Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 3 – (The Chapter Concerning The Knowledge of ʿAlaamaatu-l-Iʿraab [The Signs Of Iʿraab])

 

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعْرِفَةِ‏‮ ‬‬عَلامَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬الإِعْرَاب

3 – (The Chapter Concerning The Knowledge of ʿAlaamaatu-l-Iʿraab [The Signs Of Iʿraab])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬لِلرَّفْعِ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْبَعُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَاتٍ‏‮ ‬‬الضَّمَّةُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْوَاوُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالأَلِفُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالنُّونُ‏‮)  ‬‬

English Translation:

لِلرَّفْـعِِ (The case of rafʿ has) أَرْبَعُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَاتٍ (four signs): الضَّمّــــَةُ (ammah) وَالْوَاوُ (and waaw), وَالأَلِفُ (and alif) والنّونُ (and nuun). ‬‬

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬فَأَمَّا الضَّمَّةُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬لِلرَّفْعِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬أرْبَعَةِ‏‮ ‬‬مَوَاضِعَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفْرَدِ‏‮ ‬‬وَجَمَْعِ‏‮ ‬‬التَّكْسِيرِ‏‮ ‬‬وَجَمْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُؤَنَّثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْفِعْلِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُضَارِعِ‏‮ ‬‬الذِى لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَتَّصِلْ‏‮ ‬‬بِآخِرهِ‏‮ ‬‬شَيءٌ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

فَأَمَّا‏‮ ‬‬الضَّمَة (As for ḍammah), فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً (it is a sign) لِلرَّفْعِ (for the case of rafʿ)‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬أرْبَعَةِ (in four) مَوَاضِعَ (places): فِي‏‮ ‬‬اَلإِسْم الـْمُفْــــرَدِ (in the singular noun)‏‮ ‬‬وَجَمْــــعِ‏‮ ‬‬التَّكْسِيــــرِ (and the broken plural noun) وَجَمْـــعِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُؤَنَّثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِم (and the sound feminine plural noun) َواَلْفِعْـلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضـَارِعِ (and the present tense verb) الذِى لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَتَّصِل (which does not have attached) بِآخِرهِ (to its end), شَيء (anything) [which is necessary for its construction].

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

فأمّا‏‮ ‬‬الضّمة‏‮ ‬‬فتكون علامةً‏‮ ‬‬للرفع في‏‮ ‬‬أربعة مواضع في‏‮ ‬‬الإسم الـمفرد‏‮ ‬‬نحو‏‮ ‬‬جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلُ‏‮ ‬‬وجمع التّكسير‏‮ ‬‬مطلقًا في‏‮ ‬‬الـمذكّر والـمؤنث نحو‏‮ ‬‬جَاءَتِ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْكَوَاعِبُ‏‮ ‬‬وجمع الـمؤنث السّالم‏‮ ‬‬نحو‏‮ ‬‬جَاءَتِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُومِنَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬والفعل الـمضارع الذي‏‮ ‬‬لم‏‮ ‬‬يتّصل بآخره شيء نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبُ

Explanation of Text in English:

الضَّمَّةُ (ḍammah) is a sign for the case of rafʿ in four places: in اَلإِسْم الـْمُفُرَد (the singular noun) – like when you say: جَاءَ الرَّجُلُ (The man came) and in جَمْع التَّكْسِير (the broken plural noun) unrestricted in both the male and the female – like when you say:  جَاءَتِِ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْكَوَاعِبُ (The men and the girls came) and جَمْع الـْمُؤَنَّث‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِم (the sound feminine plural) noun – like when you say: جَاءَتِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُومِنَاتُ (The believing women came) and الْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الْــمُضَارِعُ‏‮ ‬‬الذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَتَّصِلْ‏‮ ‬‬بِآخِرِهِ‏‮ ‬‬شَيْءٌ (the present tense verb) which does not have anything affixed to the end of it that is necessary for its construction – like when you say: يَضْرِبُ (he beats…).

(*note in ʿArabic):

جمع التكسير هو الجمع الذي‏‮ ‬‬يسلم فيه بنآء مفـرده لكنّه إذا جُمِعَ‏‮ ‬‬كُسِّرَ‏‮ ‬‬بتغيير وضع حروفه كٍقولك رجالٌ‏‮ ‬‬جمع رجل فإنّه لم‏‮ ‬‬يسلم فيه بناء جمعه لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬الألف دخلت بين الجيم واللاّم فكسّرت بناءَه الأصلي‏‮ ‬‬فدُعِي‏‮ ‬‬جمعًا مكسّرًا

