تُـفَاصِيلُ شهادة (Shahaadah in Detail): Entails Forty Matters of ʿAqīdah (Belief)

An Explanation of the First Foundational Principle [Pillar] of Islam

تُـفَاصِيلُ شهادة (Shahaadah in Detail): Entails Forty Matters of ʿAqīdah (Belief)

The following things are matters of belief (ʿaqiidah) that have been taken from the book الإعْـلاَمُ‮ ‬بِـحُـدُودِ‮ ‬قَـوَائِدِ‮ ‬الإسْـلاَمِ ([Advice Concerning the Rules of the Foundational Principles of Islam]) by Qaadī ʿIyaad.  These foundational principles which are the basis of faith should be known by anyone who wants to become a Muslim, by the new Muslim and the one who has been a Muslim for a while and by the one who has been a Muslim since birth.

The first and most important foundational principle (قاعِدَة) of Islam is the declaration of الشهادتين (the two shahaadahs [1. There is no god in existence besides Allah 2. Prophet Muhammad is His last Messenger]). There is no doubt that what is linked to these two shahaadahs is belief in them both with ones heart and the expression of them both with ones tongue.

Qaadī ʿIyaad said,

تُـفَاصِيلُهَا أَرْبَعْونَ  عَـقِيدَةً (It [Shahaadah] in detail consists of forty matters of belief):

عَشَرٌ‮ ‬يُعْتَقَدُ‮ ‬وُجُـوبُـهَا (Ten are [matters of belief] which are necessary for the believer to believe), وَعَشَـرَ‮ ‬يُـعْتَقَدُ‮ ‬اسْـتِحَالَتُهَا (ten are [matters of belief] which the believer must believe are impossible),  وَعَشَـرَ‮ ‬يَـتَحَقَّقُ‮ ‬وُجُـودُهَـا (ten are [matters of belief] which have been confirmed), وَعَشَـرَ مُـتَّيَقَنُ وُرُودُهَا (and ten are [matters of belief] which are certain to occur.) ‮.

 

فَالْعَشَرُ  الْوَاجِبَاتُ (The ten things that are necessary to believe [about Allah are]):

أَنْ‮ ‬يُعْتَقَدَ‮ ‬أَنَّ‮ ‬اللّهَ‮ ‬وَاحِدٌ‮ ‬غَـيْرُ‮ ‬مُـنْقَسِمٍ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬ذَاتِـهِ‮ ‬-‮ ‬1 (to believe that Allah is One, Undivided in His essence);

2 – وَأَنَّهُ  لَـيْسَ  مَـعَهُ  ثَـانٍ  فِـي  إِلاَهِـيَتِهِ (and that there is no partner [other deity]) with Him in His Divine Existence;

3 –   وَأَنَّهُ  حَيٌّ  قَيُّومٌ (and that He is Ever-living, Self Subsisting);

4 – لاَ‮ ‬تَـأَخُذُهُ‮ ‬سِتَةٌ‮ ‬وَلا نَوْمٌ‮ ‬ (neither slumber nor sleep overcome Him);

5 –  وَأَنَّهُ  إِلَـاـهُ  كُلِّ  شَيْءٍ  وخَالِقُهُ (and that He is the God of everything and its Creator);

6 – وَأَنَّهُ  عَلَى كُلِّ  شَيْءٍ  قَدِيرٌ (and that He has power over everything);

7 – أَنَّهُ  عَالِمٌ  بِـمَا ظَهَرَ  وَمَا بَطَنَ (and that He knows what is seen and what is hidden):

((… لاَ  يَعْزُبُ  عَنْ  مِثْقَالُ  ذَرَّةٍ  فِي  السَّمــاوَاتِ  وَلاَ  فِي  الاَرْضِ )) [“…The weight of an atom is not hidden from Him neither  in the heavens or the Earth” 34:3 / سبإ: ٣])

8 – وَأَنَّهُ  مْدَبِّرٌ  لِكُلِّ  شَيْءٍ  كَائِنٍ  مِنْ  خَيْرٍ  أَوْ  شَرٍّ  مَا شَاءَ  كَانَ  وَمَا لَمْ  يَشَأَ  لَمْ  يَكُنْ (and that He is the Designer of everything in existence whether good or evil; what He wills exist and what He hasn’t willed doesn’t exist);

9 – إِنَّهُ  سَمِيعٌ  بَصِيرٌ  مُتَكّلِّمٌ  بِغَيْرِ  جَارِحَةٍ  وَلاَ  آلَةٍ  بَلْ  سَمْعُهُ  وَبَصْرُهُ  وَكَلاَمُهُ  صِفَاتٍ  لَهُ (and that He hears, sees and speaks without body parts or device. On the contrary,  His hearing, sight, and speech are His attributes);

