Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 4 – A Section Elaborating About What Has Been Previously Mentioned)

فَصْلٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬تَفْصِيلِ‏‮ ‬‬مَا تَقَدَمَّ‏‮ ‬‬ذِكْرُهُ

A Section Elaborating About What Has Been Previously Mentioned

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬اَلـْمُعْرَبَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬قِسْمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬قِسْمٌ‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالـْحَرَكاتِ‏‮ ‬‬وَقِسْمٌ‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالـْحُرُوفِ‏‮ ‬‬فَالذِي‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالـْحَرَكَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْبَعةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْوَاعٍ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفْرَدُ‏‮ ‬‬وَجَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬التَّكْسِيرِ‏‮ ‬‬وَجَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُؤَنَّثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْفِعْلُ الـْمُضَارِعِ‏‮ ‬‬الِذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَتَّصِلْ‏‮ ‬‬بِآخِرِهِ‏‮ ‬‬شَيْءٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَكُلُّهَا تُرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالضَّمَّةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْفَتْحَةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْكَسْرَةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُجْزَمُ  بِالسُّكُونِ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَرَجَ‏‮ ‬‬عَنْ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِك ثَلاَثَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشْيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُؤَنَّثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِمِ‏‮  ‬‬يُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْكَسْرَةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الِذِي‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَنْصَرِفُ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْفَتْحَةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَارِعُ الـْمُعْتَلُّ‏‮ ‬‬الآخر‏‮ ‬‬يُجْزَمُ‏‮ ‬‬بِحَذْفِ‏‮ ‬‬آخِرِهِ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

اَلـْمُعْرَابَاتُ (Inflected words) قِِسْمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬(are of two kinds).  قِسْمٌ‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬(One kind is inflected) بِالْحَرَكَاتِ (with the vowels) وَقِسْمٌ‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَبُ (and the other kind is inflected) بِالْحَرُوفِ (with the letters).‏‮ ‬‬فَالذِي‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَبُ (And so that which is inflected) بِالْـحَرَكَاتِ  (with the vowels) أَرْبَعةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْوَاعٍ (are four kinds):  الإسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُفْـرَدِ (The singular noun) وَجَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬التَّّكْسِيرِ (and the broken plural noun) وَجَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُؤَنِثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِمِ (and the sound feminine plural noun) وَالْفِعْــــلُ‏‮ ‬‬الْــمُضَـــارِعُ (and present tense verb) الِـذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَتَّصِلْ‏‮ ‬‬بِآخِرِهِ‏‮ ‬‬شَيْءٌ (for which nothing has been affixed to its end). وَكُلُّهَا (And each of them) تُرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالضَّمَّةِ (is  caused  to  be in the case of rafʿ by ammah: ‏‮ ‬‬ــُـ ) وَتُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْفَتْحَةِ (and in the case of naṣb by fat-˙ah: ــَـ) وَتُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْكَسْرَةِ (and in the case of khafḍ by kasrah: ــِـ) وَتُجْزَمُ بِالسُّكُونِ (and in the case of jasm by sukuun ــْـ ).

