْبَحَ and (he/it became), وَأَضْـحَى and (he/it became), وَظَلَّ and (he/it became), وَبَاتَ and (he/it became), وَصَارَ and (he/it became), وَلَيْسَ and (he/it is not), وَمَا زَالَ and (he/it has not ceased [he/it continues), وَمَا انْفَكَّ and (he/it did not  stop  doing), وَمَا فَتِئَ  and (he/it did not stop), وَمَا‏ بَرِحَ and (he/it did not stop), وَمَا دَامَ and (he/it continued). وَمَا تَـصَرَّفَ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْهَا (And what is derived from them)  –‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ like when you say: كَانَ (he/it was) وَيَكُونُ and (he/it is) وَكُنْ and (be [the command tense meaning “you (singular masculine) be”] ) وَأَصْبَحَ and (he became) وَيُصْبِحُ and (he becomes) وَأَصْـبِحْ and (become). تَقُولُ‏‮ ‬‬(You say): كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمًا (Zayd was standing) وَلَيْسَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو شَاخِصًآ and (ʿAmr is not leaving) وَمَاأََشْبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ (and what is similar to these examples).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

كان وأخواتها ترفع الـمبتدأ الَّذِي‮ ‬يُسَّمَى إسمها وتنصب الخبر الِّي‮ ‬يسّمى خبرها وهي‏‮ ‬‬ثلاثة عشر فعلاً‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَمْسَى وأََصْبَحَ‏‮ ‬‬وأََضْحَى وظَلَّ‏‮ ‬‬وبَاتَ‏‮ ‬‬وصَارَ‏‮ ‬‬ولَيْسَ‏‮ ‬‬ومَا زَالَ‏‮ ‬‬ومَا اِنْفَكَّ‏‮ ‬‬ومَا فَتِئَ‏‮ ‬‬ومَا بَرِحَ‏‮ ‬‬ومَا دَامَ‏‮ ‬‬ويُشترَط في‏‮ ‬‬زَالَ‏‮ ‬‬التي‏‮ ‬‬مضارعها‏‮ ‬‬يَزَالُ‏‮ ‬‬واِنْفَكَّ‏‮ ‬‬وفَتِئَ‏‮ ‬‬وبَرِحَ‏‮ ‬‬أن‏‮ ‬‬يتقّدمها نفي‏‮ ‬‬أو شبهه وهو النهي‏‮ ‬‬والاستفهام نحو مَا زَالَ‏‮ ‬‬ولاَ‏‮ ‬‬تَزَلْ‏‮ ‬‬وهَلْ‏‮ ‬‬تَزَالُ‏‮ ‬‬وقِس عليه اِِنفَكَّ‏‮ ‬‬وفَتِئَ‏‮ ‬‬وبَرِحَ‏‮ ‬‬وأمّا دَامَ‏‮ ‬‬فَيُشتَرط فيها أن‏‮ ‬‬يتقدّمها ما الـمـصدرية نحو مَا دَامَ‏‮ ‬‬و اُلـْحِق بكان كُلُّ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلٍ‏‮ ‬‬لا‏‮ ‬‬يستغني‏‮ ‬‬عن الخبر وهذه أمثلتها كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمًا أَمْسَى بَكْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬سَاهِرًا أصْبَحَ‏‮ ‬‬البَرْدُ‏‮ ‬‬شَدِيدًا أَضْحَى الْفَقِيهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَرِعًا ظَلَّ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو نَاسِكًا بَاتَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬سَاهِرًا صَارَ‏‮ ‬‬الطِّينُ‏‮ ‬‬إِبْرِيقًا لَيْسَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو زَاهِدًا مَا زَالَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحْمَدُ‏‮ ‬‬فَاضِلاً‏‮ ‬‬مَا اِنْفَكَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬نَاطِقًا مَا فَتِئَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو مُحِبّــًا مَا بَرِحَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِثْمُ‏‮ ‬‬مَكْرُوهًا لاَ‏‮ ‬‬أَصْحَبَكَ‏‮ ‬‬مَا دَامَ‏‮ ‬‬اللّهُ‏‮ ‬‬مَوْجُودًا وهكذا ما تصرَّف منها فإنّه‏‮ ‬‬يعمل عمَلَ‏‮ ‬‬مَاضِيها تقول في‏‮ ‬‬ما تصرّف من كان‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬مُحْسِنًا وكُنْ‏‮ ‬‬مُحِبّــًا وعَجِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَوْنِ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٍو صَدِيقًا وقِسْ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَيْهَا ما بقي‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَخْوَاتِهَا (kaana and its sisters) causes الْـمُبْتَدَأ (the subject) which is called إِِسْمُهَا (its noun) to be in the case of rafʿ and causes الْـخَبَر (the predicate) which is called خَبْرُهَـا (its predicate) to be in the case of naṣb. They are thirteen verbs: كَـانَ (he/it was), أَمْسَـى (he/it became), أَصْـبَحَ (he/it became), أَضْـحَى (he/it became), ظَـلَّ (he/it became), بَـاتَ (he/it became), صَارَ (he/it became), لَيْسَ (he/it is not), مَـا زَالَ (he/it has not ceased [he/it continues), مَـا إِنْـفَكَّ (he/it did not stop doing), مَـا فَـتِئَ (he/it did not stop), مَـا بَـرِحَ (he/it did not stop), مَـا دَامَ (he/it continued).

It has been made conditional for زَالَ which is conjugated in the present tense as يَزَالُ and فَتِئَ ,إِنْفَكَّ and بَرِحَ to be preceded by حَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬النَّفْي (a particle of negation) or what is similar to it like حَـرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬النَّهْـي (the particle of prohibition) and حَـرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِسْـتِفْهَام (the interrogative particle) – and so you say: مَـا زَالَ (he / it continued) and لاَ‏‮ ‬‬تَـزَالْ (do not stop / continue) and هَـلْ‏‮ ‬‬تَـزَالُ (is it still going on / are you [masc.] continuing / is she continuing) and it is like this with إِنْـفَكَّ and بَـرِحَ. As for دَامَ, it has been made conditional for it that مَا الـْمَصْدَرِيَّـة (the maa (مَا) that is used to introduce a clause that is equivalent to the infinitive) precedes it like when you say: مَا دَامَ (he / it did not ceased).

Every verb which is associated with كَـانَ must have a predicate and the example of these are: كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمًا  (Zayd was standing), أَمْسَى بَكْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬سَاهِرًا (Bakr became awake), أَصْـبَحَ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَرْدُ‏‮ ‬‬شَدِيدًا (the coldness became harsh),أَضْـــحَى الْفَقيـِـهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَرِعــــًا (the jurist became pious), ظَــلَّ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْــــرٌو نَـاسِكــــًا  (‘Amr  became  a  pious  man),  بَـــاتَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْــدٌ‏‮ ‬‬سـاهِرًا  (Zayd  stayed  awake  all night), صــــَـارَ‏‮ ‬‬طِـينُ‏‮ ‬‬إِبْـرِيقـًا (the clay became a jug [that  is  to say that it was made into a jug]), لَـيْسَ‏‮ ‬‬عَـمْرٌو زَاهِدًا (ʿAmr is not ascetic),

مَـا زَالَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحْمَدُ‏‮ ‬‬فَـاضِلاً (Ahmad continues to be kind), مَـا إِنْفَكَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬نَـاطِـقًا (Zayd continues to be / is still eloquent), مَا فَـتِئَ‏‮ ‬‬عَـمْرٌو مُـحِِِـّبًا (‘Amr continues to be / is still a friend), مَـا بَرِحَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِثْـمُ‏‮ ‬‬مَـكْرُوهًـا (sin continues to be / is still detestable), لاَ‏‮ ‬‬أَصْـحَبُـكَ‏‮ ‬‬مَـا دَامَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهُ‏‮ ‬‬مَـوْجُـودًا (I do not need you as a companion while Allah is present). And so it is like this with what has been derived from them and it functions like its past tense. You say for what has been derived from كــــَـانَ: يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيدٌ‏‮ ‬‬مُحْسِــنًا (Zayd is benevolent) and كُــنْ‏‮ ‬‬مُحِبّــًا (Be beloved) and عَجِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬مِن كَوْنِ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٍو صَدِيقًا ( I was amazed by the friendship of ‘Amr) and so forth with the rest of them.

ʿArabic Text:‏‮

‏‮(‬‬وَأَمَّا إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخَوَاتُهَا فَإِنَّهَا تَنْصِبُ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمَ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَرْفَعَ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَبَرَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَكِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَكَأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَعَلَّ‏‮ ‬‬تَقُولُ‏‮ ‬‬إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا قَائِمٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬لَيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا شَاخِصٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا أَشْبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَعَنَى إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬لِلتَّوْكِيدِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَكِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬لِلاِسْتِدْرَاكِ‏‮  ‬‬وَكَأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬لِلتَّشْبِيهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬لِلتَّمَنِّي‏‮ ‬‬وَلَعَلَّ‏‮ ‬‬لِلتَّرَجِّي‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّوَقُّعِ‏‮) ‬‬

English Translation:

إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا (And inna and its sisters) فَإِنَّهَا تَنْصِبُ‏  الإِسْمَ (they cause the noun to be in the case of naṣb) وَتَرْفَعُ‏  الـْخَبَرَ (and they cause the predicate to be in the case of rafʿ) وَهِـيَ‏‮ ‬‬(and they are): إِنَّ (verily, that), وَأَنَّ and (that), وَلَكِنَّ and (but), وَكَأَنَّ and (as if), وَلَيْتَ and (if only…) وَلَعَلَّ and (perhaps). تَقُولُ‏ (You say): إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا قَائِمٌ (verily Zayd is standing),  وَلَيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا شَاخِصٌ and (if only ʿAmr was leaving) وَمَا أَشْبَهُ (and what is similar to these examples). وَمَعَنَى (and the purpose of) إنَّ‏‮ ‬‬and أَنَّ is) لِـلتَّوْكِيدِِ‏‮ ‬‬(for emphasis); وَلَكِنَّ (and lakinna is) لِلاِسْتِدْرَاكِ‏‮ ‬‬(for correction) وَكَأَنَّ (and ka-anna is) لِلتَّشْبِيهِ‏‮ ‬‬(for comparison) وَلَيْتَ (and layta)‏‮ ‬‬لِلتَّمَنِّي (is used to express a desire). وَلَعَلَّ (and laʿlla) لِلتَّرَجِّي‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّوَقُّعِ (is used to express hope and anticipation).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وإخواتها تعمل عكس عمل كان لأنها تنصب الـمبتدأ وترفع الخبر ويُسمَّيان إسمها وخبرها وهي‏‮ ‬‬ستـة أحرف إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَكِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَكَأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَعَلَّ‏‮ ‬‬وهذه أمثلتها إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا قَائِمٌ‏‮ . ‬‬بَلَغَنِي‏‮ ‬‬أَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬اَحْمَدَ‏‮ ‬‬نَاسِكٌ‏‮ . ‬‬عَمْرٌو حَكِيمٌ‏‮ ‬‬لاَكِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬ابْنَهُ‏‮ ‬‬جَاهِلٌ‏‮ . ‬‬كَأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا أَسَدٌ‏‮. ‬‬لَيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬جَهُولاً‏‮ ‬‬حَكِيمٌ‏‮ . ‬‬لَعَلَّ‏‮ ‬‬اللََّهَ‏‮ ‬‬غَافِرٌ‏‮ ‬‬وهكذا عملها في‏‮ ‬‬قولك إِنَّكَ‏‮ ‬‬فَاضِلٌ‏‮ ‬‬ولَيْتَكَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحْسِنٌ‏‮ ‬‬ولَعَلَّكَ‏‮ ‬‬قَادِمٌ‏‮ ‬‬وما أشبه ذلك‏‮  ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا  (Inna and its sisters) perform an opposite function to that of كَـانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأخْوَاتِهَا (Kaana and its sisters), because it causes its subject to be in the case of naṣb and its predicate to be in the case of rafʿ. Both of them [the subject and the predicate] are called إِسْمُهَا وَخَبْرُهَا (its noun and its predicate [that is to say: the noun and predicate of Inna and sisters]).  إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا (Inna and its sisters) are comprised of six particles. إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَكِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَكَأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَعَلَّ. Their examples (in  usage  are like when you say):    بَلَغَـــنِي‏‮ ‬‬أَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَحْمَدَ‏‮ ‬‬نَاسِكٌ (It has reached me that Ahmad is a pious man), عَمْرٌو حَكِيِمٌ‏‮ ‬‬لاَكِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬ابْنَهُ‏‮ ‬‬جَاهِلٌ (ʿAmr is wise but his son is ignorant), كَأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا أَسَدٌ (It is as if Zayd was lion), ‏‮ ‬‬لَيْـتَ‏‮ ‬‬جَهُولاً‏‮ ‬‬حَكِيــمٌ  (If  only the ignorant  were  wise),  لَعَـــلَّ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهَ‏‮ ‬‬غَافِرٌ (Perhaps Allah will forgive…) and like this, their  function is also like when you say: إِنَْكَ‏‮ ‬‬فَاضِلٌ (Surely you are kind), لَيْتَكَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحْسِنٌ (If only you were charitable) and لَعَلَّكَ‏‮ ‬‬قَادِمٌ (Perhaps you will arrive) and what is similar to these.

