Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 8 – (The Chapter About al-Mafʿuul [The Receiver Of The Action Whose Doer Was Not Mentioned])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَفْعُولِ‏‮ ‬‬الَّذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يُسَمَّ‏‮ ‬‬فَاعِلُهُ

The Chapter About al-Mafʿuul [The Receiver Of The Action Whose Doer Was Not Mentioned])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَرْفُوعُ‏‮ ‬‬الذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يُذْكَرْ‏‮ ‬‬مَـعَهُ‏‮ ‬‬فَاعِلُهُ‏‮ ‬‬فَـإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَـانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬مَاضِيًا ضُمَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَوَّلُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَكُسِرَ‏‮ ‬‬مَا قَبْلَ‏‮ ‬‬آخِرِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬مُضَارِعًا ضُمَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَوَّلُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَفُتِحَ‏‮ ‬‬مَا قَبْلَ‏‮ ‬‬آخِرِهِ‏‮  ‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى قِسْمَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬ظَاهِرٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَمُضْمَرٍ‏‮ ‬‬فَالظَّاهِرُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَيُضْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَأُكْرِمَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو وَيُكْرَمُ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو وَالـْمُضْمَرُ‏‮ ‬‬إِثْنَا عَشَرَ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبْنَا وَضُرِبْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبْتُمَا وَضُرِبْتُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبْتُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبَتْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبَا وَضُرِبُواْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبْنَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَهُوَ ‏‮ ‬‬(And it [الـْمَفْعُولِ‏‮ ‬‬الِذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يُسَمَّ‏‮ ‬‬فَاعِلُه – (the receiver of the action whose doer is not mentioned] is) الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَرْفُوعُ (the noun in the case of rafʿ) الذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يُذْكَرْ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَهُ (which does not have mentioned with it) ‏‮ ‬‬فَـاعِـلُه(its doer). فَـإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَـانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـفِعْلُ (And therefore,‏‮ ‬‬if the verb is) مَـاضِـيًا (in the past), ضُـمَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَوَّلُـهُ (ḍammah is placed on its first (letter) وَكُسِرَ‏‮ ‬‬مَا قَبْلَ‏‮ ‬‬آخِرِهِ (and kasrah is placed on its next to last letter). وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَـانَ (and if it is) مُـضَارِعًـا (a present tense verb), ضُـمَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَوَّلُـهُ (ammah is placed on its first letter) وَفُـتِحَ‏‮ ‬‬مَا قَـبْلَ‏‮ ‬‬آخِـرِهِ (and fat-ḥah is placed on its next to last letter). ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُـوَ‏‮ ‬‬(And it [الـْمَفْعُولِ‏‮ ‬‬الِذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يُـسَمَّ‏‮ ‬‬فَاعِلُه (the receiver of the action whose doer is not mentioned)] is) عَـلَى قِـسْمَيْنِ (of two kinds): ظَـاهِـر (a clearly distinct noun) and مُـضْمَر (an object pronoun). فَالظَّاهِرُ (And so the clearly distinct noun) نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ (is like when you say): ضُـرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ (Zayd was beaten…) وَيُضْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ and (Zayd is beaten…) وَأُكْـرِمُ‏ عَـمْرٌو and (ʿAmr was treated kindly) and وَيُـكْرَمُ‏‮ ‬‬ عَمْرٌو and (ʿAmr is treated kindly). الْـمُضْمَرُ (the object pronouns are) إِثْـنَا عَشَـرَ (twelve [in number]).

