Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 4 – الُْـمُرَكَّب (The Composite Structure) and The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ (Speech) in the Arabic Language

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 4 –  الْـمُرَكَّبَات (The Composite Structures),‮ ‬وَأًَنْوَاعُهَا (The Various Kinds) and إِعَرَابُهَا (The Ways They Are Inflected)

The composite structure consist of two or more words for the purpose of conveying information whether that information is complete or not1.

There are six kinds of composite structures in Arabic:

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإسْنَادِي‮ ‬أَوِ‮ ‬الْـجُمْلَة‮ ‬،‮ ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإضَافِي‮ ‬،‮ ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْبَيَانِي‮ ‬،‮ ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْعَطْفِي‮ ‬،‮ ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـمَزْجِيُّ‮ ‬،‮ ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْعََددَدِي

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإسْنَادِي‮ ‬(The Supportive Composite Structure)2 ‮ ‬أَوْ‮ ‬الْـجُمْلَة‮ ‬(or the Sentence)

الإسْـنَادِي is the composite construct in which one phrase is supported by another.

الإسْـنَاد is the composite construct in which one phrase is used to make a judgement observation or statement about another, like حكم علي‮ ‬زهير بالإجْـتِهَاد the observation or statement that Zuhayr has the skill of independent judgement].، when you say: زُهَـيْرٌ‮ ‬مُجْتَهِـدٌ‮ ‬ (Zuhayr is a mujtahid [has the skill of independent judgement]).

The judgement or observation that is made about a person, place, thing or idea being judged is called الْـمُسْـد‮ ‬ (The predicate).

The person, place, thing or idea being judged, or observed is called الْـمَسْـدُ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (The subject).

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإسْـنَادِي is also called الْـجُـمْلَة ‘the sentence’, and it consists of مُـسنَدٌ (a predicate) and مُسنَدٌ‮ ‬إِلَىْهِ (subject), like when you say: الْـحُلْمُ‮ ‬زيْنٌ‮ ‬ (The dream is beautiful) and يُـفْلِحُ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَهِـدُ‮ ‬(The mujtahid is successful).  الْـحُـلْمُ (The dream) is مُـسنَدٌ‮ ‬إِلَىْهِ and زيْـنٌ (beautiful) has been ascribed to it.  ‬الْـحُـلْمُ has been judged to be beautiful. and therefore زيْـنٌ is مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (a predicate) for الْـحُـلْمُ.

Likewise, فلاح‮ ‬ (success) has been ascribed to الْـمُجْتَهِـدُ‮ ‬ (The mujtahid. Therefore, يُـفْلِحُ isمَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (a predicate) and الْـمُجْتَهِـدُ is مُسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ ( a subject).

الْـمَسْـدُ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (The subject) can be الْفَاعِلُ (the doer noun), نَـائِـبُهُ (the noun standing in the place of the doer), الْـمُبْتَدَأُ (the subject noun), اسْمُ‮ ‬الْفِعْلِ‮ ‬النَّاقِص (the noun of the defective verb), اسْمُ‮ ‬الاحْرُفِ‮ ‬الَّتِي‮ ‬تَـعْمَلُ‮ ‬عَمَلَ‮ ‬لَيْسَ‮ ‬ (the noun of the particles that functions like the verb laysa), اسْـمُ‮ ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬وأَخْوَاتِهَا (the noun of the particle إِنَّ and its sisters), اسْم لاَ‮ ‬النَّافِيَة لِلْـجِنْس (the noun of the particle لاَ which negates the exist of any kind or species of a thing).

The example of الْفَاعِلُ (the doer noun) is like when you say: جَاءَ‮ ‬الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬وَزَهَقَ‮ ‬البَاطِلُ‮ ‬ (The truth came and falsehood died). الْـحَقُّ and البَاطِلُ are  الْفَاعِلان (the doer nouns).