10 – لاَ تُشُبِهُ صِفَاتُهُ  الصِّفَاتِ  كَمَا لاَ  تُشُبِهُ  ذَاتُهُ  الذَّوَاتِ (His Attributes are not resembled by any other attributes, likewise His Essence is not resembled by any other essence):

((… لَيْسَ  كَمِثْلِهِ  شَيْءٌ  وَهُو السَّمِيعُ  الْبَصِيرُ)) [“…Nothing resembles Him, and He is the Hearer and the Seer” 42:11الشورى: ١١]);


الْعَشَـرُ‮ ‬الْـمُسْـتَحِيلاَتُ (The ten matters of belief which the believer must believe are impossible [in regards to Allah]):

1 – أَنْ  يُـعْتَقَدَ  أَنَّهُ  تَـعَالَـى  يَسْـتَحِيلُ  عَـلَيهِ  الْـحُـدُوثُ (to believe it is impossible that there was a beginning to Allah the Most High’s existence)

2 – وَالْعَدَمُ  بَلْ  هَوَ  تَعَالَى بِصِفَاتِهِ  وَأَسْمَائهِ  قَدِيـمٌ  بَاقٍ  دَائِمُ  الْوُجُودِ (and to believe it is impossible that there is an end to Allah’s existence. On the contrary, He the Most High with His Attributes and His Names is an Everlasting, Eternal Existence:

(( قَائِمٌ  عَلَى كُلِّ  نَفْسٍ  بِـمَا  كَسَبَتْ)) […watching over every soul in what it earns 13:33 / الرعد: ٣٣]);

لَيْسَ  لَهُ  أَوَّلٌ  وَلاَ  آخِرٌ  بَلْ  (He has no beginning nor end). On the contrary:

(( هُوَ  الأَوَّلُ  وَلآخِرُ )) [He is the First and the Last 57:3 / الحديد: ٣]);

3 – وَأَنَّهُ  لاَ  إِلـاـهَ  سِوَاهُ (and that There is no god other than Him:

(( لَوْ  كَانَ  فِهِمَا آلِهَةُ  إِلاَّ  اللهُ  لَقَسَدَتَا )) [If there were gods other than Allah, over them (the heavens and the Earth), there would have been chaos in them 21:22 / الأنبياء: ٢٢ ]);

4 -وَأَنَّهُ  مُسْـتَغْنٍ  عَنْ  جَـمِيعِ  خَـلقِهِ  غَـيْرُ  مُحْتَاجٍ  إلَـى ظَهِـيرٍ  فِي  مُـلْكِهِ (and that He is independent of  His entire creation without need of a Helper in His Rulership);

5 – وَأَنَّهُ  لاَ  يَـشْغَلُهُ  شَـأْنٌ  عَـنْ  شَـأْنٍ  فِـي  قَضَائِـهِ  وَأَمْـرِهِ (and that one affair does not take away His attention from another with regards to His divine decree and His command);

6 -‮ ‬وَأَنَّهُ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬يَحْوِيهِ‮ ‬مَكَانٌ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬سَمَـاواتِهِ‮ ‬ولاَأَرْضِهِ‮ ‬بَلْ‮ ‬هُوَ‮ ‬كَمَا كَانَ‮ ‬قَبْلَ‮ ‬خَلْقِ‮ ‬الْـمَكَانِ‮ ‬(and that There is no location in His heavens or in His earth that contains Him. On the contrary, He is as He was before the creation of place;

7 – وَأَنَّهُ  لَيْسَ  بِجَوْهَرٍ  وَلاَ  جِسْمٍ  وَلاَ  عَلَى صُورَةٍ  وَلاَ  شَكْلٍ  وَلاَ  لَهُ  شَبِيهٌ  وَلاَ  مَثْيلٌ  بَلْ  هُوَ  الأَحَدُ  الصَّمَدُ  الذِي  لَمْ  يَلِدْ  وَلَمْ  يُولَدْ وَلَمْ  يَكُن لَهُ  كُفُوًا احَدٌ (and that He is neither substance nor body, nor shape, nor form, nor is there a likeness or example for Him. On the contrary, He is the One, the Eternal Who did not originate from any source, and He didn’t father any children, and there is none comparable to Him;

