Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 5 – The Chapter about Al-Afʿaal [the Verbs]

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الافْعَالِ

5 – (The Chapter about Al-Afʿaal [the Verbs])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬اَلأَفْعَالُ‏‮ ‬‬ثَلاَثَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬مَاضٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَمُضَارِعٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَمْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬‏‮ ‬‬وَيَضْرِبُ‏‮  ‬‬وَإِضْرِبْ‏‮  ‬‬فَالـْمَاضِي‏‮ ‬‬مَفْتُوحُ‏‮ ‬‬الآخِرِ‏‮ ‬‬أَبَدًا وَالأَمْرُ‏‮ ‬‬مَجْزُومٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَبَدًا‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُضَارِعُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬أَوَّلِهِ‏‮ ‬‬إِحْدَى الزَّوَائِدِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَرْبَعِ‏‮ ‬‬يَجْمَعُهَا قَوْلُك أَنَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬مَرْفُوعٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَبَدًا حَتَّى‏‮ ‬‬يَدْخُلَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَيْه‏‮ ‬‬ِ‏‮ ‬‬نَاصِبٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬جَازِمٌ‏‮)‏

English Translation:

الأفْعَالُ (the verbs) ثَلاَثَةٌ (are three kinds) : مَاضٍ (past tense) وَمُضَارِعٌ (and present tense) وَأَمْرٌ‏  (and command tense) نَحْوُ (like): ضَرَبَ ( He beat…) وَيَضْرِبُ  and (He beats…) إِضْرِبْ and (beat…). فَالـْمَاضِي‏  (And so the  past tense verb) مَفْتُوحُ‏  الآخِرِِِ (bears fat-ḥah on the end) أَبَدًا (always);وَالأَمْرِِ (and command tense verb) مَجْزُومٌ  (is in the case of jazm) أَبَدًا (always);. وَالـْمُضَارِعُ(and the present tense verb) – مَا كَانَ‏  فِي‏  أَوَّلِهِ (what is found at the beginning of it) إِحْدَى اَلزَّوَائِدِ‏  الأربَعِ (is one of the four affixed prefixes) يَجْمَعُهَـــا (which when joined together) قَوْلُكَ (you say): أَنَيْتُ (anaytu). ‏  وَهُو (It [the present tense verb])مَرْفُوعٌ (is in the case of rafʿ) أَبَدًا (always), حَتَّى‏  يَدْخُلَ‏  عَلَيْه (unless precedes it),نَاصِبٌ (a particle of the naṣb case) أَوْ (or) جَازِمٌ (a particle of the case of jazm).

 

 

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

الأفعال ثلاثة ماضٍ‏‮ ‬‬مثل ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬مضارعٌ‏‮ ‬‬مثل‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬أمرٌ‏‮ ‬‬مثل‏‮ ‬‬إِضْرِبْ‏‮ ‬‬فالـماضي‏‮ ‬‬مفتوح الآخر أبداً‏‮ ‬‬مثل ضَرَبََ‏‮ ‬‬ما لم‏‮ ‬‬يتّصل به ضميرٌ‏‮ ‬‬رفعٍ‏‮ ‬‬متحرّك فَيُسَكِّنُ‏‮ ‬‬آخره كقولك ضَرَبـْـتُ‏‮ ‬‬أو ضميرٌ‏‮ ‬‬جمعٍ‏‮ ‬‬مذكَّر فَيُضَمُّ‏‮ ‬‬كقولك ضَرَبُوا والـمضارع الذي‏‮ ‬‬يعرف بما وُجِد في‏‮ ‬‬أوّله إحدى الزوائد الأربع‏‮ ‬‬يجمعها قولك أَنَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬نحو أَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬ونـَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬ويـَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬وتـَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬فهو مرفوع أبدًا كقولك‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبَانِ‏‮ ‬‬ويَضْرِبُون‏‮ ‬‬َُ‏‮ ‬‬وتَضْرِبِينَ‏‮ ‬‬حتى‏‮ ‬‬يدخلا عليه ناصبٌ‏‮ ‬‬فينصبه كقولك لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبَ‏‮  ‬‬ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبَا ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبُوا ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَضْرِبِِي‏‮ ‬‬أو جازم فيجزمه كقولك لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبْ‏‮ ‬‬ولَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبَا وهَـلُمَّ‏‮ ‬‬جرًّا وأمّا الأمر فمجزوم الآخر أبدًا كقولك إِضْرِبْ‏‮ ‬‬وإِخْـشَ‏‮ ‬‬وإِغْـزُ‏‮ ‬‬وإِرْمِ‏‮ ‬‬وإِضْرِبَا وإِضْرِبُوا‏‮   ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الأفـعالِ (the verbs) are of three kinds: مَاضٍ (past tense) – like: ضَرَبَ ( He beat…) and مُضَارِعٌ (present tense) – like:  يَضْرِبُ (He beats…) and أمْرٌ (the command tense) – like:  إِضْرِبْ ([you] beat…).  And so الـْمَاضِي (the past tense verb) always bears الْفَتْحَة (fat-˙ah) = ــَـ  on the end – like: ضَرَبَ.  ضَمِيرٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَفْعٌ‏‮ ‬‬مُتَحَرِّك (A vowelized pronoun in the case of rafʿ) is never affixed to (the end of) it.  However, it (الـْمَاضِي) does bear السُّكُون (sukuun) = ــْـ  at its end when you say:‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبْتُ .   It (الـْمَاضِي) is caused to have‏‮ ‬‬الضّمّة‏‮ ‬‬(∂ammah) = ــُـ  (as a final vowel when‏‮ ‬‬ضَمِيـــرُ‏‮ ‬‬جَمْعٍ‏‮ ‬‬مُذَكَّرٍ  (a pronoun of the masculine plural) [is affixed to the end of it] – like when you say:‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبُواْ.

