Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 7 – The Chapter About Al-Faaʿil [the Doer])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الفَاعِل

The Chapter About Al-Faaʿil [the Doer]

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬الْفَاعِلُ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَرْفُوعُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَذْكُورُ‏‮ ‬‬قَبْلَهُ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى قِسْمَينِ‏‮ ‬‬ظَاهِرٍ‏‮ ‬‬ومُضْمَرٍ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

الْفَاعِلُ (the doer) هُوَ (is) الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَرْفُوعُ (the noun in the case of rafʿ) الـْمَذْكُورُ‏‮ ‬‬قَبْلَهُ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلُهُ (which has its verb (action) mentioned‏‮ ‬‬prior to it being mentioned). وَهُـوَ (And it is) عَـلَى قِـسْمَينِ‏ (of two kinds): ظَـاهِـرٍ (a clearly distinct noun) وَمُضْمَرٍ (and a pronoun).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الفاعل هو الإسم الـمرفوع الـمذكور قبله فعله‏‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬‬أي‏‮ ‬‬أن الفاعل‏‮ ‬‬يلـزمه أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون إسمًا وأن‏‮ ‬‬يكون مرفوعًا وأن‏‮ ‬‬يكون فعله مذكورًا قبله لأن إِن كان فعله مذكورًا بعده لم‏‮ ‬‬يكن فاعلاً‏‮ ‬‬بل مبتدًا وخبرًا ولِذَا قلنا وأن‏‮ ‬‬يكون فعله مذكورًا قبله مثاله قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬فـزَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إسم مرفوع وفعله مذكور قبله فالفاعل قسمان ظاهر ومضمر

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـفَاعِِِِـلُ (the doer) is the noun in the case of rafʿ which has its verb being mentioned‏‮ ‬‬prior to it being mentioned – that is to say, that الْفَاعِلٌ (the doer) must be a noun and in the case of rafʿ and its verb is mentioned before it, because if its verb is mentioned after it, then that noun is not فَـاعِـلاً (a doer), but rather, it is مُـبْتُدَأٌ (a subject noun) and خَـبْرٌ (a predicate).   It is for this reason we have said, “if the verb has been mentioned prior to the mentioning of the noun” – like when you say: قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ (Zayd stood).  And so, Zayd is a noun in the case  of rafʿ and its verb has been mentioned prior to its being mentioned.  الْفَاعِـلُ (The doer) is of two kinds: ظَـاهِـرٌ (a clearly distinct noun)  and مُـضْمَرٌ  (a pronoun).

Arabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬فَالظَّاهِرُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّيْدَانِ وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّيْدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّيْدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّيْدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وَقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالُ‏‮ ‬‬وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالُ‏‮ ‬‬وَقَامَتْ‏‮ ‬‬هِنْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَقُومُ‏‮  ‬‬هِنْدٌ‏‮  ‬‬وَقَامَتِ‏‮ ‬‬الْهِنْدَانِ‏‮  ‬‬وَتَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الْهِنْدَانِ‏‮  ‬‬وَقَامَتِ‏‮ ‬‬الْهِنْدَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الْهِنْدَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَقَامَتِ‏‮ ‬‬الْهُنُودُ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الْهُنُودُ‏‮ ‬‬وَقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَخُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬أَخُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِي‏‮ ‬‬وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِي‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا أَشْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

فـَالظَّاهِرُ (And so the clearly distinct noun) نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ (is like when you say): قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬

زَيدٌ‏ (Zayd stood) وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيدٌ and (Zayd is standing) وَقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّيْدَانِ and (the two Zayds  stood) وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّيْدَانِ and (the two Zayds are standing) وَقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّيْدُونَ and‏‮ ‬‬(the Zayds [three or more stood]) وَقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالُ and (the men [three or more] stood) وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالُ and (the men [three or more] are standing) وَقَامَتْ‏‮ ‬‬هِنْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬and (Hind stood) وَتَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬هِنْدٌ and (Hind is standing)