جمع الـمذكّر السّالم هو الجمع الذي‏‮ ‬‬سلم فيه بناء مفرده فيجمع بِأنْ‏‮ ‬‬يزاد في‏‮ ‬‬آخره واو ونون في‏‮ ‬‬حال الرّفع أو‏‮ ‬‬ياء ونون في‏‮ ‬‬حالتَى النّصب والخفض كقولك جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُومِنُونَ‏‮ ‬‬ورَأَيتُ‏‮ ‬‬الُـمُومِنِينَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْـمِومِنِينَ‏‮ ‬‬فإنّ‏‮ ‬‬

الـمفرد مومنٌ‏‮ ‬‬وأمّا جمع الـمؤنّث السّالم فيجمع بِأنْ‏‮ ‬‬يزاد في‏‮ ‬‬آخره ألف وتآء‏‮  ‬‬كقولك جَاءَتِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُومِنَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬فأمّا الفعل الـمضارع‏‮ ‬‬يُرفع بضمّة إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬إذا اتّصلت بآخره إحدى النونين‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬نون النّسوة أو نون التوكيد فمع نون النسوة‏‮ ‬‬يبنَى على السكون كقولك النّساء‏‮ ‬‬يَذْهبْنَ‏‮ ‬‬ومع نون التوكيد‏‮ ‬‬يبنى على فتحة كقولك لاَ‏‮ ‬‬تَضْرِبَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬فمن ثَمَّ‏‮ ‬‬قلنا إذا لم‏‮ ‬‬يتّصل بآخره شيء لانّه إذا اتّصلت به إحدى النُّونَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬فَيَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬مبنيًّا لا معربًا‏‮ ‬‬

(*note in English):

‏‮ ‬‬جَمْع التَّكْسِيرِ (The broken plural noun) is the plural in which the construction of its singular is sound, but when it is pluralized, it is broken by changing the position of its letters – like when  you say رِجَالٌ which is the plural of رَجُـلٌ .  رَجُلٌ is not sound in the construction of its plural, because اَلأَلِف (alif) has come between اَلْجِيم (jiim) and اَللاَّم (laam) and so the original construction has been broken.  As a result, it is called جَمْعًا مُكَسَّرًا (a broken plural noun).

جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُذكَّر السَّالِمِ (The sound masculine plural noun) is the plural which is sound in its singular construction.   It is pluralized by adding وَاوٌ (waaw) and نُونٌ (nuun) to its end‏‮ ‬‬when it is in the case of rafʿ or by adding يَاءٌ (yaa) and نُونٌ (nuun) to its end when it is in the case of naṣb and khafḍ – like when you say: جَـاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُومِنُــونَ (the male believers came [three or‏‮ ‬‬more males]) and رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُومِنيِنَ (I saw the male believers [three or more]) and مَرَرْتُ بِالْمُومِنِينَ (I passed by the male believers [three or more males]).  The singular of  these examples is مُومِنٌ.   As for  جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْــمُؤَنِِّثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّّالِمِ (the sound feminine plural noun), it is pluralized by adding ألف (alif) and تاء (taa)  like when you say: جَاءَتِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُومِنَاتِ (The female believers came [three or more females]).

As for اَلْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضاَرِع (the present tense verb), it is in the case of rafʿ by الضَّمَة  – (that is to say, it carries ضَمَّةٌ as the last vowel), unless إِحْدَى الْنُونَينِ (one of the two nuuns) has been attached to the end of it.  They are نُونُ‏‮ ‬‬النِّسْوَة (the nuun of the female doer) and نُونُ‏‮ ‬‬التَّوْكِيد (the emphatic nuun).  نُون النِسْوَة (The nuun of the female doer) is constructed on‏‮ ‬‬آلسُّكُون – like when you say: النّسَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬يَذْهَبْنَ

(The women are going).  نُونُ‏‮ ‬‬التَّوكِيد is constructed on اَلْفَتْحَة like when you say: لا تَضْرِبَنَّ (By no means should you beat…).  Therefore, we have said, “ … when nothing which is necessary for its construction has been attached to the end of it.”, because if one of the two nuuns is attached to the end of the verb, it will become مَبْنِيــــًًّا لا مُعْربًا (fixed and unchangeable).