الْـمُضَارِعُ (The present tense verb) is know by what is found in the front of it from one of اَلزَّوَائِد الأرْبَعِ (the four prefixes) – like when you say:  أَنَيْـــتُ – that is to say: أَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬ونَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬ويَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬وتَضْـرِبُ.  الْـمُضَارِعُ is also in the case of rafʿ – like when  you  say:‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبَانِ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبُونَ‏‮ ‬‬‏‮ ‬‬ تَضْرِبِينَ.  It (الْـمُضَارِعُ) is always in the case of rafʿ, unless نَاصِبٌ (a particle of the naṣb case) is preceding it.  It (نَاصِبٌ [a particle of the naṣb case]) causes it (الْـمُضَارِع) to  be  in  the  case   of   naṣb   –   like  when  you  say: لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبْ ‏‮ ‬‬ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْـرِبَا ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبُوا ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَضْـــرِبِيor if they are preceded by جَازِم (a particle of the jazm case), then they are caused to be in the case of jazm – like when you say:: لَمْ يَضْرِبْ‏‮ ‬‬and so forth.  As for الأَمْر (the command tense verb), its end is always inflected with the jazm case ending – like when you say:إِضْرِبْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِِخْشَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِغْزُ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِرْمَِ  وَإِضْرِبَا وَإِضْرِبُوا.

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬فَالنَّوَاصِبُ‏‮ ‬‬عَشَرَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِذَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَكَيْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬كَيْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْجُحُودِ‏‮ ‬‬وَحَتَّى وَجَوَابُ‏‮ ‬‬بالْفَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬وََالْوَاوُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَوْ‏‮) ‬‬

English Translation:

فـَالنَّوَاصِبُ (And so the particles of naṣb). وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬عَشَرَةٌ (They are ten):

أَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِذَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَكَيْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـجُحُودِ‏‮ ‬‬وَحَتَّى وَالْـجَوَابُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْـفَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـوَاوُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَوْ‏‮              ‬‬

