Rules of Tajwīd for the Warsh Recitation

Rules of Tajwiid for the Recitation of Warsh

Published in: on July 31, 2010 at 11:52  Comments (1)  

Maliki Law: The Predominant Muslim Law in Nigeria

Maliki Fiqh.jpegMaliki Law: The Predominant Muslim Law in Nigeria


Barr. Abdullahi Ghazali


1.    Introduction

Islam is adopted by a vast majority of the Nigerian population (1). Regardless of their geographical locations, Muslims are expected to be governed by Islamic law (2). Under the Nigerian legal system, Islamic law is one of the primary sources of law(3). Prior to the introduction of Islamic Shari’ah in Zamfara State of Nigeria in October 1999, Islamic law was regarded as a special class of customary law (4). Now, Islamic law is considered a statutory law in various states in Nigeria (5). There are several sects within the Nigerian Muslim community. Religious rulings (fatawa) in Nigeria are not restricted to a particular school of law, notwithstanding, all legal and judicial matters relating to Muslims are governed by Maliki school of law. This is because; Maliki law is predominantly the applicable Muslim law in Nigeria (6).

The purpose of this paper is to give the reader a general background on the evolution of Maliki School of law and its founding scholar; Imam Malik ibn Anas. Highlight on the impact of Maliki School on Islamic education and legal system in Nigeria, and examine the application of Maliki law in Nigeria.

2.    Malik ibn Anas:  The Founding Scholar of Maliki School

                                   93-179 A.H (712-795 A.D)

It was foretold by the Prophet (SAW) that:

“Very soon will people beat the flanks of camels in search of knowledge, and they shall find no one more knowledgeable than the knowledgeable scholar of Madina.”

Al-Tirmidhi from Abu Hurairah (R.A)

In another transmission narrated by Al-Hakim from Abu Musa al-Ash’ari (R.A) the Prophet (SAW) said:

People will go out from East and West in search of knowledge, and they shall find no one more knowledgeable than the knowledgeable scholar of Madina.”

Great Scholars such as al-Qadi Iyad, Dhahabi and others related from Sufyan ibn Uyayna, Abdul-Razaq, Ibn Mahdi, Ibn Mu’in, Dhu’ayb ibn Imamah, Ibn al-Madini and others that they considered that scholar to be Malik ibn Anas ibn Malik ibn Abi Amir ibn Umar ibn Harith ibn Ghiman ibn Habthil ibn Amr ibn Harith, Al-Asbahi, Al-Madani, Abu Abdullah, the Imam of the Abode of Emigration, the second of the four major mujtahids and the founding scholar of Maliki school(Doi: 1984: 94; Al-Magribi 1995: 34; /malik.htm

Imam Malik was born and lived his whole life in Madina. At that time, Madina was the centre of Islamic learning, since the disciples of the Companions of the Prophet (SAW) were the recognized masters of learning who attracted scholars from different parts of the Muslim world to Madina. Malik was taught by the greatest scholars of Islamic world of his time. He memorized the Holy Qur’an at his early age. Then devoted himself to the memorization of Hadith. Within a short period of time, he excelled in the area of Hadith, Fiqh-law and other branches of knowledge. Despite his encyclopedic knowledge, he never indulged himself with controversial analysis of knowledge. He used strictly to avoid speculative and hypothetical fiqh. His grand father Malik ibn Abi Amir was one of the great men of knowledge of the followers of the Companions (the tabi’un) he related from many Companions. His great grand father Abu Amir was a companion of the Prophet (SAW), he participated in all the battles with the Prophet (SAW) except Badr. (Al-Magribi; 1995: 35 homepages/ ABewley/Malik.html

Imam Malik was recognized as one of the greatest scholars among the followers of the followers of the Companions of the Prophet (SAW) (tabi’u at tabi’un). He was the first author in Islam. His book al-Muwatta “the approved” was the oldest book known in Islam after the Holy Qur’an. It was reported that Malik spent about fourty (40) years in preparing this great book. al-Muwatta was approved by seventy jurists of Madina. According to Imam al-Bukhari, the soundest of all chains of transmission was “Malik, from Nafi’i, from ibn Umar.” Scholars of Hadith call it the golden chain, and there are eighty narrations with this chain in al-Muwatta /malik.htm

Imam Malik’s life generally, was a mirror of the life style of the Madina people. He gave much respect to the people of Madina, he often called them “the people of knowledge” (Ahlu al-ilmi). He also gave great importance to the practice of the people of Madina in his ijtihad. Indeed, the principle of the “Practice of Madinites” was one of the foundations of his legal method.

Imam Malik was opportuned to be taught by the eminent scholars of the tabi’un class, i.e the immediate generation after the Companions of the Prophet (SAW) in history and the chain of narration of Hadith and knowledge generally in the prophetic system. He had many disciples, some of them remained in Madina, while a large number of them spread to different parts of Islamic world (7).

4.       The Maliki School of Law

Maliki school means the application of Islamic law in accordance with the interpretation of Imam Malik (R.A) and or that of his disciples. Maliki school was originally the School of the people of al-Madinah al-Munauwarah, the lighthouse and blessed city of the Prophet (SAW). Madina was the first capital city of the Muslim administration in the lifetime of the Prophet (S.A.W), a status it retained throughout the era of the first three immediate Caliphs. It was reported that more than ten thousand (10,000) Companions of the Prophet (SAW) out of twelve thousand (12,000) were concentrated in Madina, while the remaining Muslim world shared the remaining two thousand (2,000). Until the Day of Judgement, the sacred body of the Prophet (SAW) remains there. Madina has been the glorious city of Islam. (Ambali; 1998: 35-36).

Imam Malik spent the whole of his life at Madina, acquired his knowledge from the disciples of the companions, taught in the prophetic mosque for over  a period of fourty (40) years, recognized as the leading scholar in Hadith and Fiqh, and later became the spiritual leader and mufti of Madina. His understanding in Islam generally, the interpretations he gave to the law, andfatawa he gave in the religion of Allah were no doubt valuable to all scholars.

Maliki School therefore was essentially based on the understanding and practice of Islam in accordance with the method of the people of Madina before and after Malik. That is why the school is often called  “the School of the Madinites”. Scholars concluded that the principles of Malik in fiqh was originally the principles of the people of Hijaz founded by Sa’id ibn al-Musayyab (R.A) the leader of Tabi’un in his time and the Imam of Madina (d. 94 A.H). Some scholars believed this very year to be the year in which Malik was born, and not the year 93 (A.H)  (Aba al-Khail; 1997: 127).

 According to Shaykh al-Islam ibn Taimiyyah (661-726 A.H):

“Their school – the people of Madina – at the time of the Companions, the followers and their followers, was the most authentic among the schools of all peoples of other Islamic cities, from East to West, in fundamentals and jurisprudence”

(Al- Jazzar &  Al- Baz; 2001:20/163).

Basic Sources of Maliki Law

Maliki School deduced Islamic law from the following sources. They are listed in the order of their importance:

1.                 The Qur’an.

2.                 The Sunnah.

3.                 Amal ahlu-l-Madina– The practice of the Madinites.

4.                 Ijmaa of the Sahabah – Consensus of the Companions.

5.                 Fatwa al-Sahabi – Individual opinion of the Companions.

6.                 Qiyas –  Analogical deduction.

7.                 Customs of the Madinites.

8.                 Istislah – welfare.

9.                 Urf – Custom.

10.             Sad al-zarai’ i– Closing the doors of uncertainties.

11.            Mura’at al-Khilaf – observance of differences. Differences are usually observed. (Philips; 1990: 71; Aba al-Khail; 1997: 127).

The Spread of Maliki School

Maliki School started in Madina, and later spread to many places in the Muslim world. It is the second most spread Muslim school of law in the World. The first being the Hanafi School, is adopted by more than  one third of the Muslim world. (Aba al- Khail;1997: 112). Below are the places or countries where Maliki law applies, either in whole or in part:

Arabian Gulf States (Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, Dubai and Abu Dhabi) Spain, East and West African countries (upper Egypt, the Sudan, Tunisia, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Mali, Nigeria, Chad, Niger, Senegal, Mauritania) Basra, Syria, Yeman etc.Today Maliki School is found in the US, France, UK and other few places in  Europe and Asia. (Aba al-Khail; 1997: 137; Philips; 1990: 74).

 Principal Reference Books in Maliki School of Law:

1.       Al-Muwatta:                   Chronologically, Al- Mawatta was the first book in Islam after the Holy Qur’an. It contains Hadith, Sunnah and Fiqh-law. It was the first book of Malik. “It is the nearest book on earth to the Qur’an and most beneficial book on earth after the Qur’an.” al-Imam al-Shafi’i concluded.