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَأَمَّا‏‮ ‬‬الْوَاوُ‏‮ ‬‬ُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬لِلرَّفْعِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬مَوْضِعَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬جَمْعِ‏‮ ‬‬ِالـْمُذَكَّرِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَفِي‏‮ ‬‬الأسْمَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬أَبُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَحَمُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَفُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَذُو مَالٍ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَأَمَّا‏‮ ‬‬اَلْوَاوُ (As for the waaw), فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً (it is a sign) للرَّفْع (for the case of rafʿ) فِي‏‮ ‬‬مَوْضِعَيْنِِ (in two places) فِي‏‮ ‬‬جَمْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُذَكَّرِالسَّالِمِِ (in the sound masculine plural noun) وَفِي‏‮ ‬‬الأسْماءِ‏‮ ‬‬الْخَمْسَةِ ( and in the five nouns) وَهِيَ (and they are): أَبُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَحَمُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَفُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَذُو مَالٍ

Explanation of Text in Arabic:

الواو تكون علامةً‏‮ ‬‬للرفع في‏‮ ‬‬موضعين في‏‮ ‬‬جمع الـمذكر السّالم كقولك‏‮ ‬‬جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬اْلـمُومِنُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وفى الأسماء الخمسة وهي‏‮ ‬‬أبُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وأخُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وحَمُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَفُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وذُو مَالٍ‏‮ ‬‬فذاك الجمع وهذه الأسماء ترفع بالواو نيابة عن الضّمة

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـوَاوُ (The waaw) is the sign for the case of rafʿ in two places: in جَـمْعْ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُذَكَّرِالسَّالِـم  (the sound masculine plural noun) – like when you say: جَـاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُومِنُونَ (The  male  believers came) and in  الأسْماءُ‏‮ ‬‬الْخَمْسَة (the five nouns) – like when you say:  أَبُـوكَ (your father), أَخُـوكَ (your brother), حَمُوكَ (your father-in-law), فُوكَ (your mouth), ذُو مَالٍ    (owner of wealth).  And so, that الجمع (the plural) and these اَلأسْـمَاءُ (nouns) are in the case of rafʿ by اَلْـوَاو instead of  اَلضَّمّة.

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَأَمَّا الأَلِفُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬لِلرَّفْعِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬تَثْنِِيَةِ‏‮ ‬‬الأسْمَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬خَاصَّةً‏‮) ‬‬

English Translation:

وَأَمَّا‏‮ ‬‬اَلأَلِفُ, (As for alif), فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً (it is a sign) للرّفع (for the case of rafʿ) in فِي‏‮ ‬‬تَثْنِيَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الأسْمَاء (in the dual nouns) خَاصَّةً (exclusively).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬الألف تكون علامة للرّفع في‏‮ ‬‬تثنية الأسماء خاصةً‏‮ ‬‬أي‏‮ ‬‬لا تكون في‏‮ ‬‬غير هذا الـموضع علامة للرّفع كقولك‏‮ ‬‬جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلاَنِ

Explanation of Text in English:

الأَلِفُ  (Alif) is a sign for the case of rafʿ in تَـثْـنِيَة الأَسْمَاءِ (the dual nouns) exclusively.  That is to say, it is not a sign for the case of rafʿ in any other place. It is like when you say:  جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬(the two men came).

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَأمَّاالنُّونُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬لِلرَّفْعِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْلِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَارِعِ‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا اتَّصَلَ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ‏‮ ‬‬ضَمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬تَثْنِيَةٍ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬ضَمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬جَمْعٍ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬ضَمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُؤَنَّثَةِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُخَاطَبَةِ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَأمَّا‏‮ ‬‬اَلنُّونُ (As for the nuun), فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً (it is a sign) للرّفع (for the case of rafʿ) فِِِي‏‮ ‬‬الفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَارِعِ (in the present tense verb)‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا اتَّصَلَ‏‮ ‬‬بِِِهِ (when has been affixed to it), ضَمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬تَثْنِيَة (a dual pronoun) أَوْ (or) ضَمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬جَمْعٍ (a plural pronoun) أَوْ (or) ضَمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُؤَنَّثِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُخَاطَبَةِ (the feminine singular pronoun for the one who is being spoken to).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬النّون تكون علامة للرفع في‏‮ ‬‬الفعل الـمضارع إذا اتصل به‏‮ ‬‬ضمير تثنية‏‮ ‬‬مثل‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬وتَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬أو‏‮ ‬‬ضمير جمع‏‮ ‬‬مثل‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَـلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وتَفْعَـلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬أو‏‮ ‬‬ضمير الـمؤنثة الـمخاطبة‏‮ ‬‬مثل‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلِينَ‏‮ ‬‬فان هذه الافعال لاتصالها بهذه الضّمائر تُرفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بالنّون‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

اَلنُّونُ (the nuun) is a sign for the case of rafʿ in الْفِعْل الْـمُضَارِع (the present tense verb) when ضَمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬تَثْنِيَةٍ (a dual pronoun) has been affixed to it – for example: يَفْعَلانِ (the two of them [male or female] are doing…)  and تَفْعَلانِ (the two of you [male or female] are doing…) or when ضَمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬جَمْعٍ (a plural pronoun) has been affixed to it – for example يَفْعَلُونَ (they [three or more males] are doing) and  تَفْعَلُونَ (you [three or more males] are doing…) or  ضَمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُؤَنِّثِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُخَاطَبَة (the feminine singular pronoun for the one who is being to spoken to) has been affixed to it  – for example تَفْعَلِينَ (you (feminine singular) are doing…).  So when these verbs have these pronouns affixed to the end of them, they are in the case of rafʿ by نَ.

