Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 1 – بَابُ‏ الْكَلاَم (The Chapter About Speech)

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

قال الْـمُصَـنِّف وهو أبو عبد الله محمد بن محمد بن داوود الصنهاجي‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُـلَـقَّب بابن آجُرُّوم الذي‏‮ ‬‬وُلِد في‏‮ ‬‬سنة اثنتين‏‮  ‬‬وسبعين وستمائة والمتوفي‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬سنة ثلاث وعشرين وسبعمائة من الهجرة النبوية رحمه الله قال‏‮ ‬‬‏‭:

The author, and he is Abū ʿAbdullaahi Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Dāwūd aṣ-Ṣanhaajī known as Ibn Aajurruum who was born in the year 672 and who died in the year 723 after the Prophetic hijrah may Allah have mercy on him – said after بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم:

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الْكَلاَم‮ ‬

1 – (The Chapter About  Speech)

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬اَلْكَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّفْظُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُرَكَّبُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفِيدُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْوَضْعِ‏‮)

English Translation:

الْـكَلاَمُ‮ ‬(Speech) هُـوَ (is) اللَّفْظُ (expression [which is articulated]) الـْـمُرَكَّبُ (composite) الـْـمُفِيدُ (informative) بِـالْـوَضْـعِ (in accordance with customary usage and [regulated] by conventional [Arabic] rules).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

اَلْكَلاَمُ‏  هُوَ‏  اللَّفْظُ‏  الـْمُرَكَّبُ‏  الْـمُفِيدُ‏  بِالْوَضْعِ‏  العربي‏  فلا بدَّ‏  الكلام العربي‏  أن‏  يبنى على أربعة أشياء وهي‏  أن‏  يكون لفظًا وأن‏  يكون مركبًا وأن‏  يكون مفيدًا وأن‏  يكون موضوعًا بالوضع العربيّ‏  فأمّا معنى كونه لفظًا فأن‏ يُلْفَظَ‏  صوتيّــًا مستعملاً‏  بعض الحروف الأبجديّة كقولك مُحَمَّدٌ‏  وعَلِيٌّ‏  وذَهَبَ‏  فكلّ‏  كلمة من هذه الكلمات الثلاثة تكون صوتًا مستعملاً‏  بعض الحروف الهجائيّة العربيّة‏

وأمّا معنى كونه مركّبًا فأن‏  يكون الكلام العربي‏  مؤلّفًا من كلمتين أو أكثرَ‏  نحو عَبْدُاللَّهِ‏  وإِذَا جاَءَ‏  مُحَمَّدٌ‏  وطُلُوعُ‏  الشَّمْسِ‏  وكلّ‏  عبارة من هذه العبارات مركّبةٌ‏  غيرُ‏  مفيدةٍ‏

وأمّا معنى كونه مفيدًا فأن‏  يَكْفي‏  سكوتُ‏  الـمتكلم عليه بحيثُ‏  لا‏  يبقى السّامع منتظرًا لشيء آخر فإذا قلت إِذَا جَاءَ‏  مُحَمَّدٌ‏  هذه العبارة ليست مفيدةً‏  لأنّها لا تفيد الـمخاطب فائدةً‏  تامّةً‏  ولكن إذا قلت إِذَا جَاءَ‏  مُحَمَّدٌ‏  إِلَى بَيْتي‏  فَاَكْرِمْهُ‏  فهذه العبارة أفادت إفَادة  كَافيةً‏  والسامع بها لا‏  ينتنظر أكثر من هذه‏

وأمّا معنى كونه موضوعًا بالوضع العربي‏  هي‏  بثلاث حالات أولها تكون الألفاظ الـمستعملة في‏  الكلام التي‏  وضعها العرب للدلالة على معنى ذات شخص نحو مُحَمَّدٌ‏  أو   للدلالة على معنى ذات مكان نحو مَسْجِدٌ‏  أو للدلالة على معنى ذات شيء نحو كِـتَابٌ‏  فيسمّى كل لفظ من هذه الألفاظ إسمًا