2.       Al-Mudauwanah:           This is a collection of questions that people used to ask Malik and the answers he gave to them. His disciples compiled them. Sahnun was the disciple known to have listed most of them.Mudauwanah has been regarded as the foundation of Fiqh among the followers of Maliki School. It treated more than thirty thousand (30,000) legal issues.

3.       Al-Utbiyyah:                   (The edited one)- This is a compilation of Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Utbi al-Qurtubi (d. 255 A.H) of what Malik heard for him-from memory- and what they heard for their disciples-from memory.

4.       Al-Wadhiha:                   By Abd al-Malik ibn Habib, a leading scholar in Hadith, Fiqh, and Literature in Spain (d. 237 A.H).

5.       Al-Mawaziyyah:             By Muhammad ibn al-Almawaz al-Iskandari, This is among the old Maliki scholars, (d. 280 A.H) (Aba al-Khail; 1997: 139-142;

5.       The Impact of Maliki School on the Islamic Education and Legal System in Nigeria

Before the advent of the Colonial Rule to Nigeria in the 19th century, Islamic law of Maliki school was the only applicable law in the territories now comprising the States of Northern Nigeria and some other places in the neighboring countries. The law was applied to both private and state affairs. According to Gwandu (1988: 24):

“The Sokoto Jihad leaders were all very aware of course, that all the four Sunni Schools of law are equally acceptable and stand on equal footing. However the confusion that could arise if qadis would be allowed to base their decisions on more than one School of law would be obvious. The possibility of some qadis using that to give incompatible verdicts on identical cases brought before them is strong. In order to forestall this; Shaykh Abdullah ibn Fodio in particular insisted that all decisions of a qadi must be based not only on the Maliki School of law, but, only on the mash-hur al-madh-hab or most widely known view of the school in cases where there is more than one view.”

 The adoption of a madh-hab – School of law- in Shari’ah implementation is a common historical feature across the Muslim Caliphates, States, Emirates and Sultanates. It was not only specific to Sokoto Caliphate. In contemporary times of today, Saudi – Arabia is a good example where Shari’ah is fully practiced on the basis of Hambali School of law. In fact, this kind of promotion or adoption of a madthab by a particular Islamic State is one of the historical factors responsible for the spread or popularity of a particular madthab of a particular place in a particular time.

Since the period of Sokoto Caliphate and until the present day, courts rely on Maliki books on law and procedure after the Qur’an and Sunnah. The books that have been in use include the following:

1.           Risalah –by Ibn Abi Zaid Al-Qairawani and its commentaries.

2.      Tuhfah al-Hukkam – by Al-Qadi Abubakar Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Asim al-Andulusi al-Gharnadhi and its commentaries.

3.          Mukhtasar Khalil – by Khalil ibn Ishaq ibn Musa ibn Shu’aib al-Jundi (d. 767 A.H).

4.          Irshad a l-Salik (Askari) – by Shihab al-Deen, Abdu al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn Askar al-Bagdadi.

5.         Fathu al-Ali al-Maliki – by Shaykh Muhammad Ahmad Alish (d. 1299 A.H).

6.        Tabsirah ibn Farhun- by ibn Farhun al- Maliki.

7.            Al-Qawanin al-Fiqhiyyah – by ibn Juzai (d. 741 A.H).

(Gwandu; 1988: 23-24).

In addition to the above mentioned books, informal schools (Ilmi Schools) teach other books of Maliki School, such as:

–  Al-Aka’id Al-Tauhidiyyah (Kawa’idi) -by unknown scholar.

–  Mukhtasar Al-Akhdari (Ahlari) – by Abdu al-Rahman Al-Akhdari.

Matnu al-Ashmawiyyah (Ashmawi) – by Shaykh Abd  al-Bari al-Ashmawi al-Rufa’i.

Al-Muqaddimah al-Iziyyah (Iziyya) by – Abu al-Hassan Ali al-Maliki al-Shazali.

Manzumah al-Qurtubi Fi al-Ibadat (Kurdubi) – by Al-Shaykh Yahya Al-Qurtubi.

Nazmu Muqaddimah ibn Rushd (Ibni Rushud) – by Abdu al-Rahman al-Rufai.

Matn ibn Ashir (ibni Ashir) – by ibn Ashir (d. 1040 A.H).

Misbahu al-Salik – by Shaykh Abdu al-Wasif Muhammad.

– Aqrab al-Masalik – by Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Dardiri (d. 1201 A.H).

The method of teaching is an old one; it was the exact method of teaching adopted by scholars in Madina before and after Imam Malik. A Student always reads before the scholar just like children read to the teacher, and if he makes a mistake, he corrects them. The teacher or shaykh without looking at the text interprets and explains, most of the time sitting on his buzu (animal skin). The order that is followed in teaching the series of books of fiqh differs from place to place and from school to another. The most common order is as follows:

A student is taught Kawa’idi (prose) first, followed by Ahlari (prose), then Ashmawi (prose) with Kurtubi (poem), thenIziyyah (prose) with Ibni Rushud (poem), then Risalah (prose) with Ibni Ashir (poem), then Misbahu al-Salik (prose) withAskari (prose) then Aqrab al-Masalik (prose), then at the end Mukhtasar Khalil (prose) (Lauwali and Sani).

This kind of syllabus and method of teaching are called the Timbukty Method. They are obtainable in all the West African countries. If any thing therefore, this factor underscores the role of history in the spread of Maliki school of law in West Africa generally and Nigeria in particular.

Still in the North and some part of the South, there are formal Islamic schools which are either sponsored by the government, or individuals or organizations, they are generally called Islamiyya SchoolsArabic Schools or Islamic Schools in the South. The syllabi of these schools on Islamic studies are based on Maliki law. Until very recently when private or community Islamic schools started to design their own curriculum of education or syllabi for pupils, or women, or men in the mosques, or majalisai(Centres of Learning), books on Maliki law were the only recognized materials of learning. The books used in such institutions are not based on Maliki law; they are more of Hambali or Zahiri School, or a combination of all existing and non- existing schools. There are many explanations to that; all of them are rooted in the phenomenon of globalization, as epitomized in the following:

I-                  Explosion in Transport Technology and Massive Emigration:

This has facilitated movements across continents and regions. It has indeed facilitated migrant scholarship and trade movements. With this, a few developments emerged like:

– Massive importation of non- Maliki law books from the Arabic World.

– Boosted scholarship in Arabian countries, such as:

Egypt, Syria, the Sudan, Kuwait, Lebanon and especially Saudia- Arabia

Students return to Nigeria with non-Maliki orientation.

– Spread of many International Islamic Organizations across the Muslim countries. Nigeria is not an exception. E.g consider IIFSO, WAMY, Al-Muntada Al-Islami, World Islamic Call Society of Libya, etc.

II-Explosion in Information and Communication:

This has facilitated the massive influx and cross- penetration of ideas across nations through various means; Newspapers, Magazines, Journals, Booklets, Books, Radio, T.V, and now Satellites, Computer, and all its hazafirs (softwares,CDs, the Internet, etc).

It has been observed by this writer that, the teaching of Maliki law is recognized by the syllabi of many Secondary Schools and Colleges of Arts -where Islamic Studies or Law are taught. It has also been observed that the syllabi of Islamic Studies and Islamic Law in all the Nigerian Universities where such courses are taught have recognized the teaching of Maliki law whether or not in comparison with other Schools of Law. At the Nigerian Law School, Practice and Procedure in the Shari’ah Court of Appeal are taught based on Maliki law.

However, the combined effect of s. 261(3) of the 1999 Constitution that deals with the appointment and qualification of the Grand- Kadi or Kadi of the Sharia’ah Court of Appeal of FCT, Abuja or of a state under s. 276(3) on one hand. And s. 14 of the Shari’ah Court of Appeal Law of Northern Nigeria – as adopted by all the Northern States – that restricted the Court to the application of Muslim law of Maliki School in both substantive law and practice and procedure, demonstrates that; a person shall not be qualified to hold office as Grand – Kadi or Kadi of the Shari’ah Court of Appeal unless he is learned in Islamic law and more particularly Maliki law.  This suggests that even if the position of a mufti of Nigeria would have been existed, the most knowledgeable scholar in Maliki law among the fellow Nigerians would have been the one to be appointed. Just as the opposite practice in Egypt, where the position of Shaykh al-Azhar is exclusive to Shafii scholars.

6. The Application of Maliki Law in Nigeria: Problems and Limitations

Nigeria is one of the multiple countries in the World that apply Maliki law to its Muslim citizens, especially in the northern part of the country. The law has impact on the evolution of our education and legal system. Despite its legal and judicial status in Nigeria, Maliki School is viewed by Critics as conservative, rigid, extremely traditional and surrounded by a lot of limitations that render it less effective. Their arguments are as follows:

6.1             Maliki School gives preference to the practice of Madinites over a prophetic Hadith.

6.2             The extent of Maliki School in applying the principle of Sad al-Zara’I’i has taken away the simplicity and dynamite nature of Islam in many respects.