(* Note in ʿArabic):

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬الاَبنية الفعلية الخمسة هذه وهي‏‮ ‬‬: يَفْعَلانِ تَفْعَلانِ يَفْعَلُون تَفْعَلُونَ تَفْعَلِين‏‮ ‬‬تسمى‏‮ ‬‬الافعال الخمسة‏‮ ‬‬جميعةً

(*note in English):

Collectively, these five verbal constructions: يَفْعَلانِ , تَفْعَلانِ , يَفْعَلُونَ , تَفْعَلُونَ and تَفْعَلِينَ  are known as الاَفْعَال الْخَمْسَة (the five verbs).

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَلِلنَّصْبِ‏‮ ‬‬خَمْسُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَاتٍ‏‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬‬الْفَتْحَةُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالأَلِفُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْكَسْرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬وََالْيَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَحَذْفُ‏‮ ‬‬النُّونِ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَللنَّصْبُ (And the case of naṣb has خَمْسُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَاتِ (five signs): الْفَتْحَةُ (the fat-ḥah ) وَالأَلِفُ (and the alif ) and (the kasrah) (and the letter yaa)  وَحَذْفُ‏‮ ‬‬النُّونِ (and the dropping of the letter nuun ن).

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬فَأَمَّاالْفَتْحَةُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬للنَّصْبِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬ثَلاَثَةِ‏‮ ‬‬مَوَاضِعَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفْرَدِ‏‮ ‬‬وَجَمْعِ‏‮ ‬‬التَّكْسِيرِ‏‮ ‬‬ِوَالْفِعْلِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَارِعِ‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا دَخَلَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَيْهِ‏‮ ‬‬نَاصِبٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَتَّصِلْ‏‮ ‬‬بِآخِرِهِ‏‮ ‬‬شَيْءٌ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

فَأَمَّا‏‮ ‬‬الْـفَتْحَةُ (As for the fat-ah), فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً (it is a sign) للنَّصْبِ (for the naṣb case) فِي‏‮ ‬‬ثَلاَثَةِ‏‮ ‬‬مَوَاضِعَ (in three places): فِيالإسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفْرَدِ (in the singular noun) وَفِي‏‮ ‬‬جَمْــع التَّكْسِـــرِِ (and in the broken plural noun) وَفِـي‏‮ ‬‬اَلْفِعْــــلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَـــــارِعِ (and in present tense verb) إِذَا دَخَـــلَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَيْهِِ (when it is preceded by) نَاصِبٌ (one of the particles of naṣb) وَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَتَّصِلْ‏‮ ‬‬بِآخِرِهِ‏‮ ‬‬شَيْءٌ (and nothing has been attached to its end anything) [which is necessary for its construction].

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬الفتحة تكون علامة للنصب في‏‮ ‬‬ثلاثة مواضع في‏‮ ‬‬الإسم الـمفرد كقولك رَأَيتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬وجمع التكسير كقولك رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخَذْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْكَوَاعِبَ‏‮ ‬‬والفعل الـمضارع إذا دخل عليه ناصب ولم‏‮ ‬‬يتصل بآخره شيء‏‮ ‬‬يجب بناءه كقولك لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبَ

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـفَتْحَةُ (Fat-ḥah) is a sign for the case of naṣb in three places: in الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفْرَد (the singular noun) – like when  you  say:‏‮ ‬‬رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيدًا (I saw Zayd) and ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلَ (I beat the man) and in جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬التَّكْسِير (the broken plural noun) – like when you say: رَأَيتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَآلَ (I saw the men – three or more) and أَخَذْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْكَوَاعِبَ (I took the girls – [three or more]) and in اَلْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَارِع (present tense verb) when it is preceded by نَاصِبٌ (one of the particles of  naṣb) and it (اَلْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَارِع) doesn’t have anything affixed to the end of it which is necessary for its construction like when you say:  لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبَ (he never beats…).