‏‮ ‬‬ثَلاَثَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشْيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬(Three things) خَرَجَ‏‮ ‬‬عَنْ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِك (depart from these [rules]): جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُؤَنِّثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّّالِمِ (the sound feminine plural noun) يُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْكَسْرَةِِ‏‮ ‬‬(is caused to be in the case of naṣb by kasrah [instead of fat-˙ah]) وَالإسْــمُ‏‮ ‬‬الــــذي (and the noun which)‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَنْصَرِفُ (is not fully declinable) يَخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْفَتْحَةِ (is caused to be in the case of khafḍ by fat-˙ah [instead of kasrah]) الْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُضَارِعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُعْتَلُّ‏‮ ‬‬آخِرِهِ (and the  present tense verb weak at the end) يُجْزَمُ (is caused to be in the case of jazm)‏‮ ‬‬بِحَذْفِ‏‮ ‬‬آخِرِهِ (by the dropping of its last letter).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إنّ الـمعربات قسمان قسم‏‮ ‬‬يعرب بالحركات وقسم‏‮ ‬‬يعرب بالحروف فالذي‏‮ ‬‬يعرب بالحركات أربعة أنواع أوّلها الإسم الـمفرد كقولك جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْــدٌ‏‮ ‬‬ورَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْــدًا ومَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِــزَيْــدٍ‏‮ ‬‬ثانيها جمع التكسير كقولك جَاءَتِ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالُ‏‮ ‬‬ورَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالَ‏‮ ‬‬ومَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالرِّجَالِ‏‮ ‬‬ثالثها جمع الـمؤنّث السالم كقولك جَاءَتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُومِنَــاتُ‏‮ ‬‬ورَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُومِنَــاتِ‏‮ ‬‬ومَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْـمُومِنَــاتِ‏‮ ‬‬رابعها الفعل الـمضارع الذي‏‮ ‬‬لم‏‮ ‬‬يتصل بآخره شيء‏‮ ‬‬يجب بناءه كقولك‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬فهذه جميعها تُرفع بالضمّة وتُنصب بالفتحة وتُخفض بالكسرة وتُجزم بالسكون إلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬الـمومنات في‏‮ ‬‬رَأَيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُومِنَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬وقد خرج عن هذا الأصل ثلاثة أشياء أوّلها‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬إنّ‏‮ ‬‬الأصل في‏‮ ‬‬إعراب الإسم الـمنصوب أن‏‮ ‬‬يُنصَب بفتحة فجمع الـمؤنث السالم خرج عن هذا الأصل لانّه‏‮ ‬‬يُنصَب بكسرة فتقول رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُومِنَــاتِ‏‮ ‬‬بكسْـر التاء لا بفتحها وثانيها‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬الأصل في‏‮ ‬‬إعراب الإسم الـمخفوض أن‏‮ ‬‬يُخفَضَ‏‮ ‬‬بكسرة فالإسم الذي‏‮ ‬‬لاينصرف خرج عن هذا الأصل لانّه‏‮ ‬‬يُخفَض بفتحة فتقول مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِأَحْمَــدَ‏‮ ‬‬ويُوسُــفَ‏‮ ‬‬بفتح الدال والفاء فيهما لا بكسرهما ثالثها‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬الأصل في‏‮ ‬‬جزم الفعل الـمضارع أن‮ ‬‬يُجزَم بالسكون فالفعل الـمضارع الـمعتلّ‏‮ ‬‬الآخر خرج عن هذا الأصل لانّه‏‮ ‬‬يٌجزَم بحذف آخره فتقول لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَغْــزُ‏‮ ‬‬ولَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْـشَ‏‮ ‬‬ولَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَرْمِ‏‮ ‬‬كما تقدّم بيانه

Explanation of Text in English:

اَلـْـمُعْرَابَاتُ (Inflected words) are of two kinds.  One kind is inflected بِالـْحَرَكَاتِِ (with the vowels) and another kind is inflected بـالْـحُرُوفِ (with letters).   And so that which is inflected by الـحَرَكَات are four kinds.  The first of them is الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُفْــــرَد (the singular noun) – like when you say:

جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ and رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا and مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيدٍ.  The second of them is جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬التَّكْسِيرِ (the broken plural noun)  – like when you say: جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالُ and رَأَيتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالَ‏‮ ‬‬and مَرَرتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالرِّجَالِ.  The third of them is جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُؤَنِثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِمِ (the sound feminine plural noun) – as you would say: جَاءَتِ‏‮ ‬‬الـمـُومِناتُ and رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُومِنَاتِ and مَرَرتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْمُومِنَاتِ.  The fourth is الْـفِعْل الْـمُضَارِع (the present tense verb) for which nothing has been affixed to its end – like when you say: يَـضْرِبُ.  And so all of the above mentioned are in the case of rafʿ by ‏‮  ‬‬ــُـ ‏‮= ‬‬الضَّمَّة  and in the case of naṣb  by ــَـ‏‮ ‬‬‏‮=‬‬‏‮ ‬‬الْـفَتْحَة‏‮ ‬‬and in the case of khafḍ by  ــِـ ‏‮=‬‬‏‮ ‬‬الْكَسْـرَة‏‮ ‬‬ and in the case of jazm by ــْـ ‏‮=‬‬‏‮ ‬‬السُّكُون‏‮ ‬‬with the exception of the word.الـْمُومِنَاتِ in the sentence رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُومِنَات.  This is because three things depart from the rule of inflection of words with اَلْـحَرَكَـات (vowels).  First, the rule for إِعْرَاب الِإسْـم الْـمَـنْصُوبِ (the inflection of the noun in case of naṣb) is that it should be inflected with الْـفَتْحَة (fat˙ah),  however جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُؤَنثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِـمِ (the sound feminine plural) departs from this rule, because it is caused to be in the case of naṣb by a  الْكَسْـرَة  (kasrah)- like when you say: رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْمُومِنَاتِ with الْكَسْرَة [ــِـ] on the (letter) taa instead of  الْفَتْحَة [ــَـ].

