الْـمَخَارِج (The Places of Exit for The Letters) وَالصِّفَات (And The Characteristics of The Letters)

الْـمَخَارِج‮ ‬(The Places of Exit for The Letters) وَالصِّفَات (And The Characteristics of The Letters)

الْـمَخَْـرَِج (plural الْـمَخَارِج) is the place from where الحرف (the letter) exits.  For example, if you say اِبْ, you will find that the last of what you vocalized was the letter ب.  It exited from the lips after they separated.  Therefore, مَخَْـرَِج الْبَاء (the place from where the letter ب exits is the lips.  If you say اِقْ, you will find that the last of what you vocalized was the letter ق.  It exits from the back of the tongue and upper palate near the uvula after the seperation of the two them and it is on the palate.  Thus مَخَْـرَِج الْقَاف (the place of exit of ق is the back of the tongue and the upper palate.  Every person who has the natural ability should be able to arrive at knowing  الْـمَخَْـرَِج of any letter if he applies this method of placing hamzah bearing kasrah =إِ or fathah =أ in front of the letter being vocalized.  Wherever the vocalization ends, it will be considered الْـمَخَْـرَِج for the letter.  The ʿulamaa’ (scholars) of the language and masters of the science of التَّجْويد (The most correct articulation on letters and words from the Noble Qur’an) have followed this method and they have found that الْـمَخَْـرَِج of every correctly pronounced letter either originates: in the throat, on the tongue, or on the lips and is articulated from every part of these places.  They have also found that the two other areas of الْـمَخَْـرَِج is الْـجوْف (the center of the chest) in the articulationأحْرُفُ‮ ‬الْـمَدِّ (the letters of the long vowels) and الْـخَيْشُوم (the nose) in the articulation of الْـغُنَّة (nasalized letters).  They gave each group of letters a name that would assist in understanding there مَخَْـرَِج as a whole and  in sections.

الْـمَخَارِج‮ ‬(The Places of Exit for The Letters) وَالصِّفَات (And The Characteristics of The Letters)

الْـمَخَْـرَِج (plural الْـمَخَارِج) is the place from where الحرف (the letter) exits.  For example, if you say اِبْ, you will find that the last of what you vocalized was the letter ب.  It exited from the lips after they separated.  Therefore, مَخَْـرَِج الْبَاء (the place from where the letter ب exits is the lips.  If you say اِقْ, you will find that the last of what you vocalized was the letter ق.  It exits from the back of the tongue and upper palate near the uvula after the seperation of the two them and it is on the palate.  Thus مَخَْـرَِج الْقَاف (the place of exit of ق is the back of the tongue and the upper palate.  Every person who has the natural ability should be able to arrive at knowing  الْـمَخَْـرَِج of any letter if he applies this method of placing hamzah bearing kasrah =إِ or fathah =أ in front of the letter being vocalized.  Wherever the vocalization ends, it will be considered الْـمَخَْـرَِج for the letter.  The ʿulamaa’ (scholars) of the language and masters of the science of التَّجْويد (The most correct articulation on letters and words from the Noble Qur’an) have followed this method and they have found that الْـمَخَْـرَِج of every correctly pronounced letter either originates: in the throat, on the tongue, or on the lips and is articulated from every part of these places.  They have also found that the two other areas of الْـمَخَْـرَِج is الْـجوْف (the center of the chest) in the articulationأحْرُفُ‮ ‬الْـمَدِّ (the letters of the long vowels) and الْـخَيْشُوم (the nose) in the articulation of الْـغُنَّة (nasalized letters).  They gave each group of letters a name that would assist in understanding there مَخَْـرَِج as a whole and  in sections.

الْـمَخَارِج (The Places of Exit for The Letters) وَالصِّفَات (And The Characteristics of The Letters)

الاحرف (The letters) are divided into three groups:  أَحْرُفُ‮  ‬ُالْـحَلْق (letters of the throat), أحْرُفُ‮ ‬اللِّسَانِ (the letters of the tongue) and‮ ‬الأَحْرُفُ‮ ‬الشَّفَوِيَّةِ (the letters of the lips).