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَأَمَّاالأَلِفُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬لِلنَّصْبِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الأَسْمَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةِ نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬أَبَاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخَاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا أَشْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَأَمَّاالأَلِفُ (As for the alif), فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً (it is a sign for the case of (naṣb) فِي‏‮ ‬‬الأَسْمَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةِِ (in (the five nouns) نَحْوُ (like when you say): رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬أَبَاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخَاكَ (I saw your father and your brother) وَمَا أَشْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ (and what is similar to these).‏‮   ‬‬

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

الألف تكون علامة للنصب في‏‮ ‬‬الأسماء الخمسة‏‮ ‬‬فقط فتقول‏‮ ‬‬رأيت أباك‏‮ ‬‬وأخاك‏‮ ‬‬وحماك‏‮ ‬‬وفاك‏‮ ‬‬وذا مال

Explanation of Text in English:

‏‮ ‬‬الأَلِفُ (Alif) is a sign for the case of  naṣb in الأَسْـمَاء‏‮ ‬‬الْـخَـمْسَة (the five nouns) exclusively – like when you say:

رَأَيتُ‏‮ ‬‬أَبَاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخَاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَحَمَاك وَفَاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَذَامَالٍ.

ʿArabic Text:‏‮                  ‬‬

‏‮(‬‬وَأَمَّا الْكَسْرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬لِلنَّصْبِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬جَمْْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُؤَنَّثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِم‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَأَمَّا الْكَسْرَةُ‏ (As for kasrah), فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً (it is a sign) لِلنَّصْبِ (for naṣb) فِي‏‮ ‬‬جَمْْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُؤَنَّثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِمِ (in the sound feminine plural noun).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬الكسرة تكون علامة للنصب في‏‮ ‬‬جمع الـمؤنث السّالم‏‮ ‬‬وهو ما جُمِعَ‏‮ ‬‬بــألف‏‮ ‬‬وتاء مزيدتين كقولك‏‮ ‬‬رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْــمُومِنَاتِ

Explanation of Text in English:

الكَسْـرََةُ  (Kasrah) is  a  sign  for  the  case  of  naṣb in جَـمْع الْـمُؤَنِث السَّالِـم (the sound feminine plural noun).   It becomes pluralized by ألف (alif) and a تاء (taa) which are added to its end like when you say: رَأَيْتُ الْـمُومِناتِ (I saw the female believers).

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَأَمَّااليَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬لِلنَّصْبِ‏‮ ‬‬فِِي‏‮ ‬‬التَّثْنِيَة‏‮ ‬‬ِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْجَمْعِ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَأَمَّا اليَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬(As for the letter yaa), فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً (it is a sign) لِلنَّصْبِ‏‮ ‬‬(for the case of naṣb) فِِي‏‮ ‬‬التَّثْـنِيَة (in the dual noun) and وَالـْجَمْعِ‏‮ ‬‬(the plural noun).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬الياء‏‮ ‬‬تكون علامة للنصب في‏‮ ‬‬موضعين في‏‮ ‬‬التثنية مثل‏‮ ‬‬رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلَــيْـنِ‏‮ ‬‬وجمع الـمذكر السالم نحو‏‮ ‬‬رَأْيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الــمُوـمِنـِـيـنَ

Explanation of Text in English:

اليَاءُ (yaa) is a sign for the case of  naṣb  in two places: التَّثْنِيَةُ (the dual noun)  – like when you say: رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلَيْنِ (I saw the two men) and  جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُذَكَّرِالسَّاِلمِ (the sound masculine plural noun) – like when you say: رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُومِنِينَ (I saw the male believers [three or more males]).

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وأَمَّا حَذْفُ‏‮ ‬‬النُّونِ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬علاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬لِلنَّصبِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الأفْعَالِ‏‮ ‬‬الْخَمْسَةِ‏‮ ‬‬التِي‏‮ ‬‬رَفْعُهَا بِثبَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬النُّون‮ ‬‬ِ‏‮) ‬‬

English Translation:

وأَمَّا حَذْفُ‏‮ ‬‬النُّونِ (As for‏‮ ‬‬the dropping of nuun), فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬علاَمَةً (it is a sign) لِلنَّصبِ (for the case of naṣb) فِي‏‮ ‬‬الأفْعَالِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةِ‏‮ ‬‬ (in the five verbs) التِي‏‮ ‬‬رَفْعُهَا (which were caused to be in the case of rafʿ) بـِثبَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬النُّونِ (because of the affixing of the nuun) [to the end of them].