The example of  نَـائِـبُ‮ ‬الْـفَاعِـلِ (the noun standing in the place of the doer) is like when you say: يُعَاقِـبُ‮ ‬الْـعَاصُـون وَيُـثَابُ‮ ‬الطَّائِـعونَ‮ ‬ (Those who are sinful are punished, and those who are obedient are rewarded). الطَّائِـعونَ and الْـعَاصُـون are نَـائِـبُ‮ ‬الْفَاعِـلِ (the noun standing in the place of the doer).

The example of  الْـمُبْتَدَأُ (the subject noun) is like when you say: الصَّبْرُ‮ ‬مِـفْتَاحُ‮ ‬الْفَرَحِِ‮ ‬(Patience is the key to happiness).

The example of  اسْمُ‮ ‬الْفِعْلِ‮ ‬النَّاقِص (the noun of the defective verb) is like when you say:  كَانَ‮ ‬الله عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا‮ ‬ (Allah is All Knowing and Wise).

The example of اسْمُ‮ ‬الاحْرُفِ‮ ‬الَّتِي‮ ‬تَـعْمَلُ‮ ‬عَمَلَ‮ ‬لَـيْسَ‮ ‬ (the noun of the particles that functions like the verb laysa) is like when you say: مَـا زُبَـيرٌ‮ ‬كَسُولاً‮ ‬ (Zubayr is not lazy) and تَعِزُّ‮ ‬فَلاَ‮ ‬شَيْءٌ‮ ‬عَلَى الأَرْضِ‮ ‬بَاقِيًا‮ ‬ and‮ ‬لاَتَ‮ ‬سَاعَةَ‮ ‬مَنْدَمِ‮ ‬and‮ ‬إِنْ‮ ‬أَحَدٌ‮ ‬خَيْرًا مِنْ‮ ‬أَحَدٍ‮  ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬بِالْعِلمِ‮ ‬وَالْعِلْمِ‮ ‬الصَّالِحِ

The example of ‮ ‬ اسْـمُ‮ ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬وأَخْوَاتِهَا(the noun of the particle إِنَّ and its sisters)‮‬ is like when you say:‮ ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬اللهَ‮ ‬عَـلِيمٌ‮ ‬بِـدَاتِ‮ ‬الصُّدُورِ‮ ‬ (Surely Allah knows what is inside of  the hearts).

The example of  اسْـم لاَ‮ ‬النَّافِيَة لِلْـجِنْس (the noun of the particle لاَ which negates the exist of any kind or species of a thing) is like when you say: لاَ‮ ‬إِلــاـهَ‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬اللُهَ.

الْـمُسْـد‮ ‬ (The predicate) can be الْفِعْلِ (the verb) and اسْمُ‮ ‬الْفِعْلِ (the noun of the verb) andخُبْرُ‮ ‬الْـمُبْتَدَأِ‮ ‬ (the predicate of the subject)‮ ‬and‮ ‬خَبْرُ‮ ‬الْفِعْلِ‮ ‬النَّاقِصِ‮ ‬(the predicate of the defective verb)‮ ‬and خَـبْرُ‮ ‬الاحْـرُفِ‮ ‬الَّتِي‮ ‬تَـعْمَلُ‮ ‬عَـمَلَ‮ ‬لَـيْسَ‮ ‬ (the predicate of the particles that functions like the verb laysa)‮ ‬and خَـبْرُ‮ ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬وأَخْـوَاتِـهَا‮ ‬ (the predicate of the particle إِنَّ and its sisters).

الْـمُسْـد‮ ‬ (The predicate) is الْفِعْلِ (the verb) like when you say: قَدْ‮ ‬أَفْـلَحَ‮ ‬الْـمُؤْمِنِينَ, (The believers are successful), and the predicate is characteristics which are derived from the verb like when you say: الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬أأَبْـلَجُ‮ ‬(the truth clear/apparent), and الْـمُسْـد‮ ‬(The predicate) is  also a defective noun which has the meaning of derived characteristics  like when you say: الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬نُـورٌ‮ ‬(The truth is light) and الْقَائِمُ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬أَسَدٌ‮ ‬(The one who stands with it/him is a lion). The meaning of the first example is that الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬مُـضِيءٌ‮ ‬(The truth is bright/luminous), while the  meaning of the second example is that الْقَائِمُ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬شُجَاعٌ‮ ‬أَسَدٌ‮ ‬(The one who stands with it/him is like a lion).