Section 1 – أَحْرُفُ‮  ‬ُالْـحَلْق (The Letters Of The Throat)

They are called أَحْرُفُ‮  ‬ُالْـحَلْق‮ ‬because their مَخَارَِج is located in الْـحَلْق (the throat).  The places of exit in the throat have been divided by the scholars of التجويد (science of reading the Qur’an) into three sections:

1. الأَدْنَا (the near [upper] part of throat)

2. الْوَسَط (the middle part of throat)

3. الأَقًْصى (the far [lower] part of throat)

There are six أَحْرُفُ‮ ‬الْـحَلْق.  They are the following letters:

خ and غ – Their مَخَْـرَِج is in أَدْنَا الْـحَـلْق (the upper part of the throat).  The خ is close to the top of the throat and the غ is nearer to the middle part of the throat.

ح and ع – Their مَخَْـرَِج is inوَسَطُ‮ ‬الْـحَلْق (the middle part of the throat).  The مَخَْـرَِج of  ح is close to that of غ while the مَخَْـرَِج of ع is close to the مَخَْـرَِج of هـ.

هـ and ء – Their مَخَْـرَِج is in أَقًْصَا‮ ‬الْـحَلْق (the lower part of throat).  The مَخَْـرَِج of هـ is close to the middle of the throat above the مَخَْـرَِج of ء and the مَخَْـرَِج of ء is in the chest.

Section 2 أحْرُفُ‮ ‬اللِّسَانِ (The Letters Of The Tongue)

Their  مَخَْـرَِج is on the tongue.  The places of exit on the tongue have been divided by the scholars of التجويد ( the rules of reading the Quræan) into four sections:

1. رَأْسُ‮ ‬‮ ‬اللِّسَانِ (the front of the tongue)

2. وَسَطُ‮ ‬‮ ‬اللِّسَانِ (the middle of the tongue)

3. حَافَةُ‮ ‬اللِّسَانِ (the edge of the tongue)

4. أَقًْصَا اللِّسَانِ (the back of the tongue)

There are eighteen  أحْرُفُ‮ ‬اللِّسَانِ.  They are the following letters:

ق and ك – The مَخَْـرَِج of ق is at the back of the tongue near the throat opposite the upper palate, that is to say, the roof of the mouth.  The مَخَْـرَِج of ك is below the مَخَْـرَِج of ق .ق is closer to the throat than ك.

‮ ‬ق and ك are known as الْحَرْفَانُ‮ ‬الهَوِيَّتَان‮ ‬(the velar letters). Velar letter are letters which are articulated with the back of the tongue touching or near the soft palate.

Their  مَخَْـرَِج is in the middle of the tongue opposite the upper palate.  As for ج , its مَخَْـرَِج is near the  مَخَْـرَِج of ك.  The مَخَْـرَِج of ي is near the front of the mouth.  the  مَخَْـرَِج of ش is found between the  مَخَْـرَِج of ج and the مَخَْـرَِج of ي.

The‮ ‬مَخَْـرَِج of ي , ش  ,  ج is known as الْـحُرُوف الشَّجْرِيَّة.

ض – The  مَخَْـرَِج of ض is on the left or right edge of the tongue opposite the upper molar teeth along the length of its extreme edge almost to the end of it.  ض is حَـرْفٌ‮ ‬مُسْتَطِيلٌ‮ ‬(an elongated letter). That is to say it is lengthened in its articulation.

ل – The مَخَْـرَِج of ل is at the front of the tongue and close to one of the two edges.  Its مَخَْـرَِج is found at place on the tongue where its front edge stands opposite the upper palate. That is to say, near the eye and incisor teeth.