6.3           A number of Maliki scholars concentrate more on Fiqh rather than Hadith, and give no respect to the views of other schools.

6.4             Some verdicts – fatawa – of Maliki scholars do not approach the contemporary life situation.

6.5             Restrictions on few books within the Maliki School.

6.6       The syllabi and method of teaching the Maliki law do not encourage wide knowledge or produce positive Muslims.

6.7            Weak connection between the academic and practical aspects of Maliki law in Nigeria.

6.8               Limitations of legal and judicial systems.

6.9               Professional and social problems associated with it.

7.0     Response/ Solutions

7.1    Practice of the Madinites in Maliki School constitutes a source of law after the Glorious Qur’an and Sunnah. The principle means that, the old practice of the Madina people at the time of the Sahabah – particularly the Rightly Guided Caliphs – is a binding proof in the religion, and even takes precedence over a conflicting Hadith that does not form part of the practice. It also takes precedence over a Hadith of individuals (Khabar Ahad). This does not derogate the merit of Hadith or the Sunnah as a whole. However, the later practice in Madina is not a binding precedence as held by Muslim Imams. Shaykh al-Islam ibn Taimiyyah (R.A) – in his fatawa– classified the practice of the Madinites into four stages,  as follows:

–          The first one is what runs on the course of reporting from the Prophet (SAW), e.g. quantity of measures, not taking alms from vegetables and endowments. This is a proof in accordance with the consensus of Muslims. It is also the unanimous view of all the Imams; Abu Hanifa, Malik, Shafi’I and Ahmad ibn Hambal.

–         The second one is the old practice in Madina before the assassination of Othman ibn Affan (R.A), this is a proof in Maliki School as well as Shafi’i. Hambali School is of the opinion that whatever is practiced by the Rightly Guided Caliphs constitutes a binding proof in Islam. Abu Hanifa concluded that; the sayings of Rightly Guided Caliphs are proof. He further said: “ I do not know any old practice of the Madinites that offends the Sunnah of the Prophet (SAW).”

–          The third one is where two conflicting evidences arise over a matter, such as two Hadiths or two analogies, and the preference of either of them is ignored, and one of them forms the practice of Madinintes. Here, Scholars differ. The view of Malik and Shafi’I is to give preference to the practice of the Madinites over the conflicting Hadith or analogy. Abu Hanifa totally disagreed with this view. Hambali School held two different views, one agrees with Hanafi’s view and the other agrees with Malik and Shafi’I’s view… “ Here, the majority view of the Imams agrees with the Maliki School in giving preference to the practice of the Madinites.”

–     The fourth stage is the later practice in Madina. Does it constitute a binding precedence or not? . The position of the Imams is that, it does not constitute a legal proof. This is the view of Shafi’i, Ahmad ibn Hambal, Abu Hanifa and others. It is also the view of the erudite scholars among the Maliki School. (Al- Jazzar & Al-Baz; 2001:20/168-171).

7.2       Regardless of its different nomenclatures, Sad al- Zara’i’i is a generally acceptable source of law under the Islamic Jurisprudence. It literally means, “closing the means” or “closing the doors of uncertainties” i.e. closing or denying the legal means that leads or likely  leads to prohibited act(s) or omission(s). The extent that Maliki School has gone in applying this principle is often criticized, especially by Zahiri Scholars who do not recognize the principle ab initio.(Othman; 1996: 55-69 & 206).

Under this principle, legal acts leading to unlawful acts may become unlawful, and those leading to lawful may become lawful to the extent of the lawfulness. Moreover, legal acts leading to welfare may become desirable, and those leads to injury may become unlawful.  Sad al – Zara’i’i prevents the situation where people play with Shari’ah, it also prevents unbridled corruption of Sharia’ah or rendering it non-sense (Abu Zahra; 1980: 429).

7.3        The concentration of Maliki scholars on Fiqh rather than Hadith, can be regarded is a later development in the School. The reason is that, Malik was a leading scholar of his time in both Hadith and Fiqh, in fact his book al-Muwatta was the first book on Hadith. However, the first generation scholars of Maliki School did combine between Hadith and Fiqh, likewise their predecessors. The divorce of Hadith from Fiqh is not peculiar to Maliki school only, but common in all the schools of law.

Moreover, Imam Malik gave respect to the opinions of all scholars. It was reported that when the Caliph Abu Ja’afar Al-Mansur said to Malik: “ I desire that I may make copies of your book Muwatta and then send them to all the Muslim countries and order people to act upon them, and do not cross the limits. ” Malik refused, saying that: “ the Companions of the Prophet (SAW) differed in fiqh and dispersed to various cities and every one of them was right” (Doi; 1984: 103; Al-Suba’i; 1985:431)

 As already mentioned in this paper that, one of the principles upon which Maliki School was based is considering the views of different scholars in making legal judgements. This may serve as a proof that Maliki School respects the views of other schools of law.

 7.4             The reasons why many verdicts of our scholars do not approach the real life situation are as follows:

–                     Lack of sound knowledge of Hadith.

–                     Lack of sound background in comparative jurisprudence.

–                     Lack of contemporary jurisprudence  (Fiqh al-Waqii).

–                     Absence of effective legal research. Etc.

7.5             It is true that, the Maliki law in Nigeria is restricted to few books of Maliki law. It appears that many prominent Maliki scholars are only known to us by their names, rather than works, such as Ibn Abd al-Bar, Ibn al-Arabi, Ibn Rush, al-Qarafi etc

7.6             The syllabi and method of teaching the Maliki law in Nigeria do not encourage wide knowledge or produce positive Muslims. This is because, students are not taught practical jurisprudence, comparative Fiqh, and Nigerian text on Maliki law.

7.7             The connection between the academic and practical aspects of Maliki law in Nigeria is very weak, sometimes is very difficult to trace. Our academic institutions – both formal and informal do not produce competent people who are ready to serve knowledge (Shari’ah in particular). The effect of this is the ignorance in our society about the concept of Shari’ah in its generic and practical sense. At this juncture, It is insulting to state that many operators in the Shari’ah system are not adequately learned in Shari’ah, and those who are learned are not socialized properly.

7.8             Maliki law being the applicable Muslim law in Nigeria is subjected to so many limitations, some of them are as follows:

7.8.1      Nigerian laws e.g.:

–                     The supremacy clause under s.1 of the 1999 Constitution. Under this, the Constitution is regarded as the sovereign law in Nigeria, and any other law including Islamic law derives its validity from it. However, where the provision of Islamic law is inconsistent with that of the Constitution, the Constitution shall prevail, and that provision of Islamic law shall to the extent of the inconsistency be void.

–                     Prohibition of state religion under s.10 of the 1999 Constitution. Under this, no state in Nigeria can declare Islam as its state religion.

–                     Effect of s.12 of the 1999 Constitution that deals with the implementation of treaties. Here, it is important to note that most of the international instruments are made through the making of treaties. Treaties like contracts create rights and obligations between the parties to them. Nigeria as a sovereign entity has full legal capacity to make treaties with other sovereign states, regional or international organizations. For a treaty to have the force of law in Nigeria, it must be domesticated or enacted into law by the National Assembly. A number of treaties to which Nigeria is a party are detrimental to Islam, its creeds, laws, civilization and general wellbeing of its followers. E.g Treaties relating to Fundamental Rights, Fundamental Freedoms (such as Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights), Education and Culture.

7.8.2      Regional International laws signed by Nigeria e.g.

African Charter on Human and People Rights, 1981. (Banjul Charter) Nigeria is a signatory to the Banjul Charter. The Charter adopts many provisions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948.

7.8.3  International laws that assimilated into the Nigerian laws or Constitution e.g.; Some provisions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights – UDHR (United Nations General Assembly Resolution 217A (III), 1948), such as:

–                     S. 34 dealing with the right to dignity of human person (see UDHR, Art. 15: 1948). Under this, Haddi Punishments e.g lashing, amputations of hands, stoning to death are regarded as torture or inhuman treatment contrary to the respect for the dignity of human person. Going by this provision, Islamic Criminal justice is viewed as unjustifiable.

–                     S.38 dealing with the right to freedom of thought conscience and religion which includes the right to change religion (see UDHR, Art.18: 1948). Under this, apostasy which is a capital offence and attracts capital punishment under Shari’ah is legalized, and the offender is covered by the provision of this section.

–                     S.39 dealing with right to freedom of expression and the press (see UDHR, Art.19: 1948). It is part of the Fundamental Human Right to every person in Nigeria to hold opinions, to receive and impart ideas and information without interference. And to own, establish and operate any medium for the dissemination of information, ideas and opinions. Some bad people in the country take undue advantage of this provision to encourage immoralities through the media – print or electric – which is contrary to Islamic law.

