The Characteristics of the Water Used for Minor and Major Ablution From Matn al ʿIzziyyah

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الْحَمْدُ‮ ‬لِله رَبِّ‮ ‬الْعَالَـمِـينَ‮ ‬وَأَشْهَدُ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬إلَـاـه إلاَّ‮ ‬الله وَحْدَهُ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬شَرِيكَ‮ ‬لَهُ‮ ‬وَأَشْهَدُ‮ ‬أَنّض مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ‮ ‬وَرَسُولُهُ‮ ‬صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ‮ ‬وَسَلَّم وَعَلَى سَائِرِ‮ ‬الأَنبِيَاءِ‮ ‬وَالْـمُرْسَلـِيـنَ‮ ‬وآلِ‮ ‬كُلِّ‮ ‬التَّابِعِينَ‮ ‬لَهُمْ‮  ‬بِإحْسَانِ‮ ‬إِلَى‮ ‬يَـومِ‮ ‬الدِّينِ

‮ ‬أَمَّا بَعْدُ‮ ‬(As for what comes next:)

 يَقُولَ‮ ‬عَبْدُ‮ ‬الْفَقِيرِ‮ ‬إِلَى الله تَعَالَى أَبُو الْـحَسَنِ‮ ‬عَلِيِّ‮ ‬الْـمَالِكِيِّ‮ ‬الشَّاذِلِيِّ‮ ‬غَفَرَ‮ ‬الله لَهُ‮ ‬وَلِوَالِدَيْهِ‮ ‬وَمَشَايِخِهِ‮ ‬وإِخْوَانِهِ‮ ‬وَسَائِرِ‮ ‬أَهْلِ‮ ‬السُّنّةِ‮ ‬الْـمُحَمَّّدِيِّ

(The poor slave of Allah the Most High, Abūl Ḥasan ʿAlī al-Mālikī ash-Shādhilī may Allah forgive him, his parents, his shaykhs, his brothers and all of the people of the Muḥammadan Sunnah said),

 هَـذِهِ‮ ‬مُـقَدِمَّةٌ (“This is an introduction) فِي‮ ‬مُـسَائِـلَ‮ ‬مِـنَ‮ ‬الْـعِبَادَات (to the questions from the worshippers) وَغَـيْرِ‮ ‬ذَالك (and other than that) عَـلَى مَـذْهَـبِ‮ ‬الإِمَـامِ‮ ‬مَـالِـكِ‮ ‬بِـنْ‮ ‬إَنَـسٍ (about the Madh-hab [School of Islamic Law] of Imām Mālik bin Anas) رَحِـمَهُ‮ ‬الله تَـعالى (may Allah the Most High have mercy on him), لِـيَنْتَفِع الْـوِلْـدَانُ‮ ‬وَنَـحْوُهُـمْ (and may the progeny and others benefit as well).

  أِنْ‮ ‬شَـاءَ‮ ‬الله تَـعَالَـى‮ ‬(If Allah the Most High wills),‮ ‬لَـخَّصْتُ‮ ‬كِـتَابِـي (I will make it a summary of my book) الْـمُسَمَّى‭:‬عُـمْدَةُ‮ ‬السَّالِكِ‮ ‬عَلَى مَذْهَبِ‮ ‬الإمَامِ‮ ‬مَالِكِ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الْعِبَادَاتِ‮ ‬وَغَيرِ‮ ‬ذَالِكَ‮ ‬ (which is entitled ‘Umdatu-l-Saalik ʿalaa Madh-habi-l-Imaam Maalik fii ʿIbaadaati wa Ghayri Dhaalik’), وَسَـمَّيْتُهَا (and I will name this summarization) بِـمُقَدَّمَـةِ‮ ‬العِزِّيَِةِ‮ ‬لِلْـجَـمَاعَةِ‮ ‬الأزْهَـارِيَّةِ (‘Muqadamati-l-ʿIzziyati li-l-Jamaaʿati-l-Azhaariyyah’) مُشتَمِلَةً‮ ‬عَلى أَحَـدَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬بَابًـا (which consists of eleven chapters.)

The Characteristics of the Water Used for Minor and Major Ablution

قَـال اللََّهُ‮ ‬تَـعَالَى‮ ‬ (Allah the Most High has said [in His Noble Book]): وَاَنْزَلْـنَا مِنَ‮ ‬السَّمَاءِ‮ ‬مَـاءً‮ ‬طَـهُورًا (We have sent down from the sky pure water). الْـمَاءُ‮ ‬الطَّهُورُ (Pure water is) مَـا كَـانَ‮ ‬طَـاهِـرًا (what is pure) فِـي‮ ‬نَـفْسِهِ (in itself) مُطَهِّرًا (and a purifier) لِـغَيْرِهِ (for other substances) – كَـمَاءِ‮ ‬الْبَحْـرِ (like the water of the sea [for example]), وَالْـبِئْرِ (and the well)  وَالْـمَطْرِ (and the rain), إذَا لَـمْ‮ ‬يَـتَغَيَّرْ‮ ‬شَـيْءٌ (as long as nothing has been changed) مِـنْ‮ ‬أَوْصَـافِـهِ‮ ‬الثَّلاَثِ (in one of its three characteristics) – وَهِـيَ (and they are): اللَّوْنُ (the color), وَالطَّعْمُ (the taste),  والرِّيحُ (and the smell) – بِـمَا‮ ‬يَـنْفَكُّ‮ ‬عَـنْهُ‮ ‬غَالِبًا (by something that causes a predominant changes in it),  كَـاللَّبنِ (like milk), وَالْعَسَـلِ (honey), وَالْـبَوْلِ (urine) وَالْعَذِرَةِ (and faeces).