ر – Similarly, its مَخَْـرَِج is at the front of the tongue except that the مَخَْـرَِج of ر comes in contact with the underside of the tongue slightly.

ن – The مَخَْـرَِج of the ن which is pronounced إِظْهَارًا (clearly),  That is to say the

ن‮ ‬is pronounced without إدْغَام (assimilation) , إخْـفَاء (suppression) or أَقلاَب (conversion)  is at the front of the tongue and above the two upper incisor teeth and a little beneath the مَخَْـرَِج of‮ ‬ل.‮ ‬

ر‮ ‬, ل, and ن are  known as حُرُوفُ‮ ‬الذُّلْـفِيَّة (the letters pronounced with the tip of the tongue).

د‮ ‬, ت and ط – The مَخَْـرَِج of د‮ ‬, ت and ط is at the front of the tongue near its underside of the tongue and the roots of the upper incisor teeth towards the palate.   د‮ ‬, ت and ط are known as حُرُوفُ‮ ‬النِّطْعِيَّة (the palatal letters).

س, ز and ص – The مَخَْـرَِج of س, ز and ص is at the front of the tongue and at the inside of the upper incisor teeth with a small amount of separation.  س, ز and ص are known as الْـحُروفُ‮ ‬الأَسْلِيَّة‮ ‬ (the letters of tip of tongue).

ذ‮ ‬,ث and ظ – The مَخَْـرَِج of ظ is at front of the tongue at the edge of the upper incisor teeth while the مَخَْـرَِج of ث‮ ‬,ذ is at the front of the tongue and some what dangle from the tip of the tongue.

Section 3 – الأَحْرُفُ‮ ‬الشَّفَوِيَّةِ‮ ‬(Letters Of The Lips)

They are called الأَحْرُفُ‮ ‬الشَّفَوِيَّةِ‮ ‬because their مَخَْـرَِج is from the area of the lips.  There are four أَحْرُفُ‮ ‬شَّفَوِيَّةِا. They are the following letters:

ب, م, ف, and و – The مَخَْـرَِج of ف is at the inside of the lower lip and at the edge of the two upper front teeth.

The مَخَْـرَِج of ب and م is in the same location – between the two lips – except that the articulation of ب is stronger and located inside the lips while the مَخَْـرَِج of م is located near the outside of the lips.

The correct مَخَْـرَِج of و is in وَسَـطُ‮ ‬ُالشَّفَتَيْنِ (the middle of the lips) while they are apart.

Reading Exercise:

To Determine الْـمَخَارِج (The Places of Articulation for the Arabic Letters)

اَبْ‮  ‬اَتْ‮  ‬اَثْ‮  ‬اَجْ‮  ‬اَحْ‮  ‬اَخْ‮   ‬اَدْ‮   ‬اَذْ‮   ‬اَرْ‮   ‬اَزْ‮   ‬اَسْ‮  ‬اَشْ‮   ‬اَصْ‮   ‬اَضْ‮   ‬اَطْ‮   ‬اَظْ‮   ‬اَعْ‮   ‬اَغْ‮   ‬اَفْ‮   ‬اَقْ‮   ‬اَكْ‮   ‬اَلْ‮   ‬اَمْ‮   ‬اَنْ‮   ‬اَهْ‮   ‬اَوْ‮   ‬اَيْ



Advertisements
Published in: on August 10, 2010 at 08:25  Leave a Comment  

The URI to TrackBack this entry is: https://madanitimbukti.wordpress.com/2010/08/10/%d8%a7%d9%84%d9%92%d9%80%d9%85%d9%8e%d8%ae%d9%8e%d8%a7%d8%b1%d9%90%d8%ac-the-places-of-exit-for-the-letters-%d9%88%d9%8e%d8%a7%d9%84%d8%b5%d9%90%d9%91%d9%81%d9%8e%d8%a7%d8%aa-and-the-characteristic/trackback/

RSS feed for comments on this post.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: