Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 2 – (The Chapter About الاِعْرَاب [Inflection])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِعْرَاب

2 – (The Chapter About Iʿraab [Inflection])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬الإِِعْرَابُ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬تَغْيِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬أَواَخِرِ‏‮ ‬‬الْكَلِمِ‏‮ ‬‬لاِخْتِلافِ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَوَامِلِ‏‮ ‬‬الدَّاخِلَةِ‏‮ ‬‬عَـلَيْهَا لَفْظًا أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬تَقْدِيرًا‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

اَلإِعْرَابُ (inflection) هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬تَغْيِير (is the changing) أَواَخِرِ (of the end [last letter] of) الْكَلِم (words) ‏‮ ‬‬لاِخْتِلاف (because of the different) [kinds of] عَوَامِل (governors / governing factors) الدَّاخِلَةِ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَيهَا (preceding / affecting them). [The change] is لَفْظاً (by expression) or تَقْدِيرًا (by implication).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

‏‮ ‬‬الإعْراَب هو تَغْيير أَواخرالْكَلم لاخْتلاف الْعوامل الدّاخلة عليها لفظا أو تقدِيرا إنّ‏‮ ‬‬هذا التّغييراللاّحق في‏‮ ‬‬أواخرَ‏‮ ‬‬الكلم قد‏‮ ‬‬يكون لفظًا كقولك جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬ورَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا ومَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وقد‏‮ ‬‬يكون‏‮  ‬‬تقديرًا كقولك جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَتَى ورَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَتَى‮ ‬ومَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْفَتَى فإنّ‏‮ ‬‬التّغيير الذي‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬آخر زيد ظاهر ملفوظ والتّغيير الذي‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬آخر الفتَى مقدّر منويّ‏‮ ‬‬لأنه مبني‏‮ ‬‬على الألف الـمقصورة ولهذا قيل إنّ‏‮ ‬‬التّغيير‏‮ ‬‬يكون لفظًا أو تقديرًا‮ ‬‏‮ ‬‮  ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

اَلإعْرَاب (Al-iʿraab [inflection]) is the changing of the end (last letter) of words because of the different (kinds of  عَوَامِل (governors) preceding them / governing factors affecting them.  (This change) is لَفْظًا (by expression) or تَقْدِيرًا (by implication).  This affixed change which is at the end of words is‏‮ ‬‬لَفْظًا  like when  you  say: جََاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ (Zayd came) and رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا (I saw Zayd) and‏‮ ‬‬مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ (I passed by Zayd).  It is تَقْدِيرًا  when you  say: جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَتَى (the youth came) and رََأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَتَى (I saw the youth) and مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْفتَى (I passed by the youth).

And so the change which occurred at the end of the word زَيْد is ظَاهِر (clear) and ملَفُوظ (expressed) and the change (which should have occurred)  at  the end of اَلْفَتَى is مُقَدَّرٌ (implied) and مَنْــــوِيٌّ (intended), because it (اَلْفَــــتَى) is مَبْنِي‏‮ ‬‬على الالف المقصورة‏‮ = ‬‬‏‮(‬‬ى‏‮)‬‬ (fixed in its construction on the alif maqṣuurah and unchangeable).  It is for these reasons, it has been said, “that the change is لَفْظًا or تَقْدِيرًا .”

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَأَقْسَامُهُ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْبَعَةٌ‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬رَفْعٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَنَصْبٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَفْضٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَجَزْمٌ‏‮ ‬‬فَلِلاَسْمَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ الرَّفْعُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالنَّصْبُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْخَفْضُ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬جََزْمَ‏‮ ‬‬فِيهَا وَلِلاَفْعَالِ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلكَ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّفْعُ‏‮  ‬‬وَالنَّصْبُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْجَزْمُ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬خَفْضَ‏‮ ‬‬فِيهَا‏‮)

English Translation:

وأَقْسَامُهُ (and its parts) أَرْبَعَةٌ (are four): رَفْعٌ (rafʿ),‏‮ ‬‬نَصْبٌ (naṣb),‏‮ ‬‬خَفْضٌ (khafḍ) and جَزْم (jazm). فلِلأسْمَاءِ (And so the nouns‏‮ ‬‬can have) مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلـــكَ (from these) الرَّفْعُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالنَّصْبُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْخَفْضُ‏‮ ‬‬(the  case  endings  of  rafʿ, naṣb, and khafḍ [affixed to their last letter],‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬جََزْمَ‏‮ ‬‬فِيهَا (but the case of jazm does not occur in it), وَلِلأفْعَال (while the verbs  can  have) الرَّفْعُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالنَّصْبُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْجَزْمُ (the cases of rafʿ, naṣb, and jazm) [affixed to their last letter], وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬خَفْضَ‏‮ ‬‬فِيهَا (but the case of khafḍ does not occur in it).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

وأقسامه أربعة رفعٌ‏‮ ‬‬ونصبٌ‏‮ ‬‬وخفضٌ‏‮ ‬‬وجزمٌ‏‮ ‬‬إنّ‏‮ ‬‬قسمًا من أقسام الإعراب مشترك بين الأسماء والأفعال قسمٌ‏‮ ‬‬منها مختصّ‏‮ ‬‬بكل منهما وأمّا الحروف فلا‏‮ ‬‬يدخلها شيء من أقسام الإعراب لانّها مبنيّة فأمّا القسم الـمشترك بينهما وهو رفعٌ‏‮ ‬‬ونصبٌ‏‮ ‬‬لأنّهما‏‮ ‬‬يدخلان الإسم والفعل كقولك‏‮ ‬‬يضربُ‏‮ ‬‬زيدٌ‏‮ ‬‬ولن أضربَ‏‮ ‬‬زيدًا والقسم الـمختصّ‏‮ ‬‬هو الخفض والجزم فالخفض مختصّ‏‮ ‬‬بالاسم والجزم مختصّ‏‮ ‬‬بالفعل كقولك لم أذهبْ‏‮ ‬‬بعبّاسٍ

Explanation of Text in English:

And it (الإِعْرَاب) has four parts: رَفْعٌ‏‮ ‬‬ونَصْبٌ‏‮ ‬‬وخَفْضٌ‏‮ ‬‬وجَزْمٌ (the cases of rafʿ, naṣb, khafḍ and jazm.).  One part (of الإِعْرَاب) is common between الأَسْمَاء (nouns) and الأَفْعَال (verbs) and another part of it is exclusive to each of them.

As for الـْحُرُوف (the particles), nothing from أَقْسَام الإِعْرَابِ (the parts of iʿraab) is affixed to them, because they are fixed at‏‮ ‬‬their end.

The common parts between اَلأَسْمَاء (nouns) and the الأَفْعَال (verbs) are: اَلرَّفْعُ (the rafʿ case) and اَلنَّصْب (the naṣb case), because both cases occur in  الإسْم (the noun) and اَلْْفِعْل (the verb) – like when you  say: يَضْــــرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـــــدٌ (Zayd beat…) in the case of الرَّفْـــــع and لَــنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَضْرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدًا (I never beat Zayd) in the case of النَّصْب.  The  exclusive part is اَلْخَفْض (the khafḍ case) and اَلْجَزْم (the jazm case).  اَلْخَفْض (the  khafḍ case) is exclusively affixed to اَلأسْماء (nouns) while اَلْجَزْم (the jazm case) is exclusively affixed to اَلافْعَال (verbs) – like when you say: لَـمْ‏‮ ‬‬أَذْهَبْ‏‮ ‬‬بِعَبَّاسٍ (I did not  go with ʿAbbaas).

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 3 – (The Chapter Concerning The Knowledge of ʿAlaamaatu-l-Iʿraab [The Signs Of Iʿraab])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 4 – A Section Elaborating About What Has Been Previously Mentioned)

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 5 – The Chapter about Al-Afʿaal [the Verbs]

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 6 – The Chapter About Marfuʿaatu – l – Asmaa’[The Nouns that are Caused to be in the Case of Rafʿ]

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 7 – The Chapter About Al-Faaʿil [the Doer])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 8 – (The Chapter About al-Mafʿuul [The Receiver Of The Action Whose Doer Was Not Mentioned])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 9 – (The Chapter About Al-Mubtada’ [The Subject] And Al-Khabr [The Predicate])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 10 – (The Chapter About Al – ʿAwaamil [The Governors] That Enter Upon The Subject And The Predicate

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 11 – (The Chapter About An-Naʿt [The Adjective])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 12 – (The Chapter About Al-ʿAṭf [The Conjoining Of Words])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 13 – (The Chapter About At-Tawkiid [The Emphasizing of the Noun])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 14 – (The Chapter About Al-Badal [The Substitute])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 15 – (The Chapter About Al-Manṣuubaatu-l-Asmaa’i [The Nouns In The Case Of Naṣb])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 16 – (The Chapter About Al – Mafʿuul Bihi [The Object of the Verb])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 17 – (The Chapter About Al-Maṣdar [The Verbal Noun])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 18 – (The Chapter About Ḍharfu-z-Zamaan [The Adverb Of Time] and Ḍharful-Makaan [The Adverb Of Place])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 19 – (The Chapter About Al-Haal [The Circumstantial Noun])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 20 – (The Chapter About At-Tamyiiz [The Noun Of Specification])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 21 – (The Chapter About (Al-Istath-naa’ [The Exclusion of Nouns])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 22 – (The Chapter About Laa)

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 23 – (The Chapter About Al-Munaadaa [The Noun in Direct Address])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 24 – (The Chapter About Al-Mafʿuul Min-Ajlih [Causative Object])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 25 – The Chapter About Al-Mafʿuul Maʿahu [The Object Which Accompanies The Subject In The Execution Of An Action])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 26 – (The Chapter About Al-Makhfuuḍaat [The Nouns Caused to be in The Case of Khafḍ)


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Published in: on September 6, 2010 at 17:29  Leave a Comment  

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