Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 9 – (The Chapter About Al-Mubtada’ [The Subject] And Al-Khabr [The Predicate])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُبْتَدَإِ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‬الْخَبَرِ

9 – (The Chapter About Al-Mubtada’ [The Subject] And Al-Khabr [The Predicate])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬الـْمُبْتَدَأُ‏‮ ‬‬هَوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَرْفُوعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَارِي‏‮ ‬‬عَنِ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَوَامِلِ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّفْظِيَّةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْخَبَرُ‏‮ ‬‬هُـوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْـمَرْفُوعُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُسْنَدُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَيْهِ‏‮ ‬‬نَـحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَالزَّيْـدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالزَّيْدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمُونَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

الـْمُبْتَدَأُ (the subject) هَوَ (is) الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَرْفُوعُ (the noun in the case of rafʿ) الْعَارِي‏‮ ‬‬عَـنِ (which is void of) الْعَوَامِلُ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّفْطِيَّة (expressed governors)وَالْخَـبَر (while the predicate) هَـوَ (is) الإِسْـمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْـمَرْفُـوعُ (the noun in the case of rafʿ) الـْمُسْنَدُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَـيْهِ (which  is  traced back to it [الْـمُبْتَدَأ])

–  نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ (as  you would say): زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمٌ (Zayd is standing)  وَالزَّيْدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمَانِ and (the two Zayds are  standing وَالزَّيْدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمُونَ and (the Zayds [three or more] are standing).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

الـمبتدأ هو الإسم الـمرفوع العاري‏‮ ‬‬عن العوامل اللفظيّة والخبر هو الإسم الـمرفوع الـمسند إلى الـمبتدإ أي‏‮ ‬‬الـمنسوب إليه كقولك‏‮  ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمٌ‏‮ ‬‬والزَّيْدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالزَّيْدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وَما أشبه ذلك فَالإسم الـمنسوب إليه هو الـمبتدأ والـمنسوب هو الخبر

Explanation of Text in English:

الـْـمُبْتَدَأ (the subject) is the noun in the case of rafʿ which is ‏  العاري‏  عن الْعَوَامِـلُ‏  اللَّفْطِيَّة void of (expressed governors) and الـْخَبَر (the predicate) is the noun in the case of rafʿ which is traced back to  الْـمُبْتَدَأ (the subject) –  as you would say: زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَـائِـمٌ (Zayd is standing) and الزَّيْـدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِـمَان (The two Zayds are standing) and الزَّيْـدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬قَـائِـمُون (The three or more Zayds are standing) and what is similar to these examples As for الإِسْـمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْـمنْسُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَـيْهِ (the noun to which something is ascribed), it is الْـمُبْتَدَأ and الـْمَنْسُوبُ (the noun which has been ascribed), it is الْـخَبْر.

Arabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَالــْمُبْتَدَأُ‏‮ ‬‬قِسْمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬ظَاهِرٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَمُضْمَرٌ‏‮ ‬‬فَالظَّاهِرُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا تَقَدَّمَ‏‮ ‬‬ذِكْرُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـمُضْمَرُ‏‮ ‬‬إثْنَا عَشَرَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬أَنَا وَنَحْنُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنْتُمَا وَأَنْتُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنْتُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُمَا‏‮  ‬‬وَهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬أَنَا قَائِمٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَنَحْنُ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا أَشْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَالــْـمُبْتَدَأُ (And the subject) قِـسْمَانِ (is of two kinds) ظَـاهِرٌ (a clearly distinct noun) مُضْمَرٌ (a pronoun). فـَالظَّاهِرُ (And so the clearly distinct noun) مَا تَقَدَّمَ‏‮ ‬‬ذِكْـرُهُ (is that which has been mentioned previously) وَالْـمُضْمَرُ (and the pronouns) إثْنَا عَشَر (are twelve) – ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬(and they  are):

أَنَا وَنَحْنُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأنْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنْتُمَا وَأَتنْتُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنْتُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُو وَهِِِيَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُمَا وَهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُنَّ

نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏ (like when you say): أَنَا قَائِمٌ (I am standing) وَنَحْنُ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمُونَ (and We are standing) and what is similar to that.