‏  ثانيها تكون الألفاظ الـمستعملة في‏  الكلام التى‏   وضعها العرب للدلالة على معنى حصول الحدث بأحد الأزمنة الثلاثة وهي‏  الفعل الماضي  أي‏  ما دلّ‏  على حدث وقع قبل زمان التَّكلُّم نحو ذَهَبَ‏  والفعل المضارع أي‏  ما دلّ‏  على حدث‏  يقع في‏  زمان التكلُّم أو بعده كقولك‏  يَذْهَبُ‏  وفعل الأمر أي‏  ما دلّ‏  على حدث‏  يُطلَب حصوله بعد زمان التكلُّم نحو إذْهَبْ‏

ثالثها تكون الألفاظ الـمستعملة في‏  الكلام التى وضعها العرب  غير تامّ  الْـمعنى حتّى تُضَمَّ‏  إلى كلمة  غيرها وهي‏  كقولك هَلْ‏  ومِنْ‏  ولَمْ‏   فإذا قلت هَلْ‏  ذَهَبَ‏  ومِنَ‏  الـْمَسْجِدِ‏  ولَمْ‏  يَخْرُجْ‏  فكلّ‏  عبارة من هذه العبارات‏  الثّلاثة لم‏  يُفْهَم معناها تامـّــًا حتّى تضمّ‏  إلى كلمة‏  غيرها وتسمّى كل عبارة من هذه العبارات الثلاثة حرفًا فالإسم والفعل والحرف تكون من حالات الكلام الثلاثة التي‏  وضعها العرب بالوضع العربي


Explanation of Text in English:

الْـكَلاَمُ (Speech) is informative composite expression which is articulated according to conventional ʿArabic rules.  Undoubtedly, ʿArabic speech is constructed on four things.   They are that it (Speech) is لَفْظـًا (expressed),  مُرَكَّبًا (composite  [composed of two or more parts]), مُفِيدًا (informative), and مَوْضُوعًا بِالْوَضْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيِّ (regulated by conventional ʿArabic rules).  And so the meaning of its being لَـفْظًا is that ʿArabic speech is expressed vocally by using some of الْـحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَبْجَدِيَّة (the letters of the ʿArabic alphabet) – like when you say: مُحَمَّدٌ (Muhammad) and عَـلِيٌّ (ʿAlī) and ذَهَـبَ (He went).  Each word from these three words is vocalized by using some of الْـحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْهَجَائِيَّةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيَّة (the letters of the ʿArabic alphabet).

As for the meaning of its being مَـرَكَّبًا , ʿArabic speech is composed of two or more words – like عَبْدُاللَّهِ‏‮ ‬‬(ʿAbdullah) and إِذَا جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَمَّدٌ (if Muhammad comes) and طُلُوعُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّمْسِ (the rising of the sun). Each expression from these expressions is مُرَكَّّبًا (composed of two or more parts) without being مُفِيدًا (informative).

As for the meaning of its being مُـفِيدًا , it is when the silence of the speaker becomes sufficient, wherein the listener does  not  expect  to  hear  anything  else.  If  you  say: إِذَا جَـاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحُـمَّدٌ (If Muhammad comes), this expression is not مُـفِيدًا (informative), because it does not convey complete information to the person being spoken to – [that is to say, the one who heard it].

However, if you say:‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَمَّدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَى بَيْتيِ‏‮ ‬‬فَاَكْرِمْهُ (If Muhammad comes to my house, I will honor him.), This statement is completely informative and enough.  The person who hears it does not expect more than this.

As for the meaning of الْكَلاَم (speech) being مَوْضُوعًا بِالْوَضْعَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيِّ (regulated by conventional ʿArabic rules), it occurs in three cases:

The first case is the expressions that are used in الْـكَلاَم that have been constructed by the ʿArabs to define the essence of a person – like when you say: مُحَـمَّدٌ (Muhammad) and the expressions used in الْـكَلاَم which the ʿArabs have constructed to define the nature of a place – like when you say: مَسْجِـــدٌ (masjid [place of prostration]) and the expression used in الْـكَلاَمُ that the ʿArabs have constructed to define the nature of a thing – like when you say: كِـتاَبٌ  (book).  Each of these expressions is called إِسْمًا (a noun).