–                     S.42 dealing with the right to freedom from discrimination (see UDHR, Art. 2&7: 1948). Under this, certain provisions of Shari’ah that give more legal rights to man are regarded as discriminatory treatment against women on the basis of sex. E.g:

–                     Entitlement of the male heir to the double share of that of the female – in most cases- under the Islamic law of succession.

–                     Incompetence of women to give testimony in criminal cases.

–                     Testimony of a male witness is equal to the testimony of two female witnesses in civil cases of money or money worth nature.

–                     The right of a man to divorce his wife unilaterally.

–                     Incapacity of women to rule. Etc.

However, the provision of Shari’ah law that disqualifies an illegitimate child to inherit his biological deceased father is viewed by many international instruments as discrimination based on the circumstances of one’s birth.

7.8.4    International Human Rights Laws to which  Nigeria is a signatory, e.g.:

–        The United Nations General Assembly Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, adopted in 1993. (WRAPA; 2002: 6).

–                      Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948. (Bande; 1998: 3).

–              The Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), 1979. (Gambari; 1998: 9).

Under this, many provisions of Shari’ah law that give more legal rights to man are considered as discriminatory laws and must be eliminated.

7.8.5    Institution of Criminal Proceedings in Shari’ah Courts

The authority given to police to initiate criminal proceedings in Shari’ah Courts does not favour the Shara’ah legal system in Nigeria. And by extension, Maliki criminal procedure law is seriously injured. (see for example  The Kano State Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Law, Cap. 37,  s. 385 ©: 2000).

7.8.6    Appeal System

Any case of the Shari’ah Court is very likely to go to the Shariah Court of Appeal, Federal Court of Appeal, then the Supreme Court of Nigeria. Although the doctrine of judicial precedent does not apply to Shariah Courts in principle but, by virtue of the appellate system whereby decisions of Sharia Court can ultimately reach the Supreme Court, Shariah Courts should follow the decisions of the Supreme Court. (Obilade; 1979: 123).

7.9       Professional and social problems.

7.9.1      Many legal practitioners in our Shari’ah Courts are not saturated with Islamic or Maliki law, they are half-baked lawyers in Islamic law.

However, many Shari’ah Courts personnel are seriously infected with Nigerian virus, likewise the practitioners.

7.9.2      The attitude of some students, Ustazes, (young scholars) and even the so-called Muslim intellectuals of disrespecting or condemning schools of law particularly Maliki school may be regarded as a serious problem of Maliki law from within the Nigerian Muslim community.

8.                 Suggestions

This writer humbly suggests as follows:

8.1       Arabic Language should be encouraged at the ordinary level of education, particularly in the North. This is to provide solid background in Arabic and Islamic civilization for young Muslims

8.2             Specialized Schools, Colleges or Centres of Learning (majalisai) in Maliki law be improved so as to breed learned and competent people in Islamic education.

8.3             To produce erudite scholars and jurists, specialized students in Islamic Studies, Law or Philosophy in all our universities be taught the following courses effectively:

–                     Arabic Language.

–                     Science of Hadith.

–                     Comparative Jurisprudence

–                     Contemporary Jurisprudence

–                     Islamic Legal Research

–                     Islamic Study Skills

8.4             The effort of Ilmi scholars in spreading knowledge cannot be derogated, their schools need moral and financial support to improve their work.

8.5             Independent Research Centres on Maliki law be established.

8.6             Websites, formal and local specialized libraries on Maliki law be opened.

8.7             Writings and Researches on “the Nigerian Maliki law” be encouraged, so as to improve our standard of Islamic Jurisprudence.

8.8             The office of Al-mufti (a Research Officer in the Shari’ah Court of Appeal) be revitalized, this is to improve standard of research in Sharia’ah Courts.

8.9             The Nigerian Council of Ulama’a  be properly functional. So as to standardize the input of our scholars.

8.10        For regulating and standardizing the work of fatwa – religious rulings in the country, the position of Mufti of Nigeriaought to have existed.

8.11        Judgements of all Shari’ah Courts and The Sharia’ah Courts of Appeal in Nigeria be published; weekly or monthly in English, Hausa, Ajami,  Fulfulde and Kanuri Languges. This is to enlighten the public about the judicial application of Sharia’ah legal system in the country. And to teach people certain provisions of Sharia’ah law in practice.

8.12        Certain provisions of the 1999 Constitution need a little amendment, so as to favour the law of the majority population of Nigeria. E.g.: s.1 (Supremacy of the Constitution), s.10 (Prohibition of State Religion) s.12 (Implementation of treaties), s. 34 (Right to dignity of human person), s. 38 (Right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion), s. 39(Right to freedom of expression and the press) and s. 42 (Right to freedom from Discrimination).

End Notes

 1.      Muslims make up 55% of the Nigerian 133 million populations, Christians 40% and 5% atheists. Several sources show that Muslim population in Nigeria is between 60 to 65%.(;; Microsoft (R) Encarta (R) Reference Libry,2003).

2.      See Qur’an 5:45, 5:49-50, 6:162-3, 12:40, 42:13 and 42:21.

3.      See Obilade; 1979:55-6.

4.      See Adesubokun v. Yunusa (1971) NSNLR, 7.

5.      For e.g s. 29 (3) and (4) of the Sharia’ah Courts Law of Kano State of Nigeria: 2000 provides:

                        (A)        “Islamic and Muslim laws shall be deemed to be statutory

laws in all existing laws in the state;

                      (B)          The provisions of existing laws in the state which define customary law to include Islamic or Muslim law are hereby accordingly amended and such provisions shall be deemed statutory laws wherever they occur.”

6.      See e.g s. 14 of the Sharia’ah Court of Appeal Law (Northern Nigeria Laws, cap. 122: 1963 as adopted by all the Northern States of Nigeria); s. 2 Zamfara State Shari’ah Courts Law: 1999; s. 2 of the Kano State Shari’ah Courts Law: 2000;Ogesun v. Siddiq (1979) NNLR, 29;Alkamawa v. Bello (1992) 2 NWLR (pt 221) pg. 60.

7.      Some of his Teachers include the following:

1.                  Hisham ibn Urwah.

2.                  Nafi’i (a freed slave of ibn Umar) (R.A) (d. 117 A.H).

3.                  Muhammad ibn Yahya al-Ansari (d. 121 A.H).

4.                  Abu Hazim, Salamah ibn Dinar (d. 140 A.H).

5.                  Yahya ibn Sa’id (d. 143 A.H).

6.                  Abu Razin, Nafii ibn Abdu al-Rahman (d. 169 A.H).

7.                  Ja’afar al-Sadiq (d. 198 A.H).

8.                  Abdul-Rahman ibn Hurmuz (d. 117 A.H).

9.                  Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri (d. 124 A.H).

10.              Rabiah ibn Abdu al-Rahman (Rabiat al-Ra’ayi).

( Doi; 1984: 95-97; Aba al-Khail; 1997: 123)

The Disciples of Imam Malik include the following:

1.                  Abdu al-Rahman ibn al-Qasim al-Atki (d. 191 A.H).

2.                  Abu Muhammad, Abdullahi ibn Wahab ibn Muslim (d. 197 A.H).

3.                  Ash-hab ibn Abdul-Aziz al-Qaisi (d. 204 A.H).

4.                  As-bag ibn al-Faraj (d. 225 A.H).

5.                  Abu Muhammad, Abdullah ibn Abdu al-Hakam (d. 214 A.H).

6.                  Abu al-Hassan, Aliyu ibn Zayyad al-Tunusi (d. 183 A.H).

7.                  Abu Abdullah, Zayyad ibn Abdu al-Rahman al-Qurtubi- Shubtun (d. 193 A.H).

8.                  Isah ibn Dinar al- Qurtubi al-Andulusi (d. 212 A.H).

9.                  Asad ibn al-Furat ibn Sinan al-Tunusi (d. 213 A.H).

10.              Abu Marwan, Abdu al-Malik ibn Abi Salamah al-Majishun (d. 212 A.H)

11.              Ahmad ibn al-Mu’udhil ibn Ghailan al-Abdi.

12.              Yahya ibn Yahya al-Masmudi (d. 234 A.H).

13.              Ibn Wahab, Abu Muhammad, Abdullah ibn Salamah al-Fahri al-Masri (d. 199 A.H).

14.              Muhammad ibn Mubarak.

15.              Muhamamd ibn al-Hassan al-Shaibani. (Doi at 97 – 98; Aba al-Khail at 134).


1.       List of Statutes/Legal Instruments

1.1                 Nigerian Statutes

1963         The Northern Nigeria Laws Cap. 122, s.14.

1991         Laws of Kano State of Nigeria, Cap. 134, s.13.

1999         The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria ss. 1, 10, 12, 34, 38, 39, 42, 261(3) and 276(3).