8 – وَأَنَّهُ  لاَ  تَـحُلُّهُ  الْحَوَادثُ  وَلاَ  التُّغْيِيرَاتُ  وَلاَ  تَلْحَقُهُ  النَّقَائِصُ  وَلاَ  الآقاتُ (and that events, nor change do not overcome Him, and defect and damage do not reach Him);

9 – وَأَنَّهُ  لاَ  يَلِيقُ  بِهِ  الظُّلْمُ  بَلْ  قُضَاؤُهُ  كُلُّهُ  حِكْمَةٌ  وَعَدْلٌ (and that injustice would be unbefitting for Him. On the contrary, all of His decree is wisdom and justice);

10 –  ‬وَأَنَّهُ  لَيْسَ  شَيْءٌ  مِنْ  أَفْعَالِ  خَلِيقَتِهِ  بِغَيْرِ  قَضَائِهِ  وَخَلْقِهِ  وَإِزَادَتِهِ بَل (that none of the actions of the creation is outside of His decree, His creation and His will. On the contrary:

((تَـمَّتْ  كَلِمَتُ  رَبِّكَ  صِدْقًا عَدْلًا لاَ  مُبَدِّلَ  لِـكَلِمَاتِهِ )) [“The words of your Lord come to pass with truth and justice. There is no changing of His words” 6:115 /الأنعام: ١١٥ ]);

((يُـضِلُّ مَـن يَـشَاءُ وَيَهْـدِي مَـن يَشَاءُ)) [He leads astray whom He pleases and He guides whom He pleases 35:8 / فاطر: ٨];


‮((‬لَا‮ ‬يُسْأَلُ‮ ‬عَمَّا‮ ‬يَفْعَلُ‮ ‬وَهُمْ‮ ‬يُسْأَلُونَا‮))‬ [“He is not questioned about what He does while they will be questioned” 21:23 / الأنبياء: ٢٣].


الْعَشَـرُ  الْـمُتَحَقٍّقُ  وُجُودُهَا (Ten things which the occurrence of them  has been confirmed )

1 – أَنْ  يُـعْتَقَدَ  أَنَّ  اللهََ  تَعَالَى أَرْسَلَ  لِعِبَادِهِ  أَنْـمــبِيَاءَهُ  وَرُسُلَهُ (to believe that Allah the Most High sent His prophets and messengers to His slaves);

2 – وَأَنَّهُ  أَنْرَلَ  عَلَيْهِمْ  آيَاتِهِ  كُتُبَهُ (and that He revealed to them His signs and His Books);

3 – وَأَنَّهُ  خَـتَمَ  الرِّسَـالَـةَ  بِـمُحَـمَّدٍ  نَبِيِّنَا صلَّى اللهُ  عَلَيْهِ  وَسَـلَّمَ (and that He ended the sending of messengers with Muhammad our Prophet, May Allah send prayers and peace upon him);

4 – وَأَنَّهُ  أَنْزَلَ  عَلَيْهِ  القُرْءانَ  هُدًى لِلنَّاسِ  وَبَيِّنَاتٍ  مِّنَ  الْهُدَىٰ  وَالْفُرْقَانِ (and that He revealed the Qur’an to them as guidance to the human being and that which clarifies and distinguishes between truth and falsehood);

5 – وَأَنَّهُ  كَلاَمُ  رَبِّنَا لَيْسَ  بِـمَخْلوقٍ (and that the speech of our Lord is not created;

6 – وَأَنَّهُ  عَلَيْهِ  الصَّلاَةُ   وَالسَّلاَمُ  فِيمَا أَخْبَرَ  بِهِ  صَادِِقٌ (and that the Prophet prayer and peace be upon him was truthful about everything he said);

7 – وَأَنَّ  شَرِيعَتَهُ  نَاسِخَةٌ  لِـجَمِيعِ  الشَّرَائِعِ (and that His [Allah’s] Sharīʿah [Divine Law] abrogates all other laws);

8 -وَأَنَّ  الْـجِنّةَ  حَقٌّ  وَالنَّارَ  حَقٌّ (and that Paradise is real and the Fire is real);

9 – وَأَنَّهُمَّا مَوْجُودَتَانِ  لِأَهْلِ  الشَّقَاءِ  وَالسَّعَادَتِ  مُعَدَّتَانِ (and that the two of them [the Garden and the Fire] have been created for the people of misery and the people of happiness);