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

النّواصب عشرة وهي‏‮ ‬‬أن ولن وإذن وكي‏‮ ‬‬ولامُ‏‮ ‬‬كي‏‮ ‬‬ولام الجحود وحتّى والجواب بالفاء والواو وأو وهي‏‮ ‬‬بذالك على قسمين قسم‏‮ ‬‬ينصب بذاته وهي‏‮ ‬‬الأربعة الـمتقدِّمات وقسم‏‮ ‬‬ينصب بواسطة أَنْ‏‮ ‬‬مضمرةً‏‮ ‬‬وهي‏‮ ‬‬الستة الـمتأخرة‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال أن‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬أُرِيدُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْ‏‮ ‬‬أعْلَمَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال لن‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْجِــعَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَى الْـخَطِيئَةِ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال إذن‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬إِذَنْ‏‮ ‬‬أُدْخُــلَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـجَـنَّةَ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال كي‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬عَلَّمَهُ‏‮ ‬‬كَيْ‏‮ ‬‬يََعْلَم‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال لام كي‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬تُبْ‏‮ ‬‬لـِـيَغْفِــرَ‏‮ ‬‬لَكَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهُ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال لام الجحود‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬مَا كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهُ‏‮ ‬‬لِـيَغْفِــرَ‏‮ ‬‬لِـلْمُصِرِّينَ‏‮ ‬‬عَـلَى خَطَايَاهُمْ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال حتّى‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬سِرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬حَتَّى أُدْخُــلَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَدِينَةَ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال الجواب بالفاء والواو‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬زُرْنِي‏‮ ‬‬فَــأَكْرِمَــكَ‏‮ ‬‬أَو وَأَكْرِمَــكَ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال الجواب بأو‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬َلأَمْنَعَنَّكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬تَتُوبُوا‏‮ – ‬‬أي‏‮ ‬‬إلى أَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَتُوبُوا

Explanation of Text in English:

النَّوَاصِبُ (the particles of naṣb) are ten.  They are:

أَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِذَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَكَيْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَامُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـجُحُودِ‏‮ ‬‬وَحَتَّى وَالْـجَوَابُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْفَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْوَاوُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَوْ

They in turn are of two kinds.  The first kind causes the verb to be in the case of naṣb due to the nature of the verb. They are the first four above mentioned particles.  The other kind causes the verbs to be in the case of naṣb by means of the particle أَنْ which is concealed (مُضْمَرَةً). They are the last six particles.

These are their examples:

[أنْ] – أُرِيدُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْ‏‮ ‬‬أُعَلِّمَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا (I want to teach Zayd)

[لَنْ] – لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْجِعَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلي‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَطِيئَةِ  – (I will never return to sin)

[إذنْ] – إِذَنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَدْخُلَ‏‮ ‬‬الـْجَـنَّـةَ  – (Therefore, I will enter the garden)

[كَيْ] – عَلَّمَهُ‏‮ ‬‬كَيْ‏‮ ‬‬يََعْلَمَ  – (I taught him so that he would know)

[لاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬كَيْْْ]تُبْ‏‮ ‬‬لِيَغْفِرَ‏‮ ‬‬لَكَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهُ  –  (Repent so that Allah may forgive you)

[لاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْجُحُودِ] – مَا كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهُ‏‮ ‬‬ لِيَغْفِرَ‏‮ ‬‬لِلمُصِرِّين عَـلَى خَطَايَاهُمَ  – (Allah does not forgive those who persist in their sins)

[حَـتَّى] – سِرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬حَتَّى أَدْخُلَ الــْمَدِينَةَ  – (I traveled until I entered the city)

[الجواب بِالْفاء و الْوَاوُ] –  زُرْنِي‏‮ ‬‬فَأَكْرِمَكَ or زُرْنِي‏‮ ‬‬وَأَكْرِمَكَ (Visit me and I will honor you)

[اَلْجَوَابُ‏‮ ‬‬بِأَوْ] -لأَمْنَعَنَّكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬تَتُوبُواْ (I shall certainly prevent you from entering unless you repent)

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَالـْجَوَازِمُ‏‮ ‬‬ثَمَانِيَةَ‏‮ ‬‬عَشَرَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلـَمَّا وَأَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَلـَمَّا وَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَمْرِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالدُّعَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬النَّهْيِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالدُّعَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا وَمَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَهْمَا وَإذْمَا وَأَيٌّ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَتَى وَأَيَّانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَيْنَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنَّى وَحَيْثُمَا وَكَيْفَمَا وَإِذَا فِي‏‮ ‬‬الشِّعْرِ‏‮ ‬‬خَاصَّةً‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

And الجَوَازِمُ (the particles of jazm) are eighteen and they are:

لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلـَمَّا وَأَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَلـَمَّا وَلاَمُ لأَمْرِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالدُّعَاءِ وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬النَّهْي‏‮ ‬‬وَالدُّعَاء وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا وَمَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَهْمَا وَإِذْمَا وَأَيٌّ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَتَى وَأَيَّانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَيْنَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنَّىَ‏‮ ‬‬وَحَيْثُمَا‏‮  ‬‬وَكَـيْـفَمَا وَإِذَا‏‮ ((‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الشِّعْرِ‏‮ ‬‬خَاصَّةً‏‮))‬‬

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬الجوازم ثمانية عشر وهي‏‮ ‬‬بذالك على قسمين‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬قسم‏‮ ‬‬يجزم فعلا واحدًا وهي‏‮ ‬‬ستّة أحرف لم ولـمّا وألم والـمّا ولام الأمر والدّعاء ولا في‏‮ ‬‬النّهي‏‮ ‬‬والدّعاء‏‭:‬‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال لم‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬أَذْهَبْ‏‮ ‬‬بِعَمْرٍو‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال لـمّا‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬لـَمَّا‏‮ ‬‬يَأْتِِِِ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال ألم‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬أَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬أَقُلْ‏‮ ‬‬لَكَ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال الـمّا‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬أَلـَمَّآ أُحْسِنْ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَيْك‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال لام الأمر لِيَضْرِبْ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬والدّعاء‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬لِيَرْحَمْنَااللَّهُ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال لا في‏‮ ‬‬النّهي‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬تَشْهَدْ‏‮ ‬‬بِالزُّورِ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬والدّعاء‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬تُعَامِلْنَا بِعَدْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬يَا رَبَ

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـجَوَازِمُ (the particles of jazm) are eighteen and they are divided into two kind.  The first kind causes only one verb to be in the  case  of  jazm.  and  they are the first six أَحْرُف (particles):

لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬لـَمَّا وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَلـَمَّا وَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَمْرِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالدُّعَاءِ وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬النَّهْي‏‮ ‬‬وَالدُّعَاءِ

They are used as follows:

[لَمْ]لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬أَذْهَبْ‏‮ ‬‬بِعَمْرٍو  – (I did not go with ʿAmr)

[لَمَّا]‏‮ ‬‬لـَمَّا‏‮ ‬‬يَأْتِ (He has not come yet)

[ أَلَمْ] ‏‮ ‬‬أَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬أَقُلْ‏‮ ‬‬لَكَ (…Did I not say to you)

[أَلَمَّا]أَلَـمَّآ أُحْسِنْ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَيْكَ (I have not yet given you charity)

[لامَ‏‮ ‬‬الأَمْرِ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬الدُّعَاءِ] لِيَضْرِبْ  (let him beat)  ‏

‮ ‬‬لِـيَرْحَـمْنَااللَّهُ‏‮  ‬‬‮ ‬(May Allah have mercy on us)‏

[لاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬النّهْيِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالدُّعَاءِ]  – لاَ‏‮ ‬‬تَشْهَدْ‏‮ ‬‬بِالزُّورِ (Do not testify with lies)

(Used when commanding the human being to refrain from an action)

اَ‏‮ ‬‬تُعَامِلْنَا بِعَدْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬يَا رَبُّ (Do not apply your justice to us Oh Lord)

(Used when asking for Allah’s mercy, not to punish us)

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic

وقسم‏‮ ‬‬يجزم فعلين‏‮ ‬‬يسمّى الأوّل فعل الشرط والثاني‏‮ ‬‬جوابه وهي‏‮ ‬‬إِنْ‏‮ ‬‬ومَا ومَنْ‏‮ ‬‬ومَهْما وإِذْمَا وأَيٌّ‏‮ ‬‬ومَتَى وأَيَّانَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَيْنَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَنَّى وحَيْثُمَا وكَيْفَمَا وإِذَا في‏‮ ‬‬الشّعر خاصّة‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال إِنْ‏‭:‬‬ إِنْ‏‮ ‬‬تََكْسَلْ‏‮ ‬‬تَخْسَرْ ‏‮❊ ‬‬مثال‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬مَنْ‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬مَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَطْلُبْ‏‮ ‬‬يَجِذْ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال ما‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬مَا تَفْعَلْ‏‮ ‬‬تَلْقَ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهِ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال مهْما‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬مَهْمَا تَفْعَلْهُ‏‮ ‬‬تُجَازَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَيْهِ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال إذما‏‭:‬‬ إِذْمَا تَجْضُرْ‏‮ ‬‬أَكْرِمْكَ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬

مثال أيّ‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬أَيّــًا تُصَاحِبْ‏‮ ‬‬أُصَاحِبْ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال متى‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬مَتَى اَضْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الْعِمَامَة تَعْرِفْنِي‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال أيّان‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬أَيَّانَ‏‮ ‬‬تَنْزِلْ‏‮ ‬‬اَنْزِلْ ‏‮❊ ‬‬مثال أين‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬أَيْنَ‏‮ ‬‬تَذْهَبْ‏‮ ‬‬أَذْهَبْ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال أَنَّى‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬أَنَّى تَجْلِسْ‏‮ ‬‬أَجلِسْ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال حيثما‏‭:‬‮  ‬‬حَيْثُمَا تَسْقُطْ‏‮ ‬‬تَثْبِثْ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال كيفما‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬كَيْفَ‏‮ ‬‬تَتَوَجَّهْ‏‮ ‬‬تُصَادِفْ‏‮ ‬‬خَيْرًَا‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال إذا‏‭:‬‬ إذَا تُصِبْكَ‏‮ ‬‬خُصَاصَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَحَمَّلْ

Explanation of Text in English:

The other kind of [particle of jazm] causes two verbs (in the same sentence) to be in the case of jazm. The first verb is called فِـعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّرْط (the verb of the conditional situation)  and  the second verb is called  فِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الْجَوَاب (the verb of the answer to the conditional situation).  These particles are:

إِنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا وَمَهْمَا وَإِذْمَا وَأَيٌّ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَتَّى وَأَيَّانَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَنَّى وَأَيْنَ‏‮  ‬‬وَحَيْثُمَا وَكَيْفَمَا وَإِذا في‏‮ ‬‬الشّعر خاصّة‏‮   ‬‬

They are used in the following way:

[إِنْ]إِنْ‏‮ ‬‬تََكْسَلْ‏‮ ‬‬تَخْسَرْ (If you are lazy, you will suffer a loss.)

[مَنْ]مَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَطْلُبْ‏‮ ‬‬يَجِدْ (He who seeks will find)

[مَا]مَا تَفْعَلْ‏‮ ‬‬تَلْقَ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهِ (Whatever you do will meet with Allah)

[مَهْمَا]مَهْمَا تَفْعَلْهُ‏‮ ‬‬تُجَازَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَيْهِ (Whatever you do you will be compensated for it)

[ إِذْمَا] – ‏‮ ‬‬إِذْمَا تََََـحْضُرْ‏‮ ‬‬أَكْرِمْكَ (Whenever you arrive, I will honor you)

[أَيٌّ]أَيّــًا تُصَاحِبْ‏‮ ‬‬أُصَاحِبْ (Whomever you befriend I will befriend)

[مَتَى]مَتَى أَضْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الْعِمَامَة تَعْرِفْنِي (When I put on the turban you will know me)

[أَيَّانَ]أَيَّانَ‏‮ ‬‬تَنْزِلْ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْزِلْ(When you dismount I will dismount.)

[أَيْنَ]أَيْنَ‏‮ ‬‬تَذْهَبْ‏‮ ‬‬أَذْهَبْ – (Wherever you go I will go.)

[أَنَّى] -أَنَّى تَـجْلِسْ‏‮ ‬‬أَجلِسْ – (Wherever you sit, I will sit.)‏‮

[حَيْثُمَا]حَيْثُمَا تَسْقُطْ‏‮ ‬‬تَثْبِثْ  – (Wherever you arrive you will stay)

[كَيْفَمَا]كَيْفَمَا‏‮ ‬‬تَتَوَجَّهْ‏‮ ‬‬تُصَادِفْ‏‮ ‬‬خَيْرًَا (Wherever you go you will find good)

[إِذَا] إذَا تُصِبْكَ‏‮ ‬‬خُصَاصَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَحَمَّلْ (If poverty befalls you, be patient)

 

 

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Published in: on December 26, 2010 at 17:17  Leave a Comment  

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