The Chapter About فِي الإمَامَةِ (The Imāmate) from Matn al Ashmaawiyyah

The Chapter About فِي‮ ‬الإمَامَةِ (The Imāmate)

وَمِـنْ‮ ‬شُـرُوطِ‮ ‬الإِمَـامَـةِ‮ ‬(Among the requirements for (the post of imām) أَنْ‮ ‬يَكُونُ (is that he be) ذَكَـرً (a male), مُسْـلِمًا (a muslim) عَاقِلاً (in full possession of his mental faculties), بَـالِغًا (fully mature), عَالِـمًا بِـمَا لاَ‮ ‬تَصِحُّ‮ ‬الصَّلاَةُ (knowledgeable about the prayer that is unsound)  إلاَّ‮ ‬بِـهِ‮ ‬مِـنْ‮  ‬قِـرَاءةٍ‮ ‬وَفِقْهٍ (unless it is a matter concerning the recitation and and fiqh).

فَـإِنِ‮ ‬افْـتَدَيْـتَ‮ ‬بِإِمَامٍ‮  ‬ (If you follow an imām) ثُمَّ‮ ‬تَبَيَّنَ‮ ‬لَكَ (and then it becomes clear to you)‮ ‬أَنَـهُ‮ ‬كَـافِـرٌ (that he is a kaafir) أَوِ‮ ‬امْـرَأَةٌ (or a woman) أَوْ‮ ‬خُـنْثَى مُـشْكِلٌ (or a dubious hermaphrodite) أَوْ‮ ‬مَـجْنُونٌ (or insane) أَو فَـاسِـقٌ‮ ‬بِـجارِحَـةٌ (or a sinner who commits big sins) أَو صَـبِّي‮ ‬لَـمْ‮ ‬يَـبْلُغْ‮ ‬الْـحُـلُمَ (or the youth who not attained puberty) أَوْ‮ ‬مُحْـدِثٌ (or a person who is bodily impure)‮ ‬تَـعَمَّدَ‮ ‬الْحَـدَثَ (who deliberately prays with the bodily impurity), بَـطَلَتْ‮ ‬صَـلاَتُـكَ (your prayer become invalid) وَوَجَـبَتْ‮ ‬عَلَيْكَ‮ ‬الأِعَادَةُ (and you are required to repeat it).

وَيَستَحَبُ‮ ‬سَـلاَمَـةُ‮ ‬الأَعْـضَاءِ‮ ‬لِـلإِمَـامِ (Having sound limbs is also recommended for the imām). وَتُـكْرَهُ‮ ‬إِمَـامَـةِ‮ ‬الإِقْـطعِ (The imāmship of the amputee ), وَالأَشَـلُ (the person suffering with paralysis), وَصَـاحِـبُ‮ ‬السّـلَسِ (the person who is unable to control the flow of his urine), وَمنْ‮ ‬بِـهِ‮ ‬قُُـرُحٌ‮ ‬لِـلصَحِيحِ‮ ‬(the person who has a wound on one of his four limbs ), وَإِمَـامَـةُ‮ ‬مَـنْ‮ ‬يَُكْرَهُ‮ ‬ (and a person who is hated is dislike).  وَيُـكْرَهُ‮ ‬لِـلْخَصْيِ‮ ‬ (The imāmship  is also disliked for the one who has been castrated), وَالأَغْـلفِ (the negligent), وَالْـمَأْبُــونِ (the weakling), ومَـجْهُولِ‮ ‬الْـحَالِ (the one whose circumstances are unknown, وَوَلَـدَ‮ ‬الزِّنَـا (the bastard) وَالْـعبْدِ (and the slave) فِـي‮ ‬فَـرِيضَة (in the farḍ prayer) أَنْ‮ ‬يَـكُونُ‮ ‬إِمَـامًـا رَاتِبًا (as a regular imām), بِخِلاَفِ‮ ‬النَّافِلَةِ (unlike the naafilah prayer) إِنَّهَا لاَ‮ ‬تَُكْرُهُ , (which is not considered to be mak-ruh) بِوَاحِدٍ‮ ‬مِـنْهُمْ (if lead by one of the above mentioned). وَتَـجُوزُ‮ ‬إِمَـامَـةُ‮ ‬الأَعْـمَى (The imāmship of the blind person is permitted), وَالْـمُخَالِـفِ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬الْـفُرُوع (and the imamship of an imām from a different madh-hab [school of Islamic jurisprudence]), وَالْـعِنِينِ (the impotent man), وَالْـمُجَـذَّمِ (the leper is permissible), إِلاَّ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬يَشْـتَدَّ‮ ‬جُـذَامُـهُ (except if his leprosy is severe) وَيَضُرَّ‮ ‬بِـمَنْ‮ ‬خَلْفَهُ (and it will cause harm to those who are behind him), فَـيُنَّحَى عَـنْهُمْ (in that case he should keep away from them).