وَقَامَتِ‏  الْهِنْدَانِ‏  ‬‬and (the two Hinds stood) وَتَقُومُ‏  الْهِنْدَانِ‏ and (the two Hinds are standing) وَقَامَتِِ‏‮ ‬‬الْهِنْدَاتُ and (the Hinds [three or more] stood) وَتَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الْهِنْدَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬and (the Hinds [three or more] are standing) وَقَامَتِ‏‮ ‬‬الهُنُودُ and (the Hinds [three or more] stood)‏‮ ‬‬وَتَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـهُنُودُ‏‮ ‬‬and (the Hinds [three or more stood) وَقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَخُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬and (Your ʿbrother stood)‏‮ ‬‬وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬أَخُوك and (your  brother is standing) وَقَام‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِي‏‮ ‬‬and (my servant stood) وَيَـقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِِـي and‏‮ ‬‬(my servant is standing) وَمَـا أَشْـبَهَ‮ ‬‬ذَلِـكَ (and what resembles that). ‏‮        ‬‬

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

‏‮ ‬‬إن الْفاعل الظاهر هو أسم ظاهر مثل زيد في‏‮ ‬‬قولك قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬ويَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬ومثله قَام الزَّيْدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّيْدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَخُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وقسْ‏‮ ‬‬على ذلك‏‮  ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الْفَاعِل الظَّاهِر (the clearly distinct doer noun) is a clearly distinguishable noun, [that is to say: that الْفَاعِلُ is a noun rather than a pronoun] – like:‏‮ ‬‬قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ (Zayd stood) and يَـقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيدٌ (Zayd is standing) similar to these are قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدَانِ (the two Zayds) and الزَّيْدُونَ‮ ‬وَأَخُـوكَ (the Zayds – [three or more] and your brother stood) and so forth.

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَالـْمُضْمَرُ‏‮ ‬‬إِثْنَا عَشَرَ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وضَرَبْنا‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبْتُمَا وَضَرَبْـتُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبْتُنَّ‏‮  ‬‬وَضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَـرَبَتْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَـرَبَا وَضَـرَبَتَا وَضَرَبُواْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبْنَ‏‮)  ‬‬

English Translation:

الـمُضْمَرُ (The pronoun) إِثْـنَا عَشَـرَ (is [of] twelve‏‮ ‬‬[kinds]) نَـحْوُ (like when you say): ضَرَبْتُ (I beat…) وَضَرَبْنَا and (we beat…) وَضَرَبْتَ and (you [masc. sing.] beat…) وَضَرَبْتِ and (you [fem. sing.] beat…) وَضَرَبْْتُمَا and (the two of you [male or female] beat…) وَضَرَبْتُمْ and (you [three or more males] beat…) وَضَرَبْتُنَّ and (you [three or more females] beat) وَضَرَبَ and (he beat…) وَضَرَبَتْ and (she beat…) وَضَرَبَا and (they [two males] beat…) وَضَرَبَتَا and (they [two females] beat…) وَضَرَبُواْ and (they [three or males] beat) وَضَرَبْنَ and (they [three or more] females beat…).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

وقسم مضمرأي‏‮ ‬‬فاعل ليس هو إسمًا ظاهرًا بل ضميرٌ‏‮ ‬‬وهو أربعة عشر وهو أيضًا على قسمين متصل ومنفصل وكل منهما ضمير فالضمائر الـمتصلة هي‏‮ ‬‬التي‏‮ ‬‬يبتدأ الكلام بها و لا تفع بعد إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬وهي‏‮ ‬‬بذلك علي‏‮ ‬‬ثلاثة أقسام ستة للغائب ثلاثة منها للمذكر كقولك ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبُواْ‏‮ ‬‬وثلاثة للمؤنث كقولك‏‮ ‬‬ ضَرَبَتْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَتَا وَضَرَبْنَ‏‮ ‬‬وستة للمخاطَب ثلاثة منها للمذكر نحو ضَرَبْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبْتُمَا وَضَرَبْتُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وثلاثة للمؤنث نحو ضَرَبْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وضَرَبْتُمَا وَضَرَبْتُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وإثنان للمتكلّم نحو ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبْنَا والضمائر الـمنفصلة هي‏‮ ‬‬التي‏‮ ‬‬يبتدأ الكلام بها وتقع بعد إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬وأقسامها كما مرّ‏‮ ‬‬تقول هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬وهُمَا ضَرَبَا وَهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبُوا وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُمَا وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُمْ  وَهكذا هِيَ ضَرَبَتْ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُمَا ضَرَبَتَا وَهُنَّّ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبْنَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هِيَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَاضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُمَا وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُنَّ وقِسْ‏‮ ‬‬عليه