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬حذف النّون‏‮ ‬‬يكون علامة للنصب في‏‮ ‬‬الأفعال الخمسة التي‏‮ ‬‬يكون رفعها بثَبات النّون وهي‏‮ ‬‬كلّ‏‮ ‬‬فعلٍ‏‮  ‬‬مضارعٍ‏‮ ‬‬اتصل به ضمير تثنية‏‮ ‬‬أو ضمير جمع أو الـمؤنثة الـمخاطبة كما تقدّم‏‮  ‬‬بيان‏‮  ‬‬ذالك‏‮  ‬‬كقولك‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮  ‬‬وَتَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬ويَفْعَلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وتَفْعَلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وتَفْعَلِينَ‏‮ ‬‬فهذه الافعال تُنصَب بحذف النّون التي‏‮ ‬‬كانت ترفع بها فتقول لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬وتَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلُوا ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلُوا في‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وتَفْعَلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلِي‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلِينَ

Explanation of Text in English:

حَـذْفُ‏‮ ‬‬النُّونِ (the dropping of nuun) is a sign for the case of  naṣb  in الأَفْـعَال الْـخَـمْسَة (the five verbs) which are caused to be in rafʿ بـِـثبَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬النُّونِ by affixing nuun to (to the end of them).  It is every present tense verb on which ضَمِيُر تَثْنِيَةٍٍ (the dual pronoun), ضَمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬جَمْعٍ (the plural pronoun)  or ضَـمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬مُـخَاطَبَة (the feminine singular pronoun for one being spoken to) have been attached, like what has been explained before – like when you say: يَـفْعَلانِ (the two of them masculine are doing), تَفْعَلانِ (the two of you are doing [male or female]), يَفْعَلُونَ (they are doing [three or more males]), تَفْعَلُونَ (you are doing [three or more males].  تَفْعَلِينَ (you feminine singular are doing).

These verbs are caused to be مَنْصُوبًا ( in the case of naṣb) by حذف النّون ( dropping from the end of them, the nuun) which originally caused them to be in the case of rafʿ – and so you say:  لَنْ يَفْعَلاَ (those two will never do…).  لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تفْعَلاَ (you two will never do…), in the case of the verbs يَفْعَلانِ and تَفْعَلانِ and لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلُوا – (they [three or more] will never do…) and لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلُو – (you [three or more] will never do…) in the case of the verbs يَفْعَلُون and تَفْعَلُونَ and لَن‏‮  ‬‬ْتَفْعَلِي (you [feminine singular] will never do…) in the case of the verb تَفْعَلِينَ. 

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(وَلِلْخَفْضِ‏  ثَلاَثةُ‏  عَلاَمَاتٍ‏  الْكَسْرَةُ‏  وَالْيَاءُ‏  وَالْفَتْحَةُ)

English Translation:

وَلـِلْخَفْضِِ‏‮ ‬‬(The case of khafḍ) has ثَلاَثةُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَاتٍ (three signs): الْكَسْرَةُ (kasrah ــِـ.) وَالْيَاءُ (and the yaa = ي) وَالْفَتْحَةُ (and the fatah ــَـ )

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬فَأَمَّاالّكَسْرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬للْخَفْضِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬ثَلاَثِ‏‮ ‬‬مَوَاضِعَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الإَسْمِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفْرَدِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُنْصَرِفِ‏‮ ‬‬وَجَمْعِ‏‮ ‬‬التَّكْسِيرِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُنْصَرِفِ‏‮ ‬‬وَجَمْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُؤَنَّثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِمِ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

فَأَمَّاالّكَسْرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬(As for kasrah), فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً (it is a sign)‏‮ ‬‬للْخَفْضِِِِ (for the case of khafḍ) فِي‏‮ ‬‬ثَلاَثِ‏‮ ‬‬مَوَاضِـعَ (in three places): فِي‏‮ ‬‬الإَسْمِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفْرَدِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُنْصَرِفِ (in the inflected singular noun) وَجَمْعِ‏‮ ‬‬التَّكْسِير الـمُنْصَرِفِ (and the inflected broken plural) وَجَمِعِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُؤَنَّثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّاِلمِ (and the sound feminine plural noun).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬الكسرة تكون علامة للخفض في‏‮ ‬‬ثلاثة مواضع في‏‮ ‬‬الإسم الـمفرد الـمنصرف كقولك مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وفي‏‮ ‬‬جمع التكسير الـمنصرف كقولك مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالرِّجَالِ‏‮ ‬‬وفي‏‮ ‬‬جمع الـمؤنث السالم كقولك مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْـمُومِنَاتِ

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـكَسْرَةُ (kasrah) it is sign for the case of khafḍ in three places: in الإِسْمِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُفْرَدِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُنْصَرِفِ (the inflected singular noun) – like when you say: مََرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيدٍ (I passed by Zayd) and in جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬التَّكْسِير الـمُنْصَرِف (the fully inflected broken plural) – like when you say: مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالرِّجَالِ (I passed by the men) and جَمِع‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَؤَنّثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِمِ (the sound feminine plural noun). – like when you say: مَرَرْتُ بِالْمُومِناتِ (I passed by the female believers).