They are:

ضُرِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبْنَا وَضُرِبْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبْتُمَا وَضُرِبْتُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبْتُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏ضُرِبَتْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبَا وَ‏ضُرِبُواْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏ضُرِبْنَّ

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الـمفعول الذي‏‮ ‬‬لم‏‮ ‬‬يُسمّ‏‮ ‬‬فاعله هو الإسم الـمرفوع الذي‏‮ ‬‬لم‏‮ ‬‬يذكر معه فاعله إمّا للجهل به وإمّا لغرَضٍ‏‮ ‬‬من الأغراض مثاله ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو إمّا أن كنت جاهلاً‏‮ ‬‬بمن ضربه أو لم ترد أن تذكره وأمّا إذا حُذِفَ‏‮ ‬‬الفاعل وأقيم الـمفعول مقامَه وكان الفعل ماضيًا ضُمَّ‏‮ ‬‬أوّلُه وكُسر ما قبل آخره فقلنا في‏‮ ‬‬َضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬زيدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عمرًو ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬عمرٌو وإن كان مضارعًا ضُمَّ‏‮ ‬‬أوّله وفُتح ما قبل آخره فقلنا في‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عمرًو‏‮ ‬‬يُضْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬عمرٌو ونائب الفاعل كالفاعل وهو على قسمين قسمٍ‏‮ ‬‬ظاهر كقولك ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬عمرًو‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬عمرًا وقسمٍ‏‮ ‬‬مضمر متصل كقولك ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبَا ضُرِبُوا ضُرِبَتْ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبَتَا ضُرِبْنَ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبْتَ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبْتُمَا ضُرِبْتُمْ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبْتِ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبْتُمَا ضُرِبْتُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبْنَا ومنفصل كقولك مَا ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هِيَ‏‮ ‬‬و مَا ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْتَ‏‮     ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الـْـمَفْعُولِ‏‮ ‬‬الِـذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَـمْ‏‮ ‬‬يُـسَمَّ‏‮ ‬‬فَـاعِـلُه (The receiver of the action whose doer is not mentioned) is the noun in the case of rafʿ which does not have its doer mentioned with it, either because the doer is unknown or the doer is not mentioned intentionally. An example of this is when you say  ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو (ʿAmr was beaten) if you do not know who beat him or you do not wish to mention him (the doer of the beating).  When the doer is left unmentioned and the receiver of the action is mentioned in its place and the verb is‏‮ ‬‬مَـاضِـيًا (a past tense verb), ḍammah ــُـ is placed above its first letter and kasrah‮ ‬‬ــِـ is placed below whatever letter precedes the final letter.  And so we say in the place of ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًو (Zayd beat ʿAmr) ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو (ʿAmr was beaten)  and if the verb  is مُـضَارعًـا  (a present tense verb), we place ḍammah ــُـ above its first letter and we place fat-ḥah  ــَـ above the letter which precedes the final letter.   We say in the place of يَـضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عَـمْرًو (Zayd is beating ʿAmr) يُـضْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬عمْرٌو (ʿAmr is beaten).

نَائِبُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَاعِل (the substitute for the doer)  like الْفَاعِل (the doer)  is  of  two  kinds.  One  kind  is  إِسْـمٌ‏‮ ‬‬ظَـاهِرٌ (a clearly distinct noun) like when you say: ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ (Zayd was beaten) and another kind is‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُضْمَرٌ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُتَّصِل(the attached  pronoun) – like when you say: ضُـرِبَ (He was beaten), ضُـرِبَـا‏ (The two of them were beaten), ضُـرِبُـوا (They were beaten [three or more males]), ضُـرِبَـتْ‏ (She was beaten), ضُـرِبَـتَا (They were beaten [two females]), ضُـرِبْـنَ (They were beaten [three or more females]), ضُرِبْـتَ‏‮ ‬‬ (You were beaten [masc. sing.]), ضُرِبْتُمَا (You two were beaten [masc. dual]), ضُـرِبْـتُم (You were beaten [three or more males]) ,ضُرِبْـتِ (You were beaten [fem. sing.]), ضُـرِبْـتُمَا (You two were beaten [fem. dual]), ضُـرِبْـتُنَّ (You were beaten [three or more females]),‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبْـتُ (I was beaten), ضُرِبْنَا (We were beaten).

الْـُمضْمَرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُنْفَصِــلُ (The detached pronoun) `is like when you say:` مَـــــا ضُــــرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُـــوَ (Non was beaten except him) and مَــــا‏‮ ‬‬ضُـرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هِـي (Non was beaten except for her) and مَــا ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْت (Non was beaten except for you).‏‮ ‬‬


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Published in: on January 8, 2011 at 23:23  Leave a Comment  

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