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الـمبتدأ قسمان قسم ظاهر كقولك زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَالزَّيدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالزَّيدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وقسم مضمر وهو أربعة عشرضميرًا كقولك هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬وهُمَا وهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬وهُمَا وهُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وأَنْتَ‏‮  ‬‬وَأَنْتُمَا وأَنْتُم وأَنْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنْتُمَا وأَنْتُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنَا وَنَحْنُ‏‮ ‬‬وَمثال وقوعها مبتدأ قولك هَوَ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمٌ‏‮ ‬‬هُمَا قَائِمََانِ‏‮ ‬‬هُمْ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وقِسْ‏‮ ‬‬على هذا مَا بقي‏‮ ‬‬منها مذكَّرًا ومؤنثًا‏‮    ‬‬

الــمُـبْتَدَأُ (The subject) is of two kinds.  ظاهِـرُ (a clearly distinct noun)  – like when you say:  زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمُ and الزَيْدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمَان and الزَيْدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمُونَ.  Another kind is a pronoun of which there are fourteen – like when you say:

هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬وهُمَا وهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬وهُمَا وهُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وأَنْتَ‏‮  ‬‬وَأَنْتُمَا وأَنْتُم‏‮ ‬وأَنْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنْتُمَا وأَنْتُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنَا وَنَحْنُ‏‮ ‬‬

– like when you say: هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمٌ (He stood), ‏‮ ‬‬هُـمَا قَـائِمَانَ (They [The two of them] stood),  هُـمْ‏‮ ‬‬قَـائِـمُونَ (They stood [three or more males] and it is the same for the rest of the male and female forms of these pronouns .

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَالـْخَبْرُ‏‮ ‬‬قِسْمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬مُفْرَدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَغَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬مُفرَدٍ‏‮ ‬‬فَالـْمُفْرَدُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَغَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفْرَدِ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْبَعَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشْيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـجَارُّ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمَجَرُورُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالظَّرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَ‏‮ ‬‬فَاعِلِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُبْتَدَأُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَ‏‮ ‬‬خَبَرِهِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬وَزَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَزَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَبُوهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَزَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬جَارِيَتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ذَاهِبَةٌ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَالـْخَبْرُ (The predicate is) قِسْمَانِ‏ (of two kinds): مُفْرَدٌ (singular) ؤَغَـيْرُ‏  مُـفْردِ (and other than singular). ‏  فَالـْـمُـفْرَدُ (As for the singular), it is like when you say: زَيْدٌ‏ قَائِمٌ (Zayd is standing) غَـيْرُ‏  الْـمُفْرَدِ (and other than singular) أَرْبَـعَةُ‏  أَشْـيَاءَ (is four things): الـْـجَّارُ‏ وَ‏الـْمَجْـرُورُ  (the preposition and the object of the preposition), وَالظَّرْفُ (and the adverb),وَالْفِعْلُ‏  مَعَ‏  فَاعلِهِ (and the verb with its doer) and وَالـْـمُبْتَدَأ مَـعَ‏  خَبَرِهِ (and the subject with its predicate) like when you say: زَيْدٌ‏  فِي‏  الدَّارِ (Zayd is in the house) وَزَيْدٌ‏ عِنْدَكَ and (Zayd is with you) وَزَيْـدٌ‏  قَـامَ‏  أَبُوهُ and (Zayd’s [his] father stood) زَيْـدٌ‏ جَـارِيَـتُهُ‏  ذَاهِـبَةٌ and (Zayd [his] servant is going / Zayd’s servant is going).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الخبر قسمان أيضًا قسم مفرد كقولك زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬مُقْبِلٌ‏‮ ‬‬والزَيْدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬مُقْبِلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬والزَيْدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬مُقْبِلُونَ‏‮  ‬‬وقسم‏‮ ‬‬غير مفرد وهو أربعة أشياء أوّلها الجرّ‏‮ ‬‬والـمجرور كقولك زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬ثانيها الظّرف كقولك زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَكَ‏‮ ‬‬ثالثها الفعل مع فاعله كقولك زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَبُوه رابعها الـمبتدأ مع خبره كقولك زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬جَارِيَتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ذَاهِبَة

Explanation  in English:

الخبر (the predicate) is of two kinds‏‮ ‬‬also.  One kind consists of one word – like when you say: زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬مُقْبِلٌ (Zayd is coming) and الزَيْدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬مُقْبِلاَنِ (The two Zayds are coming) and الزَيْـدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬مُـقْبِلُونَ  (The Zayds [three or more] are coming) and another kind consists of more than one word and it is of four types.  The first of them is الـْجَـرُّ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَجْـرُورُ (the preposition and the object of the preposition) – as you would say: زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِـي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ (Zayd is in the house).  The second of them is الظَّرْف (the adverb) like when you say: زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عِـنْدَكَ (Zayd is with you).  The third of them is الْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَ‏‮ ‬‬فَاعِلِهِ (the verb along with its doer) like when you say: زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَبُوهُ (Zayd – his father stood, [that is to say: Zayd’s father stood]).   The fourth of them is الـْمُبْتَدَأ مَعَ‏‮ ‬‬خَبَرِه (the subject with its predicate) like when you say:   زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬جَارِيَتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ذَاهِبَةٌ (Zayd – his servant is going [that is to say: Zayd’s servant is going]).

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Published in: on January 29, 2011 at 16:49  Leave a Comment  

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