The second case is the expressions used in الْـكَلاَمُ which the ʿArabs have constructed to define the occurrence of something in one of three time periods.  They are الْـفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـمَاضِـي (the past tense verb) – that is to say, the expression which shows an occurrence that occurred before the time of the conversation – like when you say: ذَهَبَ (he went), and الْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَارِعُ (the present tense verb) – that is to say, the expression which shows the occurrence of a thing during the time of the conversation or soon after it – like when you say: يَذْهَبُ (he is going), and the ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَمْرِ (the command tense verb) that is say, the expression which  shows the occurrence of a thing that is being sought after the time of the conversation – like when you say: إِذْهَبْ (go).

The third case is the expressions used in الْـكَلاَم that have been constructed by the ʿArabs – their purpose is not completely understood until they are placed next to another word.  They are like: هَـلْْ and مِـنْ and لَـمْ and so if you say: هَلْ‏‮ ‬‬ذَهَـبَ (did he go) and مِـنْ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَسْجِـدِ (from the masjid) and لَـمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْرُجْ (he did not leave), the purpose of these three expressions (هَـلْ and مِـنْ and لَـمْ) was not completely understood until they were placed next to another word.  Each of these three expressions is called حَرْفًا (a letter [particle]).‏‮ ‬‬ And so, الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـحَـرْفُ are the three cases of الْـكَلاَم which the ʿArabs have been regulated with conventional ʿArabic rules.

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وأَقْسَامُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ثَلاَثَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِسْمٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَفِعْلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَحَرْفٌ‏‮ ‬‬جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬لِـمَعْنًى‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَأَقْسَامُــــهُ (And its parts) ثَلاَثَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬(are three): إِسْمٌ (a noun) and فِعْلٌ (a verb) and حَرْفٌ‏‮ ‬‬جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬لِـمَعْنَى (a letter [particle] coming with/for a meaning).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

وأقسامه ثلاثة إسم مثل زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬ورَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وفعل مثل ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬إِضْرِبْ‏‮ ‬‬وحرف جاء لِـمعنى مثل هَلْ‏‮ ‬‬وفِي‏‮ ‬‬ولَمْ

Explanation of Text in English:

And its parts are three: إِسْمٌ (a noun) – like: زَيْدٌ (Zayd) and رَجُلٌ (man), and; فِعْلٌ (a verb) – like: ضَرَبَ (He beat) in the past tense, يَضْرِبُ (He beats) in the present tense and إِضْـرِبْ (Beat) in the command tense; and حَرْفٌ‏‮ ‬‬جَـاءَ‏‮ ‬‬لِـمَعْنَى (a letter coming with a meaning) – that is to say one letter by itself or two or three letters joined together that have a specific meaning like: هَـلْ (an interrogative particle that introduces a question) and فِـي (A preposition meaning ‘in’ or‘into’ among other things) and لَـمْ (a particle of negation that is used to negate the occurrence of an action in the past).

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬فَالِإسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَفُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْخَفْضِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّنْوِينِ‏‮ ‬‬وَدُخُولِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَلِفِ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللاَّمِ‏‮  ‬‬وَحُرُوفِ‏‮ ‬‬الْخَفْضِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِلَى وَعَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَلَى وَفِي‏‮ ‬‬وَرُبَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْبَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْكَافُ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللاَّمُ‏‮ ‬‬وَحُرُوفِ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَسَمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬الْوَاوُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْبَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّاءُ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

فَالإِسْمُُ (And so the noun) يُعْرَف بِـ (is known by) ‏‮ ‬‬الْـخَفْضِ (the lowering [of the vowel]) وَتَنْوِينِ ‏‮ ‬‬(and tanwiin [adding the nuun sound to the end of the word]); وَدُخُولِ‏  الأَلِفِ‏  اللاَّمِِ‏ (and the prefixing of the alif and the laam اَلْْ [the]);

وَحَرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْخَفْضِ (and the particles of khaf [letters] of lowering) and they are:

; مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإلَى وَعَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَلَى وَفِي‏‮ ‬‬وَرُبَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْبَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْكَافُ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللاَّمُ

وَحَرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَسَمِ (and the particles of swearing) and they are:

.الْواوُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْبَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّاءُ.