1999       Zamfara State Shari’ah Courts Law, s.2.

2000       Kano State Shari’ah Courts Law, ss. 2 & 29

2000       Kano State Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Law, Cap. 37, s. 385©

1.2     Regional and International Instruments

1948      The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations General Assembly Resolution 217A (III), Arts. 2, 5, 7, 18 & 19.

1979  The Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women  (CEDAW).

1981      African Charter on Human and People Rights (Banjul Charter).

2.     List of Cases

–                     Adesubokun v. Yunusa (1971) NSNLR, 7.

–                     Ogesun v. Siddiq (1979) NNLR, 29.

–                     Alkamawa v. Bello (1992) 2 NWLR (pt 221) pg. 60.


1.                 Arabic Sources

 -Abu Zahra, M. (1980),       Tarikh al -Mazahib al-Islamiyyah Dar al- Fikr al-Arabi Publishers

– Al-Suba’I, M. (1985),    Al – Sunnah wa Makanatuha  fi al-TashriI al-Isami Al- Maktab al-Islami. Beirut – Lebanon.

-Al- Magribi, M.A (1995),  Mawahib al-Jalil Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyyah. Beirut- Lebanon.

-Aba Al-Khail, S.A (1997), Mukaddimah Fi al-Fiqh Dar al-Asimah Publications. Saudia- Arabia.

-Faruqi, H.S. (1997),     Faruqi’s Law Dictionary ( Arabic – English) Lebanon Library Publishers. Beirut – Lebanon.

– Al- Jazzar, A. and Al-Baz, A. (2001), Majmu’ah al-Fatawa li ibn Taimiyyah Dar al-Wafai Publications & Dar al- Hadith Publications.  Cairo- Egypt.

– Othman, M.H.(1996),     Qa’idatu Sad al- Zarai’i Dar al- Hadith Publications.  Cairo- Egypt.

2.       English Sources

– Obilade, A.O (1979),      The Nigerian Legal System Sweet and Maxwell Ltd. London.

-Doi, A.I (1984),                Shariah: The Islamic Law Ta-Ha Publishers, London.

– Gwandu, A.A (1988),  Aspects of Administration of Justice in the Sokoto Caliphate and Shaykh Abdullahi Ibn Fodio’s Contribution to it.

Edited by Syed Khalid Rashid Islamic Law in Nigeria (Application & Teaching) Islamic Publications Bureau Lagos – Nigeria.

– Philips, A.B (1990),       The Evolution of Fiqh Alasela Islamic Publication, Lagos-Nigeria

– Ambali, M.A (1998),  The Practice of Muslim Family Law in Nigeria Tamaza Publishing Company Ltd. Zaria- Nigeria.

– Bande, T. M (1998),      Dimensions of Human Rights in Nigeria Public Lecture Series No. 4. National Human Rights Commission. Abuja – Nigeria.

– Gambari, I.A (1998),    Universal Declaration of Human Rights At Fifty: Challenges for Nigeria at Thirty Eight

Public Lecture Series No. 2. National Human Rights Commission.  Abuja – Nigeria.

– WRAPA, (2002),   Eliminating Violence Against Women: The Legislative Approach in the Quarterly Bulletin of the Women’s Rights Advancement and Protection Alternative (WRAPA). Abuja- Nigeria. Vol. 3 No. 2. (April – June, 2002).

3.    Websites

– Haddad, G.F. (2005),          Imam Malik


– Bewley, Aisha (2005),       Imam Malik Ibn Anas

Abdullahi Ghazali Esq.



                                                          EL-Tayyib & Associates

                                                          107, IBB Way,


Copyright- Abdullahi Mallam Ghazali, Kano-Nigeria

Published in: Uncategorized on July 30, 2010 at 21:23  Leave a Comment  

Chapter 5 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About الاسْتِنْجَاءُ (al-Istinjaa’) Because of الرّيح (Gas)

The Chapter About الاسْتِنْجَاءُ (al-Istinjaa’) because of الرّيح (Gas) and الْغَائِطِ ( Defecation)


قَالَ‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬يُسْتَنْجَى مِنْ‮ ‬الرِّيحِ‮ ‬وَلَكِنْ‮ ‬إنْ‮ ‬بَالَ‮ ‬أَوْ‮ ‬تَغَوَّطَ‮ ‬فَلْيَغْسِلْ‮ ‬مَخْرَجَ‮ ‬الأََذَى وَحْدَهُ‮ ‬فَقَطْ‮ ‬إنْ‮ ‬بَالَ‮ ‬فَمَخْرَجُ‮ ‬الْبَوْلِ‮ ‬الإِحْلِيلُ‮ ‬وَإِنْ‮ ‬تَغَوَّطَ‮ ‬فَمَخْرَجُ‮ ‬الأََذَى فَقَطْ

He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “Maalik said, ‘A person should not perform al-Istinjaa’ because of passing الريح (gas), but, if he urinated or defecated, then let him wash because of the elimination of noxious matter only.  If he urinates, it is because of the elimination of the urine and if he defecates it is because of the elimination of noxious matter only.”

قَالَ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬الْقَاسِمِ‮ ‬قُلْتُ‮ ‬لِـمَالِكٍ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬فَمَنْ‮ ‬تَغَوَّطَ‮ ‬فَاسْتَنْجَى بِالْـحِجَارَةِ‮ ‬ثُمَّ‮ ‬تَوَضَّأَ‮ ‬وَلَمْ‮ ‬يَغْسِلْ‮ ‬مَا هُنَالِكَ‮ ‬بِالْـمَاءِ‮ ‬حَتَّى صَلَّى ؟ قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬تُـجْزِئُهُ‮ ‬صَلاتُهُ‮ ‬وَلْيَغْسِلْ‮ ‬مَا هُنَالِكَ‮ ‬بِالْـمَاءِ‮ ‬فِيمَا‮ ‬يَسْتَقْبِلُ

Ibn al-Qaasim said, “I said to Maalik, ‘what about the person who defecates and performs istinjaa’ with stones, then performed Wuḍuu’ but did not wash what was there with water, then he prayed?’  He said, ‘His salaah is permitted.  Let him wash what is there with water according to what he finds’ ”

مَالِكٌ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬يَحْيَى بْنِ‮ ‬سَعِيدٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬مُحَمَّدِ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬طَحْلاءَ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬عُثْمَانَ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬عَبْدِ‮ ‬الرَّحْمَنِ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬أَنَّ‮ ‬أَبَاهُ‮ ‬أَخْبَرَهُ‮ ‬أَنَّهُ‮ ‬رَأَى عُمَرَ‮ ‬بْنَ‮ ‬الْـخَطَّابِ‮ ‬يَتَوَضَّأُ‮ ‬بِالْـمَاءِ‮ ‬وُضُوءًا لِـمَا تَـحْتَ‮ ‬إزَارِهِ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬يُرِيدُ‮ ‬الاسْتِنْجَاءَ‮ ‬بِالْـمَاءِ‮ ‬

Maalik related from Yahyaa bin Muhammad bin Tahlaa’ from ʿUthmaan bin ʿAbdur Rahmaan from his father that he inform him that he saw ʿUmar bin Khattaab perform Wuḍuu’ with water and wash what was under his إزار (waist garment).  Ibn al-Qaasim said, “Maalik said he meant istinjaa’ with water.”

ابْنُ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬اللَّيْثِ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬سَعْدٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬أَبِي‮ ‬مَعْشَرٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬مُحَمَّدِ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬قَيْسٍ‮ ‬قَاضِي‮ ‬عُمَرَ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬عَبْدِ‮ ‬الْعَزِيزِ‮ ‬إنَّ‮ ‬الْـمُغِيرَةَ‮ ‬بْنَ‮ ‬شُعْبَةَ‮ ‬اتَّبَعَ‮ ‬النَّبِيَّ‮ ‬صَلَّى‮  ‬عَلَيْهِ‮ ‬وَالسَّلَّـمَ‮ ‬بَاداوة مَاء فِي‮ ‬غَزْوَةِ‮ ‬تَبُوكَ‮ ‬بِإِدَاوَةٍ‮  ‬حِينَ‮ ‬تَبَرَّزَ‮ ‬فَأَخَذَ‮ ‬الإِدَاوَةَ‮ ‬مِنِّْي‮ ‬،‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬تَأَخَّرَ‮ ‬عَنِّي‮ ‬فَفَعَلْتُ‮ ‬فَاسْتَنْجَى بِالْـمَاءِ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬مَسْلَمَةَ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬عَلِيٍّ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬الأَوْزَاعِيِّ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬عَائِشَةَ‮ ‬قَالَتْ‮ ‬إنَّ‮ ‬رَسُولَ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬صَلَّى اللَّهُ‮ ‬عَلَيْهِ‮ ‬وَسَلَّمَ‮ ‬كَانَ‮ ‬يَفْعَلُهُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬وَقَالَتْ‮ ‬إنَّهُ‮ ‬شِفَاءٌ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬الْبَاسُورِ

Ibn Wahb reported from al-Layth from Abū Maʿshir from Muhammad bin Qays who informed ʿUmar bin ʿAbdul ʿAziiz that al-Mughiirah bin Shuʿbah followed the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلّم  with a container of water during the battle of Tabuuk.  “He (the Prophet) took it from me and said, ‘follow me.’  I did.  He performed istinjaa’ with water.” Ibn Wahb reported from Muslamah bin ʿAlī from al-Awzaa’ii from ʿAa’ishah that she said that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلّم used to do it (istinjaa’) and she said, that he was suffering with الباسور (hemorrhoids).