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَأَمَّا ظَنَنْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتُهَا فَإِنَّهَا تَنْصِبُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُبْتَدَأَ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْخَبَرَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى أَنَّهُمَا مَفْعُولاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬لَهَا وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬ظَنَنْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَحَسِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَخِلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَزَعَمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَرََأَيْتُ‏‮  ‬‬وَعَلِمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَوَجَدْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَاتَّخَذْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬جَعَلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَسَمِعْتُ‏‮ ‬‬تَقُولُ‏‮ ‬‬ظَنَنْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا مُنْطَلِقًا وَخِلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا شَاخِصًا وَمَا أَشْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَأَمَّا ظَنَنْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا (And as for hanantu [ḍhanna] and its sisters), فَإِنَّهَا تَنْصِبُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُبْتَدَأَ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْخَبَر (they cause the subject and the predicate to be in the case of naṣb) عَلَى أَنَّهُمَا (due to the fact that both of them [the subject and the predicate]) مَفْعُولاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬لَهَا (are objects for them [ḍhanna and its sisters]). ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬(They are): ظَنَنْتُ (I thought) وَحَسِبْتُ and (I thought)‏‮ ‬‬وَخِلْتُ  and (I thought) وَزَعَمْتُ and (I believed) وَرَأَيْتُ and (I believed) وَعَلِمْتُ and (I knew) وَجَدْتُ and (I found) وَاِتَّخَذْتُ and (I took) وَجَعَلْتُ and (I made) سَمِعْتُ and (I listened). You say: ظَنَنْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا مُنْطَلِقًا (I thought Zayd was leaving) وَحَسَبْتُ‏  عَمْرًا ذَاهِبًا and (I thought ʿAmr was going) وَخِلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا شَاخِصًا and (I thought ʿAmr was leaving) and it is similar with what resembles these examples.