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

فالإسم‏‮ ‬‬يعرف بالخفض كقولك مررت بالرّجلِ‏‮ ‬‬والغلامِ‏‮ ‬‬ِوبالتّنوين كقولك زيدٌ‏‮ ‬‬ورجلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وبدخول الألف واللاّم كقولك الرّجلُ‏‮ ‬‬والغلامُ‏‮ ‬‬وبحروف الخفض وهي‏‮ ‬‬من وإلى وعن وعلى وفي‏‮ ‬‬وربّ‏‮ ‬‬والباء والكاف واللام وحروف القسم وهي‏‮ ‬‬الواو والباء والتّاء كقولك سرتُ‏‮ ‬‬من البصرةِ‏‮ ‬‬إلى الكوفةِ‏‮ ‬‬ورحلتُ‏‮ ‬‬عن البلدِ‏‮ ‬‬وصعدت على الخيلِ‏‮ ‬‬وجلست في‏‮ ‬‬البيتِ‏‮ ‬‬وربّ‏‮ ‬‬رجلٍ‏‮ ‬‬كريمٍ‏‮ ‬‬لقِيته وكتبت بالقلمِ‏‮ ‬‬وزيدٌ‏‮ ‬‬كالأسدِ‏‮ ‬‬والحمدُ‏‮ ‬‬للّهِ‏‮ ‬‬وواللّهِ‏‮ ‬‬وباللّهِ‏‮ ‬‬وتاللّهِِ

Explanation of Text in English:

الإِسْمُ (The noun) is known by:

الْـخَفْضِ the lowering of the vowel (that is to say placing the vowel  كَسْرَة = ــِـ beneath the noun) as you would say: مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالرَّجُلِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْغُلاَمِ (I passed by the man and the boy);

and by  التَّنْوِينِ (tanwin = ــًـ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬ــٍـ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬ــٌـ [the expression of ([the nuun sound bearing sukuun = نْ] at the end of a noun]) as you would say: زَيْدٌ (Zaydun) and رَجُلٌ (rajulun) and مُومِنَاتٌ (muuminaatun);

and by دُخُولِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَلِفِ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللاَّمِ (the prefixing of alif and laam = اَلْ to the front of the word) – as you would say: اَلرَّجُلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْغُلاَمُ (the man and the servant boy) formed from the words: رَجُـلٌ and غُلاَمٌ;

and by the prefixing of حُرُوفِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـخَفْضِ (the letters [particles] of khaf∂ [lowering]) mainly prepositions – which cause the noun to carry  كَسْرَة = ــِـ / ــٍـ as its final vowel) and they are: مِنْ (from), إلَى (to), عَنْ (about, from), عَلَى (on), فِي (in, into), رُبَّ (how many a…), ِاَلْبَاءُ = بِ (by, in, with), اَلْكَافُ‏‮ ‬‬= كَ (like, as), اللاّمُ =‏‮ ‬‬لِ (to, belonging to, for) as you would say: سِرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَصْرَةِ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَى الْكُوفَةِ‏‏ (I traveled from Baßrah to Kuufah), رَحَلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَنِ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَلَدِ (I departed from the country),  صَعَدتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى الـْخَـيْـلِ  (I climbed upon the stallion),  جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْبَـيْتِ (I sat in the house), رُبَّ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٍ‏‮ ‬‬كَرِيمٍ‏‮ ‬‬لَقِيتُهُ (Many a noble man I have met), كَتَـبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِــالْقَلَمِ  (I wrote with the pen), زَيْدٌ ‏كَـالأَسَدِ (Zayd  is like the lion), اَلْحَمْدُ‏‮ ‬‬لِــلَّهِ (The praise belongs to Allah);

and by حُرُوفِ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَسَمِ (the particles for swearing) and they are   اَلْوَاوُ = و (by) and  اَلْبَاءُ = بِ (by) and  اَلْتَاءُ = تَ (by) like when you say: وَاللَّهِ (I swear by Allah) and بِـاللَّهِ (I swear by Allah) تَـاللَّهِ (I swear by Allah),