ابْنُ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬عَبْدِ‮ ‬الرَّحْمَنِ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬زِيَادِ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬أَنْعُمٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬عَبْدِ‮ ‬الرَّحْمَنِ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬رَافِعٍ‮ ‬التَّنُوخِيِّ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬عَبْدِ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬مَسْعُودٍ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬كُنَّا مَعَ‮ ‬رَسُولِ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬صَلَّى اللَّهُ‮ ‬عَلَيْهِ‮ ‬وَسَلَّمَ‮ ‬لَيْلَةَ‮ ‬الْـجِنِّ‮ ‬فَسَمِعْتُهُمْ‮ ‬يَسْتَفْتُونَهُ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬الاسْتِنْجَاءِ‮ ‬فَسَمِعْتُهُ‮ ‬يَقُولُ‮ ‬ثَلاثََةُ‮ ‬أَحْجَارٍ‮ ‬فَقَالُوا فَكَيْفَ‮ ‬بِالْـمَاءِ‮ ‬؟ قَالَ‮ ‬رَسُولُ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬صَلَّى اللَّهُ‮ ‬عَلَيْهِ‮ ‬وَسَلَّمَ‮ ‬هُوَ‮ ‬أَطْهَرُ‮ ‬وَأَطْيَبُ

Ibn Wahb reported from ʿAbdur Rahmaan Ibn Ziyaad bin Anʿum from ʿAbdur Rahmaan bin Raafiʿ at-Tanuukhii from ʿAbdullaah bin Masʿuud, he said, “We were with the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلّم during ليلة الجن (the night of the Jinn) and I heard them ask him his opinion about al-istinjaa’.  I heard him say, ‘three stones’ (that is to say use three stones for cleaning).  They said, ‘How about water?’  The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلّم said, ‘it is cleaner and better.’ ”

The Entire Qur’an Fii Riwayatu-l- Warsh Al-Qārī Mohamed Aljabery Alhiani

The Entire Qur\’an Fii Riwayatu-l- Warsh Al-Qārī Mohamed Aljabery Alhiani

Published in: on July 17, 2010 at 20:05  Leave a Comment  

Khadija Birhoon From Morocco Reciting Beautiful Tajwiid in the Warsh Reading Style

Published in: on July 17, 2010 at 19:37  Leave a Comment  

The Recitation of Warsh From Nāfiʿ with Tajwiid

Published in: on July 17, 2010 at 18:48  Leave a Comment  

Chapter 4 Mudawwanah – Facing the Qiblah While Urinating and Defecating

اسْتِقْبَالُ‮ ‬الْقِبْلَةِ‮ ‬لِلْبَوْلِ‮ ‬وَالْغَائِطِ‮ ‬

Facing the Qiblah While Urinating and Defecating

قَالَ‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬إنَّمَا الْـحَدِيثُ‮ ‬الَّذِي‮ ‬جَاءَ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬تَسْتَقْبِلَ‮ ‬الْقِبْلَةَ‮ ‬لِبَوْلٍ‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬لِغَائِطٍ‮ ‬إنَّمَا‮ ‬يَعْنِي‮ ‬بِذَلِكَ‮ ‬فَيَافِيَ‮ ‬الأََرْضِ‮ ‬وَلَمْ‮ ‬يَعْنِ‮ ‬بِذَلِكَ‮ ‬الْقُرَى وَالْـمَدَائِنَ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬فَقُلْتُ‮ ‬لَهُ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬أَرَأَيْتَ‮ ‬مَرَاحِيضَ‮ ‬تَكُونُ‮ ‬عَلَى السُّطُوحِ‮ ‬؟ قَالَ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬بِذَلِكَ‮ ‬وَلَمْ‮ ‬يَعْنِ‮ ‬بِالْـحَدِيثِ‮ ‬هَذِهِ‮ ‬الْـمَرَاحِيضَ

He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “Maalik said, ‘The hadiith which says, “Do not face the Qiblah while urinating and defecating.  What is meant by that is الْفَيَافِي (the open spaces) of the Earth and not the villages and the towns.” He said, “I asked him, ‘Are you of the opinion the toilets are on the same level?’  He said, “There is no objection to that because the hadiith did not mean these toilets.”

قُلْتُ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬أَيُجَامِعُ‮ ‬الرَّجُلُ‮ ‬امْرَأَتَهُ‮ ‬مُسْتَقْبِلَ‮ ‬الْقِبْلَةِ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬قَوْلِ‮ ‬مَالِكٍ‮ ‬؟ قَالَ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬أَحْفَظُ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬مَالِكٍ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬شَيْئًا وَأَرَى أَنَّهُ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬لأَنَّهُ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬يَرَى بِالْـمَرَاحِيضِ‮ ‬بَأْسًا فِي‮ ‬الْـمَدَائِنِ‮ ‬وَالْقُرَى وَإِنْ‮ ‬كَانَتْ‮ ‬مُسْتَقْبِلَةً‮ ‬الْقِبْلَةَ‮ ‬

I (Ṣahnuun) said, “What about the man who has intercourse with his wife while facing the Qiblah in Maalik’s view?”  He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “I do not remember anything from Maalik concerning it, but my view is that it is not objectionable because he did not view the toilets in the villages and towns as being objectionable if they are facing the Qiblah.

قُلْتُ : كَانَ مَالِكٌ يَكْرَهُ اسْتِقْبَالَ الْقِبْلَةِ وَاسْتِدْبَارَهَا لِبَوْلٍ أَوْ لِغَائِطٍ فِي فَيَافِي الأََرْضِ ، قَالَ : نَعَمْ الاسْتِقْبَالُ وَالاسْتِدْبَارُ سَوَاءٌ

I said, “Maalik used to dislike facing the Qiblah and putting one’s back towards it while urinating and defecating in the open deserts?”  He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “Yes facing and putting one’s back to the Qiblah was the same.”

ابْنُ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬مَالِكِ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬إِسْحَاقَ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬عَبْدِ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬أَبِي‮ ‬طَلْحَةَ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬رَافِعِ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬إِسْحَاقَ‮ ‬أَنَّهُ‮ ‬سَمِعَ‮ ‬أَبَا أَيُّوبَ‮ ‬يَقُولُ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬رَسُولُ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬صَلَّى اللَّهُ‮ ‬عَلَيْهِ‮ ‬وَسَلَّمَ‮ ‬إذَا ذَهَبَ‮ ‬أَحَدُكُمْ‮ ‬لِغَائِطٍ‮ ‬أَوْ‮ ‬لِبَوْلٍ‮ ‬فَلاَ‮ ‬يَسْتَقْبِلُ‮ ‬الْقِبْلَةَ‮ ‬بِفَرْجِهِ‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬يَسْتَدْبِرُهَا

Ibn Wahb related from Maalik from Ishaq bin ʿAbdullaah bin Abii Talhah from  Raafiʿ bin Ishaq that he heard Abū Ayuub say that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلّم said, “When one of you defecates or urinates, he should not face the Qiblah with front or should he turn his back towards it.”

قَالَ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ‮ ‬وَذَكَرَ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬حَمْزَةَ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬عَبْدِ‮ ‬الْوَاحِدِ‮ ‬الْـمَدَنِيِّ‮ ‬يُحَدِّثُ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬عِيسَى بْنِ‮ ‬أَبِي‮ ‬عِيسَى الْـحَنَّاطِ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬الشَّعْبِيِّ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬اسْتِقْبَالِ‮ ‬الْقِبْلَةِ‮ ‬لِغَائِطٍ‮ ‬أَوْ‮ ‬لِبَوْلٍ‮ ‬،‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬إنَّمَا ذَلِكَ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الْفَلَوَاتِ‮ ‬فَإِنَّ‮ ‬لِلَّهِ‮ ‬عِبَادًا‮ ‬يُصَلُّونَ‮ ‬لَهُ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬خَلْقِهِ‮ ‬فَأَمَّا حُشُوشُكُمْ‮ ‬هَذِهِ‮ ‬الَّتِي‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬بُيُوتِكُمْ‮ ‬فَإِنَّهَا لاَ‮ ‬قِبْلَةَ‮ ‬لَهَا

Ibn Wahb mentioned that Hamzah bin Abdul Wahiid al-Madanii related from ʿIysaa bin Abii ʿIysaa al-Hinaat from ash-Shaʿbii concerning facing the Qiblah while defecating and urinating, he said, “That that is in  الْفَلَوَات (the open desert).  To Allah belongs His slaves from among His creation who pray to Him.  As for these  حُشُوش (toilets), in your houses, there is no qiblah for them.