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬ظَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وأخواتها تنصب الـمبتدأ والخبر على أنهما مفعولان لها وهي‏‮ ‬‬عشرة أفعال ظَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وحَسَبَ‏‮ ‬‬وخَالَ‏‮ ‬‬وزَعَمَ‏‮ ‬‬ورَأَى وعَلِمَ‏‮ ‬‬ووَجَدَ‏‮ ‬‬واتَّخَذَ‏‮ ‬‬وجَعَلَ‏‮ ‬‬وسَمِعَ‏‮ ‬‬وما في‏‮ ‬‬معناها وهذه أمثلتها ظَنَنْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيدًا قَائِمًا‏‮ . ‬‬حَسِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا ذَاهِبًا‏‮ . ‬‬خِلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬اَجْمَدَ‏‮ ‬‬صَدِيقًا‏‮ . ‬‬زَعَمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬صِدْقَكَ‏‮ ‬‬رَاجِحًا‏‮ . ‬‬رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا مَاشِِيًا‏‮ . ‬‬عَلِمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهَ‏‮ ‬‬رَاحِمًا  ‏‮. ‬‬وَجَدْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا مُحْسِنًا‏‮ . ‬‬اِتَّخَذْتُ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهَ‏‮ ‬‬مُعيِنًا‏‮ . ‬‬جَعَلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الطِينَ‏‮ ‬‬اِبْرِيقًا‏‮ . ‬‬سَمِعْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّاعِرَ‏‮ ‬‬مُنْشِدًا وهكذا ما تصرَّف منها فإنَّه‏‮ ‬‬يعمل عمل ماضِيها تقول في‏‮ ‬‬ما تصرّف من ظَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَظُنُّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا صَادِقًا وَظُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬الأَمْرَصَالِحًآ وأَنَا ظَانُّ‏‮ ‬‬بَكْرًا ذَاهِبًا وعَجِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬ظَنِّكَ‏‮ ‬‬زيْدًا قَائِمًا وعََمْرٌو مَظْنُونٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَبُوهُ‏‮ ‬‬نَائِمًا وقس على ذلك ما اَشْبَهَهُ

Explanation of Text in English:

ظَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا (ḍhanantu [ḍhanna] and its sisters) cause the subject and the predicate to be in the case of naṣb due to the fact that they (the subject and the predicate) are direct and indirect objects of them (ظَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا)  (that is to say: in the same sentence the subject and  the predicate  are  objects  of  ظَنَنْــتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَخْوَاتِــهَا.  ظَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا include ten verbs: ظَنَّ (He thought), حَسِبَ (He thought), خَالَ (He thought), زَعَمَ (He believed), رَأَى (He believed), عَلِمَ (He knew), وَجَدَ (He found), اِتَّخَذَ (He took), جَعَلَ (He made), سَمِع (He listened) and those verbs which have similar meaning.  These are their examples: ظَنَنْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيدًا قَائِمًا (I thought Zayd was standing), حَسِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا ذَاهِبًا (I thought ‘Amr was going), خِلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬أَحْمَدَ‏‮ ‬‬صَدِيقًا (I considered Ahmad a friend), زَعَمْت صِدْقَكَ‏‮ ‬‬رَاجِحًا (I believed your truthfulness is more acceptable), رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا مَاشِيًا (I saw Zayd walking), عَلِمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهَ‏‮ ‬‬رَاحِمًا (I know Allah is Merciful), وَجَدْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا مُحْسِنًا (I found Zayd to be benevolent), اتَّخَذْتُ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهَ‏‮ ‬‬مُعِينًا (I took Allah as a helper),جَعَلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الطِّينَ‏‮ ‬‬إِبْرِيقًا (I made the clay into a jug) and سَمِعْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّاعِرَ‏‮ ‬‬مُنْشِدًا (I heard that the poet is a singer) and it is similar to this for what is derived from them.  They function in accord with their past tense.  And so you say in what has been derived from dhanna: أَظُنُّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا صَادِقًا (I believe Zayd is truthful), ظُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬الأَمْرَ‏‮ ‬‬صَالـِحًا  (deem the affair sound) أَنَا‏‮ ‬‬ظَانٌّ‏‮ ‬‬بَكْرًا ذَاهِبًا (I think Bakr is going)  عَجِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬ظَنِّكَ‏‮ ‬‬زيْدًا قَائِمًا  (I am surprised you thought Zayd was standing) and عََمْرٌو مَظْنُونٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَبُوهُ‏‮ ‬‬نَائِمًا (‘Amr thought his father was sleeping) and it is similar with what resembles these.

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Published in: on February 13, 2011 at 16:17  Leave a Comment  

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