Explanation of Text in English:

Another kind of (فَـاعِِـل [doer noun]) is مُـضْمَرٌ (a doer pronoun), that is to say فَـاعِِِـلٌ (a doer) which is not إسمًا ظاهرًا (a clearly distinct noun), but rather, a pronoun.  It is of fourteen kinds and also of two types: مُـتَّصِلٌ (attached) and مُنْفَصِلٌ (detached) each of which is a pronoun.

As for الضَّمَائِرُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُتَّصِلَة ( the attached pronouns), they are those pronouns which occur at the beginning of the statement and which do not or occur after إِلاَّ (except).  They are of three kinds.  (The first kind is الْـغَائِـب‏ (the person being spoken about or what is known grammatically as the third person). It has six attached pronouns.‏‮ ‬‬Three belong to مُـذَكَّر (the masculine gender) – like when you say:‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبُواْ .‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَاَ . ضَرَبَ and three of them belong to مُؤَنَّث (the feminine gender) – like when you say: ضَرَبْنَ . ضَرَبَتَا . ضَرَبَتْ .

(The second kind is) الـْـمُخَاطِـب (the person being addressed or what is known  grammatically as the second person.) It has six attached  pronounsThree belong to الـمُذَكَّر (the masculine gender) – like when you say: ضَـرَبْـتُمْ . ضَـرَبْـتُمَا . ضَـرَبْـتَ and  three belong to  الْـمُؤَنِّـــــث  (the  feminine gender)  –  like:  ضَـرَبْـتُــــنَّ . ضَـرَبْـتُمـَا . ضَرَبْـتِ

(The third kind) is الـْـمُتَكَلِّم (the person speaking or what is known as the first person.) It has two attached pronouns like when you say:‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبْنَا. . ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬

الضَّماِئرُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْـمُنْفَصِلة (The detached pronouns) are the pronouns which begin a statement and they occur after إَلاَّ. The group of them is similar to what has already been mentioned.  You say:

هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَ‏،‮ ‬‬هُمَا ضَرَبَا،‮ ‬وَهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبُوا،‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ،‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُمَا،‮ ‬وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُمْ،  وَهِي ضَرَبَتْ‏،‮ ‬‬وَهُمَا ضَرَبَتَا،‮ ‬وَهُنَّّ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبْنَ،‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هِيَ،‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا‏‮ ‬‬َضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُمَا،‮ ‬وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُنَّ

and so forth.

(*note in ʿArabic)

إن الضمير الفاعل في‏‮ ‬‬مثال الـمفرد الغائب ضمير مستتر جوازًا تقديره هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬وفي‏‮ ‬‬مثال الـمثنّي‏‮ ‬‬الغائب هو الألف وفي‏‮ ‬‬الجمع هو الواو والضمير الفاعل في‏‮ ‬‬الـمثال للمفردة الغائبة هو ضمير مستتر جوازًا تقديره‏‮  ‬‬هِيَ‏‮ ‬‬والتاء علامة التأنث وفي‏‮ ‬‬مثال مثنَّاها هو الألف والتاء أيضًا علامة التأنيث وفي‏‮ ‬‬جمعها هو النون والضمير الفاعل في‏‮ ‬‬أمثلة الـمذكر الـمخاطب هو التاء فقط والأحرف اللاحقة لها هي‏‮ ‬‬للدلالة على التثنية والجمع و كذلك ضمير الفاعل في‏‮ ‬‬الـمثال للمفردة الـمخاطبة ومثناها وجمعها هو التاء لا‏‮ ‬‬غير والنون الـمشددة حرف دالّ‏‮ ‬‬على الإناث وهكذا مثال الـمتكلم فالتاء في‏‮ ‬‬قولك ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬هي‏‮ ‬‬ضمير فاعل الـمفرد ونا في‏‮ ‬‬قولك ضَرَبْنَا هي‏‮ ‬‬ضمير الجمع للمتكلمين وأمّا الضمير الفاعل الـمنفصل فظاهر وهو قولك أَنَا ونحن وأَنْتَ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْتُمَا وأَنْتُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وما أشبه ذلك‏‮   ‬‬