الْكَلاَمُ (Arabic Speech)3

Arabic speech is an informative sentence that gives the listener complete information by itself.  like when you say: رَأْسُ الْحِكْمَةِ مَخَافَةُ اللهِ‮ ‬ (The highest wisdom is fear of Allah), and فَازَ الْـمُتَّقُونَ ‬(The believers were victorious), and   مَنْ صَدَقَ نَجَا‮ ‬ (He who is truthful is will be saved)

If the sentence structure does not convey complete meaning or information to the listener by itself, then it can’t be called الْكَلاَمُ (Arabic speech), for example: إِنْ‮ ‬تَجْتَحِـدْ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬عِلْمِكَ (If you apply yourself to your knowledge). This is a sentence structure that doesn’t convey completely informative, because the result of this conditional clause has not been expressed nor is it known. Therefore as previously mentioned, it cannot be called Arabic speech. However, if the result of the conditional statement is expressed, like when you say: إِنْ‮ ‬تَجْتَحِـدْ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬عِلْمِكَ‮ ‬تَنْجـَحْ‮ ‬ (If you apply yourself to your knowledge, you will succeed), then it becomes كَلاَم (Arabic speech).

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإضَافِي‮ ‬ (The Construction Which Consist of the Iḍaafah[the Adjoin/Prefixed Nouns])

‮  ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإضَافِـي‮ ‬( The Iḍaafah  Construction Composite) is the structure which consist of الـْـمُضَاف‮ ‬(The Adjoined/Prefixed Noun) and الـْـمُضَاف إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬(The Noun Adjoined/Prefixed to It), like when you say: كِتَابُ‮ ‬التِّلْمِيذُ‮ ‬خَاتِـمُ‮ ‬فِصَّةٍ‮ ‬صَوْمُ‮ ‬النِّهَارِ. The for the second member of the iḍaafah construction is that it is always in the case of jarr.

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْبَيَانِي‮ ‬ ( The Composite Structure Which Clarifies the Characteristics of the Noun)

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـبَيَانِـي‮ ‬(The composite structure which clarifies the characteristics of the noun consist every of two words; the first one is characterized by the second. This construction is of three kinds:

1. مُـرَكَّبٌ‮ ‬وَصْـفِيٌّ (an adjectival composite structure) – It consists of السِّفةُ (the adjective) and الْـمَوْصُـوف (the noun it describes/modifies), like when you say: فَـازَ‮ ‬التِّلْمِيذُ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَهِـدُ‮ . ‬أَكْرَمْـتُ‮ ‬التِّلْمِيذَ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَهِدَ‮ . ‬طَلَبْتُ‮ ‬أَخْلاَقِ‮ ‬التِّلْمِيذِ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَهِدِ

2. مُـرَكَّبٌ‮ ‬تَـوْكِـيدِيٌّ (a composite structure used to emphasize the noun) – It consist of الْـمُؤَكَّدُ (the emphasized noun) and الْـمُؤَكِّدُ (the noun that is used to emphasize) it, like when you say: جَاءَ‮ ‬الْقَومُ‮ ‬كُلُّهُمْ‮ . ‬أَكْرَمْـتُ‮ ‬الْقَومَ‮ ‬كُلَّهُمْ‮ . ‬أَحْسَنْتُ‮ ‬إِلَى الْقَومِ‮ ‬كُلِّهُمْ

3. مُـرَكَّبٌ‮ ‬بَلَدِيٌّ (a substitutive composite structure) – It is a structure that consist of‮ ‬الْـبَدَلُ (the substitute noun) and الْـمُبْدَلُ‮ ‬مِـنْهُ‮ ‬(the noun that has been replaced by it [the substitute noun]), like when you say:  جَاءَ‮ ‬خَلِيلٌ‮ ‬أَخُوكَ‮ . ‬رَأَيْت خَلِيلاً‮ ‬أَخَاكَ‮ ‬‮.‬‮ ‬مَرَرْتُ‮ ‬بِخَلِيلٍ‮ ‬أَخِيكَ‮.‬

The rule for the second noun of مُـرَكَّبٌ‮ ‬بَلَدِيٌّ (a substitutive composite structure) is that it follows the noun that precedes in its case of inflection.

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْعَطْفِي‮ ‬ (The Conjunctive Composite Structure)

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْعَطْفِي‮ ‬(The conjunctive composite structure) consists of الـْـمَعْطُوفِ (the noun that has been joined) and الـْمَعْطُوفِ‮ ‬عَلَيْهِ (the noun that has been joined to it) by placing عَـطْفٌ (a conjunction) between them, like when you say:  يَنَالُ‮ ‬التِلْمِيذُ‮ ‬والتِّلمِيذَةِ‮ ‬الْـحَمْدَ‮ ‬وَالثَّنَاءَ‮ ‬إِذَا ثَابِرًا عَـلَى الدَّرْسِ‮ ‬وَالإِجْـتِهَادِ.‮ ‬The rule for الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـعَطْفِي‮ ‬(The conjunctive composite structure)  is that the now that comes after عَـطْفٌ (a conjunction) follows  the noun that precedes in its case of inflection.

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـمَزْجِيُّ‮ ‬ (The Composite Compound Structure)

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـمَزْجِـيُّ‮ ‬(The composite compound structure) is two words that are constructed as one, like: بَـعْلَبَكَّ (Baalbek), ‮ ‬بَـيْتَ‮ ‬لَـحْـم (Bethlehem),  حَـضْرَمَـوْت‮ ‬(Haḍramut), سِـبَوَيْـهِ‮ ‬(Sibawayhi), صًـبَاحَ‮ ‬مَـسَاءَ‮ ‬(morning and evening), شَـدَرَ‮ ‬مَـدَرَ (dispersed/went in every direction).

If الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـمَزْجِـيُّ‮ ‬(The composite compound structure)ˇ is a definite noun, then  it is pronounced without vowel ending, like when you say: بَـعْلَبَكّ‮ ‬بُـلْدَةٌ‮ ‬طَـيِّبَة الْـهَوَاءَ‮ ‬.‮ ‬سكَنْتُ‮  ‬بَـيْتَ‮ ‬لَـحْـم‮ ‬.‮ ‬سَـافَرْتُ‮ ‬إِلَى حَـضْرَمَـوْت, unless the second part of the compound word is the word وَيْـهِ, in which case, it is always fixed in its construction at the end on kasrah, like when you say: سِـبَوَيْـهِ‮ ‬عَالِمٌ‮ ‬كَبِيرٌ‮ .‬ رَأَيْتُ سِـبَوَيْـهِ‮ ‬عَالِـمًا كَبِيرًا‮ ‬.‮ ‬قَرأْتُ‮ ‬كِتَابَ‮ ‬سِـبَوَيْـهِ.

If الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـمَزْجِـيُّ‮ ‬(The composite compound structure)ˇ is a indefinite noun, then both words are fixed in their construction at the end on fatḥah, like when you say: زُرْنِي‮ ‬صًـبَاحَ‮ ‬مَـسَاءَ‮ ‬‮.‬‮ ‬أَنْتَ‮ ‬جَاررِي‮ ‬بَيْتَ‮ ‬بَيْتَ‮.‬‮ ‬

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْعََددَدِي‮ ‬ (The Numerical Composite)

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـعََددَيُّ‮ ‬(The numerical composite) are compound structured compound structured composites. They are every two numbers which has an implied conjunction between them, and they are the cardinal numbers: 11-19, and the ordinal numbers: 11th (eleventh) -19th (nineteenth).

As for 21-99, they are not among الْـمُرَكَّباتُ‮ ‬الْـعََددَيَّةُ‮ ‬(the numerical composites), because the conjunction is expressed, rather they are الْـمُرَكَّباتُ‮ ‬الْـعَطْفِيَّة‮ ‬(conjunctive composite structures).

It is necessary that both parts of الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـعََددَيُّ‮ ‬(The numerical composite) be affixed with fatḥah at the end, even if it is in the case of raf, like when you say: جَـاءَ‮ ‬أَحَـدَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬رَجُلاً, ‮ ‬or in the case of naṣb, like when you say:  رَأَيْـتُ‮ ‬أَحَـدَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬كَـوْكَـبًا, ‮ ‬or in the case of jarr ‮ ‬like when you say:‮ ‬أَحْـسَنْتُ‮ ‬إِلى أَحَـدَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬فَـقِيرًا, or sometime both of  its parts are fixed in their construction on fatḥah and standing in the place of a noun in the case of rafʿ, naṣb of jarr, except إثْـنَيْ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ. In this case, the first part is inflected with alif of the dual form like when you say:  جَـاءَ‮ ‬إثْـنَا عَشَـرَ‮ ‬رَجُلاً, and it is the cases of  naṣb and jarr with yaa of the dual form like when you say:  أَكْـرَمْـتُ‮ ‬إثْـنَيْ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬فَـقِيرَةً‮ ‬بِإثْـنَيْ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬دِرْهَـمًا. The second part of this numerical construct is fixed in its construction with fatḥah at the end. There is no situation in which it is inflected, and of course the nuun has been dropped from the dual form of the first part.

There is no number in which number العشَـرَة (ten) is formed from the noun pattern (فاعل). This noun pattern is used to form first part of the ordinal numbers الْـحَادِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬(eleventh) to الْـحَادِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ (nineteenth). Both parts of these number are fixed in their construction on fatḥah at the end, like when you say: جَـاءَ‮ ‬الرَّابِعَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬and رَأَيْتُ‮ ‬الرَّابِعَةَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَةَ‮ ‬and مَرَرْتُ‮  ‬بِالْـخَامِسَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَةَ. This is the rule, unless the first part of the ordinal number composite ends with yaa. In that case, the first part of the numerical composite should be fixed in its construction on sukuun, like when you say: جَـاءَ‮ ‬الْـحَادِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬والْثَانِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬ and رَأَيْتُ‮ ‬الْـحَادِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬والْثَانِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ and مَرَرْتُ‮  ‬بِالْـحَادِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬والْثَانِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ.

حُكْمُ‮ ‬الْعَدَدُ‮ ‬مَعَ‮ ‬الْـمَعْدود‮ ‬ (The Rules for the Number  and the Enumerated Noun)

If the number is وَاحد (one)  or  إثْـنَيْـن (two), then the rule is that the masculine noun is enumerated with  the masculine number, and the feminine noun is enumerated  with the feminine number, like when you say: رَجُـلٌ‮ ‬وَاحِـدٌ‮ ‬and‮ ‬اِمْـرَأَةٌ‮ ‬وَاحِدَةُ‮ ‬and‮ ‬رَجُـلَانِ‮ ‬اثْنَانِ‮ ‬and‮ ‬اِمْـرَأَتَانِ‮ ‬اثْنَتَانِ.

If the numbers are from الثلاثة (three) to العشَـرَة (ten), then the masculine noun is enumerated with the feminine number, and the feminine is enumerated with the masculine number, like when you say: ثَلاَثَةُ‮ ‬رِجَالٍ‮ ‬and‮ ‬ثَلاَثَةُ‮ ‬أَقْلاَمٍ‮ ‬for the masculine and وَثَلاَثُ‮ ‬نِسَاءٍ‮ ‬and ثَلاَثُ‮ ‬أَيَدٍ‮ ‬for the feminine.

This is unless the number ten is part of a numerical composite. In that case, the number ten should be in the same gender as the noun being enumerated, then you say: ثَلاَثَةَ‮ ‬عَشَرَ رَجُـلاً‮ ‬for the masculine and‮ ‬ثَلاَثَةَ‮ ‬عشرَةَ‮ ‬اِمْـرَأَةًfor the feminine.

If a number is formed on the noun pattern (فاعل), then it should be in the same gender as the noun being enumerated, whether or not the number is alone or part of a numerical composite, like when you say: : الْبَابُ‮ ‬الرَّابِعُ‮ ‬for the masculine‮ ‬and‮ ‬الْبَابُ‮ ‬الرَّابِعَ‮ ‬عَشَرَ‮ ‬and‮ ‬الصُّفْحَتُ‮ ‬الْعَاشِرَةُ‮ ‬and‮ ‬الصُّفْحَتُ‮ ‬التَّاسِعةَ‮ ‬عَشْرَةَ‮ ‬for the feminine.

The sheen in the words عشرة and عشر carry fatḥah when it enumerates a masculine noun and sukuun when it enumerates a feminine noun, and so you should say: عَشَرَةُ‮ ‬رِجَالٍ‮ ‬and‮ ‬وَأَحَدَ‮ ‬عَشَرَ رَجُـلاً‮ ‬for the masculine and وَ‮ ‬عَشْرَ‮ ‬نِسَاءٍ‮ ‬and ثَلاَثُ‮ ‬إِحْدَى عَشْرَ‮ ‬اِمْـرَأَةً‮ ‬for the feminine.

Footnotes:

1 The composite structure which doesn’t convey complete information can be الْـجُمْلَةُ نَاقِصة الإِفَادَةِ (the sentence structure/clause which doesn’t convey complete information), can consist of any kind of subordinate clause / dependent clause which does not express a complete thought or idea, and therefore can’t stand alone), The example of this is when you express الشَّرْط‮ ‬ (the conditional statement) without completing your speech with جَوَابُ‮ ‬الشَّرْط‮ ‬ (the result of the conditional statement), like when you say: إِذَا جَاءَ‮ ‬إِلَى بَيْتِي‮ ‬ (If he comes to my house …).

 The composite structure which doesn’t convey complete information can also be a phrase, like: جَـرٌّ‮ ‬وَمَجْـرُرٌ (a prepositional phrase), عِبَارة ظَرفِيَّة (adverbial phrase), عِـبَارة فِعلِيَّة (verbal phrase),  فِـعْل مرَكّـب (phrasal verb),   بَدَلٌ ومُبْدَل (appositive phrase), عَـطْف وَمَـطْعُوف (conjunctive phrase), صِـفّة وَمَـوصُـوف (adjectival phrase) or‮ ‬وَمُـصَاف إِلَـيْه (iḍafah construction)  مُؤَكِّدٌ ومُؤَكَّدٌ the emphasizing word and the emphasized word), مَرْكَّب مُزْجي (compound word),مَرْكَّب عَدَدي (the numerical structure),عَدَد ومَعْدُود (a number and what is enumerated).

جَـرٌّ‮ ‬وَمَجْـرُرٌ (a prepositional phrase) is like when you say: فِي‮ ‬الْبَيْت (in the house)

عِبَارة ظَرفِيَّة  (adverbial phrase) is like when you say:  وَرَاءُ‮ ‬الْـمَسْجِد (behind the masjid)

عِـبَارة فِعلِيَّة (verbal phrase) is like when you say:أَخَذَ‮ ‬يَضْرِبُ (He began to beat)

فِـعْل مرَكّـب (phrasal verb) is like when you say: جَاء بِـ (He brought)

عِبَارة مِن الْبدَل (appositive phrase) is like when you say: الأُسْتَاذُ‮ ‬خَالِدٌ (professor Khālid) or خَالِدٌ‮ ‬،‮ ‬أُسْتَاذُنَا‮ ‬ (Khālid, our professor)

عَـطْف وَمَـطْعُوف (conjunctive phrase)‮ ‬is like when you say:  وَالرَّجُلُ (and the man)

صِـفّة وَمَـوصُـوف (adjectival phrase)‮ ‬is like when you say:  الدَّارُ‮ ‬الْبَيْدضَاءُ (the white house)

‮ ‬مُـصَاف وَمُـصَاف إِلَـيْه (iḍafah construction) is like when you say: وَلِيُّ‮ ‬اللَّه (the friend of Allah)

مُؤَكِّدٌ ومُؤَكَّدٌ (emphasizing word and an emphasized word) is like when you say:  القَومُ ، كُلُّهُم

مَرْكَّب مُزْجي (compound word)  is like when you say: بَعْلَبَكّ (Baalbek),  بَيْتَ لَحْم (Bethlehem)

,مَرْكَّب عَدَدي (numerical structure) is any number from أحَدَ عَشَرَ to  تِِِسْعَةَ عَشَرَ

عَدَد ومَعْدُود (a number and what is enumerated) is like when you say: رَجُلٌ وَاحِدٌ

2 The composite structure which conveys complete information is called الْـمُوَكَّب الإِسْنَادِي (the composite structure which consist of a person or thing that is the subject of discussion and things that are said about him or it.).  This composite structure is also called الْـجُـمْلَة‮ ‬(the sentence [a group of words joined together to express a complete thought]).  It is for this reason the grammarian Ibn Ājurruum, the author of ‘al Ajurruumiyyah’ has said:

3اَلْكَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّفْظُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُرَكَّبُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُفِيدُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْوَضْعِ‏‮ ‬ (Speech is informative composite expression which is articulated according to conventional Arabic rules).

The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ (Speech) in the Arabic Language

الْـكَلاَمُ (Speech) is informative composite expression which is articulated according to conventional Arabic rules.  Undoubtedly, Arabic speech is constructed on four things.   They are that it (Speech) is لَـفْظـًا (expressed), مُرَكَّبًا (composite  [composed of two or more parts]), مُفِيدًا (informative), and مَوْضُوعًا بِالْوَضْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيِّ (regulated by conventional Arabic rules).  And so the meaning of its being لَـفْظًا is that Arabic speech is expressed vocally by using some of الْـحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَبْجَدِيَّة (the letters of the Arabic alphabet) – like when you say: مُحَمَّدٌ (Muhammad) and عَـلِيٌّ (Alī) and ذَهَـبَ (He went).  Each word from these three words is vocalized by using some of‮ ‬الْـحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْهَجَائِيَّةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيَّة (the letters of the Arabic alphabet).

As for the meaning of its being مُـرَكَّبًا , Arabic speech is composed of two or more words – like عَبْدُاللَّهِ‏ ‬(Abdullah) and إِذَا جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَمَّدٌ (if Muhammad comes) and طُلُوعُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّمْسِ (the rising of the sun). Each expression from these expressions is مُرَكَّّبًا (composed of two or more parts) without being مُفِيدًا (informative).

As for the meaning of its being مُـفِيدًا , it is when the silence of the speaker becomes sufficient, wherein the listener does  not  expect  to  hear  anything  else.  If  you  say: إِذَا جَـاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَـمَّدٌ (If Muhammad comes), this expression is not مُـفِيدًا (informative), because it does not convey complete information to the person being spoken to – [that is to say, the one who heard it].

However, if you say: ‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَمَّدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَى بَيْتيِ‏‮ ‬‬فَاَكْرِمْهُ (If Muhammad comes to my house, I will honor him.), This statement is completely informative and enough.  The person who hears it does not expect more than this.

As for the meaning of الْكَلاَم (speech) being مَوْضُوعًا بِالْوَضْعَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيِّ (regulated by conventional Arabic rules), it occurs in three cases:

The first case is the expressions that are used in الْـكَلاَم that have been constructed by the Arabs to define the essence of a person – like when you say: مُحَـمَّدٌ   (Muhammad) and the expressions used in الْـكَلاَم which the Arabs have constructed to define the nature of a place – like when you say: مَسْجِـــدٌ (masjid [place of prostration]) and the expression used in الْـكَلاَمُ that the Arabs have constructed to define the nature of a thing – like when you say: كِـتاَبٌ  (book).  Each of these expressions is called إِسْمًا (a noun).