Published in: on July 17, 2010 at 10:21  Leave a Comment  

Chapter 3 Mudawwanah – Wuḍuu’ With (Water That Has) السُّؤْر (the Remnants) of Animals, Chickens, and Dogs (That Have Drank from It)

الْوُضُوءِ بِسُؤْرِ الدَّوَابِّ وَالدَّجَاجِ وَالْكِلابِ

Wuḍuu’ With (Water That Has) السُّؤْر (the Remnants) of Animals, Chickens, and Dogs (That Have Drank from It)

قَالَ‮ ‬وَسَأَلْتُ‮ ‬مَالِكًا عَنْ‮ ‬سُؤْرِ‮ ‬الْـحِمَارِ‮ ‬وَالْبَغْلِ‮ ‬فَقَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬بِهِ

He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “I asked Maalik about water that has سؤر الحمار و البغْل (the remnants of the the donkey and the mule).  He (Maalik) said there is nothing wrong with it.

قُلْتُ‮ ‬أَرَأَيْتَ‮ ‬إنْ‮ ‬أَصَابَ‮ ‬غَيْرَهُ‮ ‬؟ قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬هُوَ‮ ‬وَغَيْرُهُ‮ ‬سَوَاءٌ‮  ‬قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬بِعَرَقِ‮ ‬الْبِرْذَوْنِ‮ ‬وَالْبَغْلِ‮ ‬وَالْـحِمَارِ

I (Ṣahnuun) said, “How do you view the contact other things with it (the water)?”  He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “It (the remnants of donkeys and mules) and other things are the same.”  He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “Maalik said there’s no harm in performing Wuḍuu’ with عَرْقُ‏ ‬البِرْذَوْن (the sweat of (the work horse) and الْـحِمَارِ (the donkey) and الْبَغْلِ (the mule) (in it).”

‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الإِنَاءِ‮ ‬يَكُونُ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬الْـمَاءُ‮ ‬يَلَغُ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬الْكَلْبُ‮  ‬قَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬إنْ‮ ‬تَوَضَّأَ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬وَصَلَّى أَجْزَأَهُ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬وَلَمْ‮ ‬يَكُنْ‮ ‬يَرَى الْكَلْبَ‮ ‬كَغَيْرِهِ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬إنْ‮ ‬شَرِبَ‮ ‬مَائًا مِنْ‮ ‬الإِنَاءِ‮ ‬مَا‮ ‬يَأْكُلُ‮ ‬الْـجِيَفَ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬الطَّيْرِ‮ ‬وَالسِّبَاعِ‮ ‬لَمْ‮ ‬يَتَوَضَّأْ‮ ‬بِهِ

He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “Maalik said, If a water container has water in it that the dog has licked.” He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “Maalik said, ‘If he performed Wuḍuu’ with it and prayed it is allowed.” He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “He (Maalik) was was not of the opinion that the dog was similar to other (animals).”  He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “Maalik said, ”If he (the dog) drank water from a container when he has eaten  الْـجِيفَ‮ ‬مَـنْ‮ ‬الطَّيْرِ (the dead bird) or السِّبَاعِ (animal), then he (the worshipper) should not perform Wuḍuu’ with it (that water).”

قَالَ‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬إنْ‮ ‬وَلَغَ‮ ‬الْكَلْبُ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬إنَاءٍ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬لَبَـنٌ‮ ‬فَلاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬بِأَنْ‮ ‬يُؤْكَلَ‮ ‬ذَلِكَ‮ ‬اللَّبَـنُ‮ ‬قُلْتُ‮ ‬هَلْ‮ ‬كَانَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬يَقُولُ‮ ‬يُغْسَلُ‮ ‬الإِنَاءُ‮ ‬سَبْعَ‮ ‬مَرَّاتٍ‮ ‬إذَا وَلَغَ‮ ‬الْكَلْبُ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الإِنَاءِ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬اللَّبَـنِ‮ ‬وَفِي‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ؟ قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬قَدْ‮ ‬جَاءَ‮ ‬هَذَا الْـحَدِيثُ‮ ‬وَمَا أَدْرِي‮ ‬مَا حَقِيقَتُهُ‮ ‬

Maalik said, “If a dog licks from a container in which there was milk, there was no objection to that milk being drunk.”  I said, “didn’t Maalik used to say, “the bowl that a dog licked  should be washed seven times when the dog licked milk or water in the bowl ?”  He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “Maalik said, “This hadiith has come and I do not know about its authenticity.”

قَالَ‮ ‬وَكَأَنَّهُ‮ ‬كَانَ‮ ‬يَرَى أَنَّ‮ ‬الْكَلْبَ‮ ‬كَأَنَّهُ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬أَهْلِ‮ ‬الْبَيْتِ‮ ‬وَلَيْسَ‮ ‬كَغَيْرِهِ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬السِّبَاعِ‮ ‬،‮ ‬وَكَانَ‮ ‬يَقُولُ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬إنْ‮ ‬كَانَ‮ ‬يُغْسَلُ‮ ‬فَفِي‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ‮ ‬وَحْدَهُ‮ ‬وَكَانَ‮ ‬يُضَعِّفُهُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮  ‬لاَ‮ ‬يُغْسَلُ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬سَمْنٍ‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬لَبَـنٍ‮ ‬وَيُؤْكَلُ‮ ‬مَا وَلَغَ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬ذَلِكَ‮ ‬وَأَرَاهُ‮ ‬عَظِيمًا أَنْ‮ ‬يَعْمِدَ‮ ‬إلَى رِزْقٍ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬رِزْقِ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬فَيَلْقَى الْكَلْبَ‮ ‬وَلَغَ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮

He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said it seemed he (Maalik) viewed the dog as being part of the household and not wild or from among predatory creatures.  He used to say, “If he washes, it should be the bowl containing water solely, and he said (the opinion) was weak.  He (Maalik) said, “It is not washed when it contains fat nor milk, though what has been licked from among these things can be eaten. I view it as magnificent that it is intended as رِزْق (a blessing) from  رِزْقِ (the blessings) of Allah.  Its the dog’s share, so he licks it.”

قُلْتُ‮ ‬إنْ‮ ‬شَرِبَ‮ ‬مِنَ‮ ‬اللَّبَـنِ‮ ‬مَا‮ ‬يَأْكُلُ‮ ‬الْـجِيفَ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬الطَّيْرِ‮ ‬وَالسِّبَاعِ‮ ‬وَالدَّجَاجِ‮ ‬الَّتِي‮ ‬تَأْكُلُ‮ ‬النَّتـْنَ‮ ‬أَيُؤْكَلُ‮ ‬اللَّبَـنَ‮ ‬أَمْ‮ ‬لاَ؟ قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬أَمَّا مَا تَيَقَّنْتَ‮ ‬أَنَّ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬مِنْقَارِهِ‮ ‬قَذَرًا فَلاَ‮ ‬يُؤْكَلُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬وَمَا لَمْ‮ ‬تَرَهُ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬مِنْقَارِهِ‮ ‬فَلاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬وَلَيْسَ‮ ‬هُوَ‮ ‬مِثْلَ‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ‮ ‬لأَنَّ‮ ‬الْـمَاءَ‮ ‬يُطْرَحُ‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬يُتَوَضَّأُ‮ ‬بِهِ

I (Ṣahnuun) said, “ (Are you of the opinion) if those creatures which eat جِيف ( dead carcasses) like birds, beast of prey, and chickens which eat  النَّتْـنَ ( rotting things) can drink the milk or not?  He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “If you are certain that whatever was in its مِنْقار (beak) was unclean, then it is not eaten.  As for what you didn’t see in its beak, there is no objection to it (the food being eaten).”  It is not like the water (used in performing Wuḍuu’) because the water is thrown away and Wuḍuu’ is not performed with it.

قَالَ‮ ‬سَحْنُونٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬أَخْبَرَنِي‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬عَمْرِو بْنِ‮ ‬الْـحَارِثِ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬يَحْيَى بْنِ‮ ‬سَعِيدٍ‮ ‬وَبُكَيْرِ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬عَبْدِ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬الأَشَجِّ‮ ‬أَنَّهُمَا كَانَا‮ ‬يَقُولانَِ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬يَتَوَضَّأَ‮ ‬الرَّجُلُ‮ ‬بِفَضْلِ‮ ‬سُؤْرِ‮ ‬الْـحَمِيرِ‮ ‬وَالْبِغَالِ‮ ‬وَغَيْرِهِمَا مِنْ‮ ‬الدَّوَابِّ‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬شِهَابٍ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الْـحِمَارِ‮ ‬مِثْلَهُ

Saḥnuun said “Ibn Wahb related from ʿAmr bin Haarith from Yahyaa bin Saʿiid and Bakiir bin ʿAbdullaah al-Ashj that the two them used to say there is no object to the man performing Wuḍuu’ (with water) in which was the remnants of the donkey, the mule, and other creatures.”  Ibn Shihaab said something similar to this with regard to the donkey.