(*note in English)

الضَّمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـفَاعِـلِ (The doer pronoun) in the example of الـْـمُفْـرَدُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـغَائِـب (the third person masculine singular [ضَـرَبَ] ) is a permissibly concealed pronoun.  Its implication is هُـوَ (he).   In the example of‏‮ ‬‬مُـثَنَّى‏‮ ‬‬الْـغَائِـب‏‮ ‬‬(the third person masculine dual [ضَرَباَ]), it is الأَلِفُ (the alif), and in جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْغَائِب (the third person masculine plural [ضَرَبُــــوا]), it is الْوَاوُ.

الضَّمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَاعِلِ (The doer pronoun) in the example of الـْـمُفْرَدَة الْـغَائِـبَة (the third person feminine singular [ضَـرَبَـتْ]) is a permissibly concealed pronoun. The implication of it is هِـيَ (she).   التَّاءُ (The taa bearing sukuun = تْ) is also a sign of التَّانِـيَث (the feminine doer).‏‮ ‬‬

In the example of مُـثَنّاهَـا (the dual form of الْـغَائِـبَة [third person feminine – ضَـرَبتََا]), the sign of the dual is الأَلِـفُ and التَّاءُ the taa = تََــا) is a sign of التَّانِيَث (the feminine doer).  And in جَـمْعُهَا (the plural form of الَـغَائِـبَة [third person feminine – ضَرَبْنَ), the sign of the doer is النُّون (nuun).

The sign of الضَّمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـفَاعِـلِ (the doer pronoun) in the example of الْـمُخَاطِب (the second person masculine singular [ضَـرَبْـتَ]) is  التَّاءُ (the taa = تَ) only, while the letters which have affixed to (the taa = تَ) are signs of الـْـمُثَنَى (the dual [ضَـرَبْتُـمَا ]) and الْـجَمْعُ (the plural [ضَرَبْتُـمْ]) and what is similar to that.

The sign of الضَّمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـفَاعِــــلِ (the doer  pronoun)  in  the example of   الْـمُفْـــرَدَة الْـمُخَاطِبَة (the second person  feminine singular [ضَرَبْـتِ]) as well as مُثنّاهَـا (its dual [ضَرَبْتُـمَا]) and  جَمْعُهَا (its plural form [ضَـرَبْتُـنَّ]) is التّاء (the taa) only.  As for  النُّونُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُشَـدَّدَة (The nuun bearing  shaddah = نَّ), it is a letter which is a sign of femininity.

Similarly, in the example of الـْـمُتَــكَـلِّم (the first person singular), التَّاءُ (the taa) is  the sign of the doer- like when say: ضَـرَبْـتُ‏‮ ‬‬ (I beat) which is ضَـمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـفَاعِـلِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْـمُفْرَدِ (the singular doer pronoun) and النَّاءُ (the naa) like when you say: ضَرَبْنَا (we beat) which is ضَـمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬جَـمْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الـمُتَكَـلِّمِينَ. (the doer pronoun of the first person plural).

As for ضَـمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَاعِلِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُنْفَصِلِ (the detached pronoun doer), it is clearly distinct.  It is as you would say أنَا (I) نَحنُ (we) ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْـت(you m. singular) أَنْـتُمَا (you m. dual) أَنْتُمْ (you m. plural) and what is similar to that.

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Published in: on December 31, 2010 at 20:40  Leave a Comment  

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