(*note in ʿArabic):

الإسم الـمنصرف هو الإسم الـمتمكّن في‏‮ ‬‬الإسمية الذي‏‮ ‬‬يدخله التنوين والجرّ‏‮ ‬‬أيضًا وأما الإسم الذي‏‮ ‬‬لا‏‮ ‬‬ينصرف فهو الإسم الذي‏‮ ‬‬لا‏‮ ‬‬يدخله التنوين ولا الجرّ‏‮ ‬‬

(*note in English):‏‮

الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُـنْصَرفُ (the fully inflected noun) is among those nouns to which التّنويِن (the nuun sound) and الـْجَرّ (the case of jarr) are affixed.  As for الإسمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَبْنِي (the indeclinable noun) or الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الذِي‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬مَمْنُوعًا مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الصَّرْفِ (partially declinable noun), it is the noun that التَنْوِين and الجَـرّ do not enter (that is to say: tanwiin and kasrah are not affixed to the end of this kind of noun).

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَأَمَّآ الْيَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬لِلْخَفْضِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬ثَلاَثَةِ‏‮ ‬‬مَوَاضِعَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الأَسْمَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَفِي‏‮ ‬‬التَّثْنِيَةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْجَمْع‏‮)‬‬ِ

English Translation:

وَأَمَّا الْيَاءُ (As for the letter yaa), فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَة (it is a sign)‏‮ ‬‬لِلْخَفْضِِِ (for case of khafḍ) ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬ثَلاَثَةِ‏‮ ‬‬مَوَاضِعَ (in three places): فِِِي‏‮ ‬‬الأَسْمَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬الْخَمْسَـةِ (in the five nouns) وَفِي‏‮ ‬‬التَّثْنِيَةِِِ (and in the dual noun) وَالـْجَمْعِ and the [sound masculine] plural noun).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬الياء‏‮ ‬‬تكون علامة للخفض في‏‮ ‬‬ثلاثة مواضع في‏‮ ‬‬الأسماء الخمسة‏‮ ‬‬كقولك‏‮ ‬‬مررت بِأَبِيكَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَخِيكَ‏‮ ‬‬وحَمِيكَ‏‮ ‬‬وفِيكَ‏‮ ‬‬وذِي‏‮ ‬‬مَالٍ‏‮ ‬‬وفي‏‮ ‬‬التثنية كقولك مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالرَّجُلْينِ‏‮ ‬‬وفي‏‮ ‬‬الجمع‏‮ ‬‬‏‮((‬‬الـمذكر السالم‏‮)) ‬‬

كقولك‏‮ ‬‬مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْـمُومِنِينَ‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الْيـَاء (yaa) is a sign for the case of khafḍ in three places:  in الأَسْمَاء الخَمَسَة (the five nouns) – like when you  say: مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِأَبِيكَ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬أَخِيكَ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬حَمِيكَ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬فِيكَ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬ذِي‏‮ ‬‬مَالٍ and in التثنية (the dual noun) – like when you say: مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بالرَّجُلَيْنِ and  جمع‏‮ ((‬‬الـمذكَّر السّالم‏‮))‬‬ (the sound masculine plural) – like when you say: مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْمُومِنِينَ (I passed by the believers).

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَأَمَّا الْفَتْحَةُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬لِلْخَفْضِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمِ‏‮ ‬‬الِذى لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَنْصَرِفُ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَأَمَّا الْفَتْحَةُ (As for fat-˙ah), فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬(it is a sign)‏‮ ‬‬لِلْخَفْضِ (for case of khafḍ فِي‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمِ‏‮ ‬‬الِذى لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَـنْصَرِفُ (in the indeclinable noun [only]).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬الفتحة تكون علامة للخفض في‏‮ ‬‬الإسم الذي‏‮ ‬‬لا‏‮ ‬‬ينصرف فقط كقولك‏‮ ‬‬مررت بِإِبْرَاهِيمَ

Explanation of Text in English:

الْفَتْحَــــةُ (fat-˙ah) is a sign for الْـخَفْـــض (khafḍ) in   الإِسْــــم الَّذِي‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَنْصَرِفُ the indeclinable noun only – like when you say: مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِإِبْرَاهِيمَ (I passed by Ibraahiim).

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮ (‬‬وَلِلْجَزْمِ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَتَانِ‏‮ ‬‬السُّكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْحَذْفُ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَلِلْجَزْمُ (the case of jazm has) عَلاَمَتَانِِِ (two signs) السُّكُونُ (sukuun) and وَالْـحَذْفُ (and the dropping [of the final letter]) .