وَيَـجُوزُ‮ ‬عُـلُوُّ‮ ‬الْـمَأْمُـومِ‮ ‬عَـلَى إِمَـامِـهِ (It is permissible for the one who prays behind the imām to stand higher than his imām) (even if it is (on a terrace). وَلاَ‮ ‬يَـجُوزُ‮ ‬لِـلإمَـامِ‮ ‬عُـلُوُّ‮ ‬عَـلَى الْـمَأْمُـومِ‮ ‬ (while it is not permissible for the imām to stand higher than the one following him) إِلاّ‮ ‬بِـالشَّيْءِ‮ ‬الْيَسِـيرِ‮ ‬كَالشِّبْرِ (unless the height is insignificant like the height) of a spear). وَإِنْ‮ ‬قَصَدَ‮ ‬إِمَـامُ‮ ‬الْـمَأْمُـومَ‮ ‬بِـعُـلُوِّهِ‮ ‬الْـكِبْرَ‮ ‬ (If the imām purposely sets out to stand higher than the person praying behind him out of arrogance), بَـطَلَتْ‮ ‬صَلاَتُهُ (his prayer becomes invalid).

وَمِـنْ‮ ‬شُـرُوطِ‮ ‬الْـمَأْمُـوم‮  ‬ (Among the conditions placed upon the one person praying behind the imām) أَنْ‮ ‬يَـنْوِيَ‮ ‬الإقْـتِدَاءَ‮ ‬بِـالإمَـامِـهِ (is that he makes the intention from the out set to follow his imām).

وَلَاَ‮ ‬يَشْتَرَطُ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬حَقِّ‮ ‬الإمَامِ‮ ‬ (It is not conditional among the duties) أَنْ‮ ‬يَنْوِيَ‮ ‬الإمَامَةَ (that he makes an intention to perform the duties of imāmate)  إِلاَّ‮ ‬قِـي‮ ‬أَرْبَـعِ‮ ‬مَـسَائِـلَ  (except in four matters):‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬صَـلاََةِ‮ ‬الْجُـمْعَةِ (in the Friday prayer), وَصَـلاَةِ‮ ‬الْـجَـمْعِ (the congregational prayer), وَصَـلاَةِ‮ ‬الْـخَوْفِ (the prayer of Fear) وَصَـلاَةِ‮ ‬الاِسْـتِخْلاَفِ (and Salaatu-l-Istikhlaaf).

زَادَ‮ ‬بَـعْضُهُمُ‮ ‬ (Some of them [the jurist] add [as a condition of imāmate]) فَـضْلِ‮ ‬الْـجَـمَاعَـةِ‮  ‬ (preeminence in rank among the jamaa’ah) عَـلَى الْـْـخِلاَفَـةِ‮ ‬ (on the other hand), وَيُسْـتَحَبُّ‮ ‬تَقْدِيمُ‮ ‬السُّلْطَانِ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬الإِمَـامَـةِ (giving preference to the Sultaan to act as imām is preferred), ثُـمَّ‮ ‬رَبُّ‮ ‬الْـمَنْزِلِ (then the owner / head of the house),  ثُـمَّ‮ ‬الْـمُسْـتَأْجِـرُ‮ ‬عَـلَى الْـمَالِكِ‮ ‬ (then the landlord is given precedence over the king), ثُـمَّ‮ ‬الزَّائِـدُ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬الْـفِقْهِ‮ ‬ (then the one who knows the most fiqh),  ثُـمَّ‮ ‬الزَّائِـدُ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬الْـحَـدِيثِ‮ ‬ (then the one who knows the most hadith), ثُـمَّ‮ ‬الزَّائِـدُ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬الْقِرَاءَةِ (then the one who knows the most knowledgeable about qiraa’ah), ثُـمَّ‮ ‬الزَّائِـدُ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬الْـعِبَادَة (then the one who is most knowledgeable about ʿibaadah), ثُـمَّ‮ ‬الْـمُسِنُّ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬الإسْلاَمِ (then  [the most senior in Islam]), ثُـمَّ‮ ‬ذُو النَّسَـبِ‮ ‬(then the owner of noble lineage) ثُـمَّ‮ ‬جَمِيـلُ‮ ‬الْـخَلْقِ (and those beautiful [outstanding] of character), ثُـمَّ‮ ‬حَـسَنُ‮ ‬الْـخَـلْقِ (then those of good character), ثُـمَّ‮ ‬حَـسَنُ‮ ‬اللِّبَاسِ (and then those who dress well).

‮ ‬وَمَـنْ‮ ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬لَـهُ‮ ‬حَـقٌّ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬التَّقْدِيمِ‮ ‬فِالإمَامَةِ‮  ‬(The one who is competent has precedence in imāmate)   ‮ ‬(and competence nullifies the (social) rank in assuming the duty of imām). وَإِنْ‮ ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬عَـبْدًا (If there is a slave),‮ ‬أَوِ‮ ‬امْـرأَةً (a woman), أوْ‮ ‬غَـيْرَ‮ ‬عَـالِـمٍ‮ ‬مَـثَلاً‮ ‬(or unknowledgeable for example), فَإنَّهُ‮  ‬يَسْـتَحَبُّ‮ ‬لَـهُ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬يَـسْـتَنِيبَ‮ ‬مَـنْ‮ ‬هُـوَ‮ ‬أَعْلَمُ‮ ‬مِنْهُ  (it is preferred the person who is most knowledgeable be appointed from among them). وَاللَّهُ‮ ‬أَعْـلَمُ (Allah is the Best Knower).

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Published in: on December 26, 2010 at 03:51  Leave a Comment  

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