The second case is the expressions used in الْـكَلاَمُ which the Arabs have constructed to define the occurrence of something in one of three time periods.  They are الْـفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـمَاضِـي (the past tense verb) – that is to say, the expression which shows an occurrence that occurred before the time of the conversation – like when you say: ذَهَـبَ (he went), and الْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَارِعُ (the present tense verb) – that is to say, the expression which shows the occurrence of a thing during the time of the conversation or soon after it – like when you say: يَـذْهَـبُ (he is going), and the ‏ ‬فِعْلُ‏ ‬الأَمْرِ (the command tense verb) that is say, the expression which  shows the occurrence of a thing that is being sought after the time of the conversation – like when you say: إِذْهَبْ (go).

The third case is the expressions used in الْـكَلاَم that have been constructed by the Arabs – wherein the purpose of a word is not completely understood until one of these expressions is  placed next to the word.  They are like when you say: هَـلْْ and مِـنْ and لَـمْ. So when you say: هَـلْ‏‮ ‬‬ذَهَـبَ‮ ‬(did he go) and مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَسْجِـدِ‮ ‬(from the masjid) and لَـمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْرُجْ (he did not leave), the purpose of these three expressions (هَـلْ and مِـنْ and لَـمْ) was not completely understood until they were placed next to another word.  Each of these three expressions is called حَرْفًا (a letter [particle]).‏ ‬

And so, الإِسْـمُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـحَـرْفُ are the three cases of الْـكَلاَم which the Arabs have regulated with conventional Arabic rules.

تَنْبِيهA Further Note:

We have said that الكلام (speech) according to the Arabic grammarians is  constructed on four things.   They are that it is لفظًا (expressed), مركّـبًا (composite [composed of two or more parts]), مفيدًا ( informative), and موضوعًـا بالوضع العربي (regulated by conventional Arabic rules).

The view which is held by the linguist concerning الكلام (speech) departs from the view which we have said is held by the grammarians about it.  In the view of the linguist, الكلام (speech) can be one word by itself – like: زَيْـدٌ or more than one word like: قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ; or whatever causes understanding whether it expressed or not – like what is written; or الكلام (speech) can be what is indicated by way of motion or gesture.  Something indicated by way of motion or gesture is like when I say to you: أَوَصَـلْتَ‏‮ ‬‬أَمْـسًًا (Did you arrive yesterday?) and you nod your head up and down to me and so, it is understood by me that you are saying نَعَمْ (Yes).

The view of the the fuquhaa’ concerning الكلام (speech) also departs from the view of the grammarian.  In the view of the fuquhaa’, الكلام (speech) is what nullifies the salaat [because of the utterance of]  a letter that is understood  [which does not belong in the salaat] – like (the letter qaaf – ق) or (ayn – ع) or two letters like: من and عن even if they are not understood, [the salaat is still nullified].

The view of the mutakallimuun, that is to say the scholars of tawhiid also depart from that of the grammarians concerning الكلام (speech).  In the view of the mutakallimuun, الكلام (speech) is an expression about the meaning established by Allah which is voided of any letter or sound. .Allah has said in His Noble Book:

“It is He Who has sent down the Book to you from Himself with verses (ayāts) that are clear and these are the foundation of the Book while others are not so clear.” 3:6

Allah then says in the same (chapter and verse) concerning these ayāts:

”And  no ones knows their explanation except Allah.” 3:6

Therefore, in the view of the mutakallimun, their explanation exist with Allah as الكلام (speech), even though He سبحان و تعالى has chosen not to reveal to us a  verse, a single letter or a single sound concerning it.

 
 

Section 2 – الْـمْتَعَدِّي‮ ‬ (The Transitive Verb) ‮ ‬واللاَّزِم(and Intransitive Verb)


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Published in: on August 22, 2010 at 19:00  Leave a Comment  

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