10 – وَأَنَّ  الْـمَلاَئِكَةَ  حَقٌّ  مِنّهُمْ  حَفَظَةٌ  يَكْتُبُونَ  أَعْمَالَ  الْعِبَادِ  وَمِنْهُمْ  رُسُلُ  اللهِ  إِلَى الأَنـمـبِيَاءِ  وَ (( مَلَائِكَةٌ  غِلَاظٌ  شِدَادٌ  لاَّ  يَعْصُونَ الله مَا أَمَرَهُمْ  وَيَفْعَلُونَ  مَا  يُؤْمَرُونَ )) (and that the angels are real, from among them are those record the actions of the slaves of Allah, while others from among them are messengers to the prophets of Allah and:

(( مَلَائِكَةٌ  غِلَاظٌ  شِدَادٌ  لَّا  يَعْصُونَ  الله مَا أَمَرَهُمْ  وَيَفْعَلُونَ  مَا  يُؤْمَرُونَ )) [angels stern and strong, they do not disobey Allah in what He commands them, and do as they are commanded. 66:6 / التحريم: ٦]).


الْعَشَـرُُالْـمُـتَّيَقَنُ وُرُودُهَا (The ten are [matters of belief] which are certain to occur)

1 – أَنْ  تَعْتَقَدَ  أَنَّ  الدُّنْيَا فَانِيَةٌ  وَ (that you believe that the world will come to an end) and:

(( كُلُّ  مَنْ  عَلَيْهَا فَانٍ)) [“Everything in it will perish” 55: 26 / الرحمن: ٢٦];

2 – وَأَنَّ  الْـخَلْقَ  يَفْتَتُونَ  فِي  قُبُورِهِمْ  وَيُتَعَّمُنَ  وَيُعَذَّبُونَ (and that the people will be questioned in their graves, and they will be given ease and they will be punished [therein]);

3 – وَأَنَّ  الله تَعَالَى  يَحْشُرُهُمْ  يَوْمَ  الْقِيَامَةِ  كَامَا بَدَأَهُمْ  يَعُودُونَ (and that Allah the Most High will gather them on the Day of Rising. As He created them they will return);

4 – وَأَنَّ  الْـحِسَابَ  حَقٌّ  وَالْـمِزَانَ حَقٌّ (and that al-Hisaab [the Final Accounting] is real and al-Mizaan [the Scale] is real);

5 – وَأَنَّ  الصِّرَاطَ  حَقٌّ (and aṣ-Ṣiraaṭ [the Bridge over the Hell-fire] is real);

6 – وَأَنَّ  الْـحَوضَ  حَقٌّ (and that the Ḥawḍ [the Prophet’s drinking pond] is real);

7 – وَأَنَّ  الأَبْرَارَ  فِي  الْـجِنَّةِ  فِي  نَعِيمٍ (and the people who guarded their duty to Allah will be in the Garden of happiness);

8 – وَأَنَّ  الْكُفَّارِ  فِي النَّارِ جَحِِيمٍ (and the disbeliever will be in the fire of Hell);

9 – وَأَنَّ الْـمُومِنِينَ  يَرَوْنَ  اللهَ  عَزَّ  وَجَلَّ  بِأبْصَارِهِمْ  فِي الآخِرَةِ (and that the believers will see Allah – High and Mighty is He – in the Hereafter);

10 – ‬وَأَنَّ  اللهَ  تَعَالىَ  يُعَذِّبُ  بِالنَّارِ  مَنْ  يَشَاءُ  مِنْ  أَهَلِ  الْكَبَائِرِ  مِنَ  الْـُمُومِنِىنَ  وَيَغْفِرُ  لِـمَنْ  يَشَاءُ  وَيْخرِجُهُمْ  مِنَ  النَّارِ  إِلَى الْـجِنَّةِ بِفَضلِ  رَحْمَتِهِ  وَشَفَاعَةِ  الأَنــمـبِيَاءِ  وَالصَّالِـحِينَ  مِنْ  عِبَادِهِ  حَتَّى لاَ  يَبْقَى فِي  جَهَنَّمَ  إِلاَّ  الْكَافِرُونَ (and that Allah the Most High will punish with fire those whom He please. He will remove them from the Fire to the Garden, through the favor of His mercy and the intercessions of his prophets and the righteous people from among his slaves, until no one remains in Jahannam (Hell) except the disbelievers:

(( إنَّ  اللهَ  لاَ  يَغْفِرُأَنْ  يُّشْرَكَ  بِهِ  وَيَغْفِرُمَا دُونَ  ذَلِكَ  لِـمَنْ  يَشَاءُ )) [“Surely Allah does not forgive the association of partners with Him while He forgives what is below that, whomever He pleases” 4:48 / النساء:  ٤٨].


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