فَـإنْ‮ ‬تَـغٌيَّرَ‮ ‬ (If something changes) مِـنْ‮ ‬أَوْصَـافِـهِ‮ ‬الثَّلاَثِ (one of its three characteristics of the water) ذُكِـرَ (that have been mentioned) وَنَـحْوِهِ (or something similar happens), فَـلاَ‮ ‬يَـصِحُّ‮ ‬الوُضُـوعُ‮ ‬مِـنْهُ (then wuḍuu’ is not valid from its use) وَلاَ‮ ‬الْغُسْـلُ (nor is (ghusl)  وَلاَ‮ ‬الاِسْـتِنْجَاءُ (or istinjaa’).  الـْـمُتَغَيَّرُ (That which has been changed) بِـالطَّاهِـرِ (by (the pure) طَاهِـرٌ (is clean) غَـيْرُ‮ ‬طُـهُورٍ (but not pure enough). يَسْـتَعْمَلُ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬الْـعَادَتِ (It can be used for a common purpose use), وَلاَ‮ ‬يَسْـتَعْمَلُ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬عِـبَادَاتِ (but cannot be used for purposes of worship). الـْـمُتَغَيَّرُ (that which has been changed) بِـالنَّجِسِ (by the impure) نـَـجِسٌ (is impure)‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬يَسْـتَعْمَلُ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬شَـيْءٍ‮  ‬مِـنَ‮ ‬الْـعَادَاتِ (and can neither be used for common purposes) وَلاَ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬شَـيْءٍ‮ ‬مِـنَ العبادات (nor purposes of worship).

وَإِذَِا تَـغَيَّرَ (If the change) بِـمَا هُـوَ‮ ‬مِـنْ‮ ‬قِرَارِهِ (is from what has settled at the bottom of it [the water]), كَالتُّرَابِ (such as dust), وَالـْـمِلْحِ (salt), وَالنُّورَة (lime) أَوْ‮ ‬بِـمَا تَوَلَّدَ‮ ‬مِنْهُ (or what grows from it [the water]),‮ ‬كَـالطُّهْـلُب (like moss) أَوْ‮ ‬بِـطُولِ‮ ‬الْـمُكْثِ (or because it has been sitting for a long time), فَـإِنَّهُ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬يَـضُرُّ (then it is not considered noxious) وَيَسْـتَعْمَلُ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬الْـعَادَتِ (and it can be used for common purposes)  وَالْعِبَادَاتِ (and worship).

وَإِذَا وَقَـعَ‮ ‬ُفِـي‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ‮ ‬الْـقَلِيلِ (If falls into a small amount of water), كَـآنِـيَةِ‮ ‬الْـوُضُـوءِ (like [what may be found in] the vessel containing water for ablution) لِـلْـمُتَوَضِّي (for the one who needs to perform wuḍuu’), وَآنِـيَةِ‮ ‬الْغُسْـلِ (and a vessel containing water for performing major ablution) لِلْـمُغْتَسِـلِ (for the person who is performing major ablution), نَـجَاسَـةً (an impure substance) , ولَـمْ‮ ‬تُـغَيِّرْهُ (and it did not alter it [the water]), فَـإنَّهُ‮ ‬يَـصِحُّ‮ ‬الطَّهِـيرُ‮ ‬بِـههِ (then purification with it is valid), لَـكِنْ‮ ‬يَـكْرَهُ (but it is disliked) إِذَا وَجَـدَ‮ ‬غَـيْرَهُ (if other [water] is found).

وَالْـمَـاءُ‮ ‬الْـمُسْـتَعْمَلُ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬الْـوُضُـوء‮ ‬وَالْغُسْـل (Water previously used for wuḍuu’ and ghusl) طَـهُورٌ (is pure); يَـكْرَهُ‮ ‬الطَّهِـيرُ‮ ‬بِـهِ‮ ‬ (purification with it is disliked) مَـعَ‮ ‬وُجُـود (if other water is found). وَفِـي‮ ‬الْـمُسْـتَعْمَلُ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬غَـيْرِهِ (In regards to used water) which is used for other than wuḍuu’, like كَـالْـمُسْـتَعْمَلِ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬التَّبَرُّدِ (the water used to refresh oneself or cool off) وَغَسْـلِ‮ ‬الْـجُـمُعَةِ (and used of it for the ghusl for the Jumuʿah prayer), قَـوْلاَنَ (there are two views) بِـالْـكَرَاهَـةِ (concerning the disliked for the use of it) عَدَمِهَا (and no problem with the use of it).

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