Secondly, the rule for إِعْرَب الإِسْـمِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَخْفُوضِ (the inflection of the noun in the case of khafḍ) is that it should be inflected with الْكَسْـرَة (kasrah), however الِإسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَا‏‮ ‬‬يَنْصَرِفُ, (the partially declinable noun or diptote) departs  from this rule, because it is caused to be in the case of الْـخَفُض (khafḍ) by الْفَتَحَة (fat˙ah)- like when you say: مَـرَرتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِأَحْمَدَ‏‮ ‬‬وَيُوسُفَ‏‮ ‬‬with الفتحة [ــَـ] on الدَّال and الْفَاءْ (instead of الْكَسْـرَة[ــِـ]).

Thirdly, the rule concerning the inflection of الفِعْل الْـمُضَارِع in the case of jazm is that it should be inflected with السُّكُون, however الْفِعْل الْـمُضَارِع الْـمُعْتَلّ‏‮ ‬‬الآخِر (the present tense verb that is weak  at  its  end)  departs  from  this rule, because  it  is  caused  to  be  in the case  of  jazm  by حَذْفُ‏‮ ‬‬آخِرِهِ (dropping its last letter) – like when you say: لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَغْزُ and لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْشَ and لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَرْمِ  – similar to what has been mentioned before in their explanation.

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَالذِي‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالـْحُرُوفِ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْبَعَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْوَاعٍ‏‮ ‬‬التَّثْنِيَةُ‏‮ ‬‬وَجَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُذَكَّرِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالأَسْمَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالأَفْعَالُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةُ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬وَيَفْعَلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَفْعَلُونُ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَفْعَلِين فَأَمَّا التَّثْنِيَةُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتُرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالأَلِفِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْيَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَمَّا جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُذَكَّرِالسَّالِم فَيُرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْوَاوِ‏‮ ‬‬وَيُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬وَيُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بالْيَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَمَّاالأَسْمَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتُرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بالْوَاوِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُنْصَبَ‏‮ ‬‬بِالأَلِفِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْيَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَمَّاالأَفْعَالُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخََمْسَةُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتُرَفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالنُّونِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُجْزَمُ‏‮ ‬‬بِحَذْفِهَا‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَالـــذِي‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالـْحُرُوفِِِ (And (the words) which are inflected with letters) أَرْبَعَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْوَاعٍ (are  four kinds): التّثنيةُ (the dual noun) وَجَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُذَكَّرِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِـمِ (and the  sound masculine plural noun)‏‮ ‬‬وَالأَسْمَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةِِ (and the five nouns)‏‮ ‬‬وَالأَفْعَالُ‏‮ ‬‬الْخَمْسَـةُ (and the five verbs) وَهِيَ (and they are): يَـفْعَلاَنِ ,‏‮ ‬‬تَـفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬, يَـفْعَلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬,‏‮ ‬‬تَـفْعَلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬, تَـفْعَلِينَ.

فَأَمَّا التَّـثْـنِيَةُ (As for the dual noun), فَتُرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالأَلِفِ (it is  caused  to  be in  the  case  of   rafʿ by  alif =ا) وَتُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْيَاءِ (and it is caused to be in the cases of naṣb and khafḍ by yaa = ي) وَأَمَّا جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُذَكَّرِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِـمِ (As for the sound masculine plural noun), فَيُرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْوَاوِ (it is caused to be in the case of rafʿ by waaw = و) وَيُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬وَيُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بالْيَاءِ (and it is caused to be in the cases of naṣb and khafḍ by yaa = ي).

وَأَمَّاالأَسْمَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةُ (As for the five nouns), فَتُرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بالْوَاوِ‏‮ ‬‬(they are caused to be in the case of  rafʿ by  waaw = و ) and وَتُنْصَبَ‏‮ ‬‬بِالأَلِفِ (and they are caused to be in the case of naṣb by alif = ا) وَيُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بالْيَاءِ (and they are cause to be in the case of khafḍ by yaa = ي). وَأَمَّاالأَفْعَالُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخََمْسَةُ (As for the five verbs), فَتُرَفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالنُّونِ (they are caused to be in the case of rafʿ by nuun = ن) وَتُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُجْزَمُ‏‮ ‬‬بِحَذْفِهَا (and they are caused to be in the cases of naṣb and jazm by the dropping of nuun [from the end of the verb]).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬ما‏‮ ‬‬يعرب بالحروف أربعة أنواعٍ‏‮ ‬‬أيضًا أوّلها التّثنية ثانيها جمع الـمذكّر السّالم ثالثها الأسماء الخمسة رابعها الأفعال الخمسة فالتّثنية تُرفَع بالألف كقولك جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الرُّّجُــلاََنِ‏‮ ‬‬وتُنصَب وتُخفَض بالياء كقولك رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلَـيْـنِ‏‮ ‬‬ومَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بالرَّجُلَــيْـنِ‏‮ ‬‬وجمع الـمذكّر السّالم‏‮ ‬‬يرفع بالواو كقولك جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُومِنُـونَ‏‮ ‬‬وينصب ويخفض بالياء كقولك رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُومِنِــيـنَ‏‮ ‬‬ومَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْـمُومِنِــيــنَ‏‮ ‬‬والأسماء الخمسة ترفع بالواو فتقول جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬أَبُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَخُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وحَمُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وفُوكَ‏‮  ‬‬وذُو مَالٍ‏‮ ‬‬وتنصب بالألف فتقول رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬أَبَـاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَخَاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وحَمَاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وفَاكَ‏‮  ‬‬وذَا مَالٍ‏‮ ‬‬وتخفض‏‮  ‬‬بالياء‏‮  ‬‬فتقول مَرَرتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِأَبِـيكَ‏‮  ‬‬وأَخِيكَ‏‮  ‬‬وحَمِيكَ‏‮ ‬‬وفِيكَ‏‮ ‬‬وذِي‏‮ ‬‬مَالٍ‏‮ ‬‬والافعال الخمسة ترفع بالنّون فتقول‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬وتَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬ويَفْعَلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وتَفْعَلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وتَفْعَلِيـنَ‏‮ ‬‬وتنضب وتجزم بحذفها فتقول في‏‮ ‬‬النصب لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلُوا ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَـلُـوا ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلِــي‏‮ ‬‬وتقول في‏‮ ‬‬الجزم لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلُوا ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَـلُـوا ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلِــي‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

The words which are inflected with letters are four kinds.  The first of them is التَّثْـنِِيَةُ (the dual noun), the second of them‏‮ ‬‬وَجمع‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُذَكِِّرِالسَّالِمِ‏‮ ‬‬(the sound masculine plural), the third is‏‮ ‬‬الأَسْمَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬الـخَمْسَةُ (the five nouns), the fourth is الاَفْعَالُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـخَمْسَةُ (the five verbs).

As for التَّـثْـنِيَةُ (the dual noun), it is caused to be in the case of rafʿ by  الأِلفُ (alif) – like when you say: جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلانِ (the two men came) and it is caused to be in the cases of naṣb and khafḍ by  الْيَـــاءُ (yaa) – like when you say:‏‮ ‬‬ رَأَيْـــتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلَيْنِ and  مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالرَّجُلَيْنِ.

جمع الْـمُذَكَّرُ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِمُ (the sound masculine plural, is caused to be in the case of rafʿ by‏‮ ‬‬الوَاوُ  (waaw) –  like when  you  say:‏‮ ‬‬ جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُومِنُونَ  and  it  is  caused  to be in the cases of naṣb and khafḍ by الْيَاءُ (yaa)- like when you say: رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُومِنِينَ and مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِِالـْمُومِنِينَ.

الأسْمَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـخَمْسَةُ (The five nouns) are caused to be in the case of raf’ by الْوَاوُ (waaw) – like when you say: جَاء أَبُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأخُوك وَحَمُوكَ وَفُوكَ وَذُو مَالٍ and they are caused to be in the case of naṣb by الألف (alif)- like when you say: رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬أَبَاكَ وَأَخَاكَ وَحَمَاكَ وَ فَاكَ وَذا مَالٍ and in the case of khafḍ by الياء – like when you say:   مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِأبِيك وَأخِيكَ وَحَمِيكَ وَفِيكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَذِ‏‮ ‬‬مَالٍ.

الاَفْعَالُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـخَمْسَة (the five verbs) are caused to be in the case of rafʿ by النّون (nuun) – like when you say:  يَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬وَيَفْعَلُونَ وَتَفْعَلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَفْعَلينَ‏‮ ‬‬and they are to be in the cases of naṣb and jazm by حَذْفُ‏‮ ‬‬النُّون. – like when you say:لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَـلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعـَلاَ وَلَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَـلُـوا‏‮  ‬‬وَلَن‏‮ ‬‬ْتَفْعَلُوا وَلَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلِي in the case of naṣb and لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ لَمْ تَفْعَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلُوا وَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلُوا وَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلِي  in the case of jazm.


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Published in: on December 21, 2010 at 01:31  Leave a Comment  

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