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَأَمَّاالسُّكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬فَيَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬لِلْجَزْمِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْلِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَارِعِ‏‮ ‬‬الصَّحِيحِ‏‮ ‬‬الآخِرِ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَأَمَّاالسُّكُونُ (As for sukuun), ‏‮ ‬‬فَيَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً (it is a sign) لِلْجَزْمِ (for the case of jazm) فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْلِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَارِعِ‏‮ ‬‬الصَّحِيحِ‏‮ ‬‬الآخِرِ (in the present tense verb which is sound at its end).‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

فأمّا السكون فيكون علامةً‏‮ ‬‬للجزم في‏‮ ‬‬الفعل الـمضارع الصّحيح الآخِرِ‏  كقولك لَمْ‏  يَضْرِبْ

 

Explanation of Text in English:

As for السُّّكُونُ (sukuun) is a sign for الْـجَزْم (the case of jazm) in  الْفِعْل الْـمُضَارِع الْصَّحِيح (the present tense verb which is sound at its end).  The last letter of this verb is as you would say: لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبْ (he did not beat). ‏‮ ‬‬

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَأَمَّا الـْحَذْفُ‏‮ ‬‬فَيَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬لِلْجَزْمِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْلِ‏‮ ‬‬الـمُُضَارِعِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُعْتَلِّ‏‮ ‬‬الآخِرِ‏‮ ‬‬وَفِي‏‮ ‬‬الأَفْعَالِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةِ‏‮ ‬‬الِتي‏‮ ‬‬رَفْعُهَا بِثَبَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬النُّونِ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَأَمَّا الـْحَذْفُ (And as for the dropping [of the final letter]), فَيَكُــونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً (it is a sign) لِلْجَـــزْمِ (for the case of jazm)‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْـفِعْلِ‏‮ ‬‬الـمُُضَارِعِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُعْتَلِّ‏‮ ‬‬الآخِرِ (in the  present tense verb which is weak at its end) وَفِي (and in) الأَفْعَالِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةِ (the five verbs) الِتي (which are) رَفْعُهَا بِـثَبَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬النُّون in the case of rafʿ by affixing nuun [to their last letter]).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬الحذف‏‮ ‬‬يكون علامة للجزم في‏‮ ‬‬موضعين إحدهما الفعل الـمعتلّ‏‮ ‬‬آخره فإنّ‏‮ ‬‬علامة الجزم فيه حذفُ‏‮ ‬‬حرفِ‏‮ ‬‬العلة من آخره كقولك‏‮ ‬‬لمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْشَ‏‮ ‬‬ولَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَغْزُ‏‮ ‬‬ولَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَرْمِ‏‮ ‬‬بحذف الألف والواو‏‮ ‬‬والياء‏‮ ‬‬فانّ‏‮ ‬‬أصلها‏‮ ‬‬يخشى ويغزو ويرمي‏‮ ‬‬بالالف والواو والياء حذفت اواخرها بدخول جازم عليها علامةً‏‮ ‬‬لجزمها‏‮ ‬‬

ثانيهما الافعال الخمسة التي‏‮ ‬‬يكون رفعها بثبات النّون وقد تقدّم ذكرها كقولك‏‮ ‬‬لم‏‮ ‬‬يفعلا‏‮ ‬‬ولم تفعلا‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬يفعلان‏‮ ‬‬وتفعلان‏‮ ‬‬ولم‏‮ ‬‬يفعلوا‏‮ ‬‬ولم‏‮ ‬‬تفعلوا‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬يفعلون‏‮ ‬‬وتفعلون‏‮ ‬‬ولم‏‮ ‬‬تفعلي‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬تفعلين

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـحَذْفُ (the dropping of the letter) is a sign for الْـجَزْم ( the case of  jazm) in two places.  One of them is at the end of‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْل‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُضَارِع الْـمُعْتَلُّ (the present tense verb which is weak at its end).  The sign of الْـجَزْم (case of jazm) in it is the dropping of حَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعِلَّة (the weak letter) from its end – like when you say: لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْشَ (He did not fear) and لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَغْزُ (he did not raid) and لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَرْمِ (he did not throw) by dropping الألف, الواو and الياء  (respectively).  And the roots of them are يَخْشَى and يَغْزُو and يَرْمِي with الأَلِف, الْوَاو and اليَاء having been dropped from the end of them because of the prefixing of الـْجَازِم (the particle of jazm لَمْ) as a sign of their being in the case of الْـجَزْم.

The second place (in which الْـحَذْف (the dropping a letter) is a sign of الجزم (the case of jazm) is in الَافْعَال‏‮ ‬‬الْـخَمْسَة (the five verbs) which are caused to be in the case of rafʿ by affixing nuun( ن ) to their end – like what has been previously mentioned – as you would say: لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعلاَ andلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلاَ in the case of the verbs يَفْعَلانِ and تَفْعَلانِ and لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلوا and لَم تَفْعَلُوا in the case of the verbs يَفْعَلُونَ and تَفْعَلُونَ and لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلِي in the case of the verb تَـفْعَلِينَ.

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Published in: on November 1, 2010 at 18:25  Leave a Comment  

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