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَالْفِِِِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَفُ‏‮ ‬‬بِقَدْ‏‮ ‬‬وَالسِّينِِِِِِِ‏‮ ‬‬وَسَوْفَ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَاءِِِِ‏‮ ‬‬التَّأْنِيثِِِ السَّاكِنَةِ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَاَلْفِعْلُ (And the verb) يُعْرَفُ‏‮ ‬‬بِقَدْ (is known by‮ ‬قَدْ)  and وَالسِّينوَسَوْفَ (and the particles سَ and وَسَوْفَ) and وَتَاءُ‏  التَّأْنِيثِ‏  السَّاكِنَةِ (and the taa of femininity bearing sukuun)

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

والفعل‏‮ ‬‬يعرف بـقد كقولك قَدْ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬وقَدْ‏‮ ‬‬يَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬وبالـسّين وسَوْفَ‏‮ ‬‬كقولك سَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬وسَوْفُ‏‮ ‬‬يَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬وبـتاء التّأنِيثِ‏‮ ‬‬السّاكنة كقولك قَامَتْ‏‮ ‬‬وقَاَلتْ‏‮

Explanation of Text in English:

The verb is known by قَدْ‏‮ ‬‬as you would say: قَدْ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ (He definitely stood up) and قَدْ‏‮ ‬‬يَقُومُ (He might stand) and by السَّينِ (the particle سَ) and the particle سَوْفَ as you would say: سَيَقُومُ (He will stand) and سَوْفَ‏‮ ‬‬يَقُومُ (He will stand) and by تاَءِ‏‮ ‬‬التَّأنِيثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّاكِنَةِ (the taa of the feminine doer bearing sukuun = تْ [which occurs at the end of the past tense verb to show that the pronoun [she] or [it – feminine] is the doer of the verb]) – like when you say:  قَـامَـتْ (she stood) and قَالَتْ (she spoke).

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَالـْحَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَصْلُحُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَهُ‏‮ ‬‬دَليِلُ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬دَلِيلُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْلِ‏‮)

English Translation:

وَالْـحَرْفُ (And the particle is) مَا (the [(part of speech) for which]), دَلِيلُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِسْمِ (the distinguishing signs of the noun)‏‮ ‬‬وَدَلِيـلُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْــلِ (and the distinguishing signs of the verb)‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَصْلُحُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَهُ (are not permissible with it).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

والحرف ما لا‏‮ ‬‬يصلح معه دليل الإسم ولا دليل الفعل لأنه لا‏‮ ‬‬يقبل علامات نحو ال ولا تنوين ولا‏‮ ‬‬يدخل حرف الخفـض عليه‏‮  ‬‬ولا قد أو السين أو سوف فلا تقول الـْمِِِنْ‏‮ ‬‬أو مِنًا أو إِلَي‏‮ ‬‬هَلْ‏‮ ‬‬لا تقول قََدْ‏‮ ‬‬فِِِِي‏‮ ‬‬أو سَعَلَى أو سََوْفَ‏‮ ‬‬عَنْ‏‮ ‬‬ ولو أنّ‏‮ ‬‬الحرف خالٍ‏‮ ‬‬من العلامات فإنه علامة لغيره‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـحَرْفُ (the particle) is the (part of speech) for which none of the  distinguishing signs of the noun and the distinguishing signs of the verb are permitted, because it is void of signs.  For  instance,  it  does  not  receive ال nor tanwiin (ــً‏‮ ‬‬,‏‮ ‬‬ــٍـ‏‮ ‬‬, ــٌـ‏‮ ‬‬) nor do the prepositions ( عَنْ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬إِلَى‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ etc.) come in front of it nor  do قد or سـَ or سوف come in front of it.  You can not say الـْمِِِنْ or مِنًا or إِلَي‏‮ ‬‬هَلْ nor do you say قَدْ‏‮ ‬‬فِي or سَعَلَى or سَوْفَ‏‮ ‬‬عَنْ.  Although الْحَرْف (the particle) is void of distinguishing signs, it is a distinguishing sign for other words.

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Published in: on August 28, 2010 at 18:45  Leave a Comment  

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