وَقَالَ‮ ‬عَطَاءُ‮ ‬بْنُ‮ ‬أَبِي‮ ‬رَبَاحٍ‮ ‬وَرَبِيعَةُ‮ ‬بْنُ‮ ‬أَبِي‮ ‬عَبْدِ‮ ‬الرَّحْمَنِ‮ ‬وَأَبُو الزِّنَادِ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الْـحِمَارِ‮ ‬وَالْبَغْلِ‮ ‬مِثْلَهُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬وَتَلاَ‮ ‬عَطَاءٌ‮ ‬قَوْلَ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬تَعَالَى وَالْـخَيْلَ‮ ‬وَالْبِغَالَ‮ ‬وَالْـحَمِيرَ‮ ‬لِتَرْكَبُوهَا وَزِينَةً‮ ‬وَقَالَهُ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬حَدِيثِ‮ ‬ابْنِ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ

ʿAtaa bin Abii Ribaah and Rabiiʿah bin Abii ʿAbdur Rahmaan and Abū Zinaad all said something similar with regards to the donkey and the mule.  ʿAtaa used to recite the words of Allah the Most High: “And the horse and the mule and the donkey (He has created) so that you can ride them and as an adornment…”  Maalik mentioned from the the hadiith of Ibn Wahb.

قَالَ‮ ‬عَلِيُّ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬زِيَادٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬مَالِكٍ‮  ‬فِي‮ ‬الَّذِي‮ ‬يَتَوَضَّأُ‮ ‬بمَاءٍ‮ ‬قَدْ‮ ‬وَلَغَ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬الْكَلْبُ‮ ‬ثُمَّ‮ ‬صَلَّى‮ ‬،‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬أَرَى عَلَيْهِ‮ ‬إِعَادَةً‮ ‬وَإِنْ‮ ‬عَلِمَ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الْوَقْتِ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬عَلِيٌّ‮ ‬وَابْنُ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬مَالِكٍ‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬يُعْجِبُنِي‮ ‬الْوُضُوءُ‮ ‬بِفَضْلِ‮ ‬الْكَلْبِ‮ ‬إذَا كَانَ‮ ‬الْـمَاءُ‮ ‬قَلِيلاً‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬إذَا كَانَ‮ ‬الْـمَاءُ‮ ‬كَثِيرًا كَهَيْئَةِ‮ ‬الْـحَوْضِ‮ ‬يَكُونُ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬مَاءٌ‮ ‬كَثِيرٌ‮ ‬أَوْ‮ ‬بَعْضُ‮ ‬مَا‮ ‬يَكُونُ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ‮ ‬الْكَثِيرِ‮ ‬

ʿAlī bin Ziyaad related from Maalik concerning the person who performed Wuḍuu’ with water which a dog had licked then prayed, “I am not of the opinion he has to repeat the prayer even if he knows on time.”  He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “ʿAlī and Ibn Wahb related from Maalik, “The Wuḍuu’ (with water) that has the remnant of the dog in it is not appealing to me if it is a small amount of water.  Its not objectionable it is a lot of water like the case of the الحوض (cistern) wherein there is a lot of water in it or whatever water is in it is a good amount.

ابْنُ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬ابْنِ‮ ‬جُرَيْجٍ‮ ‬إنَّ‮ ‬رَسُولَ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬صَلَّى اللَّهُ‮ ‬عَلَيْهِ‮ ‬وَسَلَّمَ‮ ‬وَرَدَ‮ ‬وَمَعَهُ‮ ‬أَبُو بَكْرٍ‮ ‬وَعُمَرُ‮ ‬عَلَى حَوْضٍ‮ ‬فَخَرَجَ‮ ‬أَهْلُ‮ ‬الْـحَوْضِ‮ ‬فَقَالُوا‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬يَا رَسُولَ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬إنَّ‮ ‬الْكِلابَ‮ ‬وَالسِّبَقَالَ‮ ‬تَلَغُ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬هَذَا الْـحَوْضِ‮ ‬،‮ ‬فَقَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬لَهَا مَا أَخَذَتْ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬بُطُونِهَا وَلَنَا مَا بَقِيَ‮ ‬شَرَابًا وَطَهُورًا وَأَخْبَرَنَي‮ ‬عَبْدُ‮ ‬الرَّحْمَنِ‮ ‬بْنُ‮ ‬زَيْدٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬زَيْدِ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬أَسْلَمَ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬عَطَاءِ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬يَسَارٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬أَبِي‮ ‬هُرَيْرَةَ‮ ‬بِهَذَا عَنْ‮ ‬رَسُولِ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬صَلَّى اللَّهُ‮ ‬عَلَيْهِ‮ ‬وَسَلَّمَ

Ibn Wahb has related from Ibn Jarayj that “the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلّم had returned to a ḥawd along with Abū Bakr and ʿUmar, and the people who owned the ḥawd came and said, “Oh Messenger of Allah, the dogs and beast of prey have drunk from this ḥawd.”  He صلى الله عليه وسلّم said, ‘For them is what they take in their stomachs and for us is what is left; a drink that is pure.’ ”  He told me ʿAbdur Rahmaan bin Zayd related this from Zayd bin Aslam from ʿAtaa bin Yasaar from Abū Hurayrah from the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلّم.

وَقَدْ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬عُمَرُ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬تُخْبِرْنَا‮ ‬يَا صَاحِبَ‮ ‬الْـحَوْضِ‮ ‬فَإِنَّا نَرِدُ‮ ‬عَلَى السِّبَاعِ‮ ‬وَتَرِدُ‮ ‬عَلَيْنَا فَالْكَلْبُ‮ ‬أَيْسَرُ‮ ‬مُؤْنَةً‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬السِّبَاعِ‮ ‬،‮ ‬وَالْهِرُّ‮ ‬أَيْسَرُهُمَا لأَنَّهُ‮ ‬مِمَّا‮ ‬يَتَّخِذُهُ‮ ‬النَّاسُ

ʿUmar said, “Do not tell us oh owner of the ḥawd; for we come behind the beasts of prey and they come behind us.”  Thus, the dog is an easier burden on us than the beast of prey and the cat is an easier burden than both of them, because of what human beings receive from it.

قَالَ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬الْقَاسِمِ‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬بِلُعَابِ‮ ‬الْكَلْبِ‮ ‬يُصِيبُ‮ ‬ثوْبَ‮ ‬الرَّجُلِ‮ ‬وَقَالَهُ‮ ‬رَبِيعَةُ‮ . ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬شِهَابٍ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬إذَا اُضْطُرِرْتَ‮ ‬إلَى سُؤْرِ‮ ‬الْكَلْبِ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬يُتَوَضَّأَ‮ ‬بِهِ

Ibn al-Qaasim said, “Maalik said, ‘there is no harm if اللُّعَاب (the saliva) of the dog comes in contact with the garment of a man’ and Rabiiʿah said it (also).”  Ibn Shihaab said, “There is no objection if you perform Wuḍuu’ with water that has the remnants of a dog.

وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬يُؤْكَلُ‮ ‬صَيْدُهُ‮ ‬فَكَيْفَ‮ ‬يُكْرَهُ‮ ‬لُعَابُهُ‮ ‬؟ قُلْتُ‮ ‬فَالدَّجَاجُ‮ ‬الْـمُخَلَّاةُ‮ ‬الَّتِي‮ ‬تَأْكُلُ‮ ‬القَذَرَ‮ ‬بمَنْزِلَةِ‮ ‬الطَّيْرِ‮ ‬الَّتِي‮ ‬تَأْكُلُ‮ ‬الْـجِيَفَ‮ ‬إنْ‮ ‬شَرِبَتْ‮ ‬مَنْ‮ ‬إنَاءٍ‮ ‬فَتَوَضَّأَ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬رَجُلٌ‮ ‬أَعَادَ‮ ‬مَا دَامَ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الْوَقْتِ‮ ‬فَإِنْ‮ ‬مَضَى فَلاَ‮ ‬إعَادَةَ‮ ‬عَلَيْهِ‮ ‬وَإِنْ‮ ‬كَانَتْ‮ ‬الدَّجَاجُ‮ ‬مَقْصُورَةً‮ ‬فَهِيَ‮ ‬بمَنْزِلَةِ‮ ‬غَيْرِهَا مِنْ‮ ‬الحَمَامِ‮ ‬وَمَا أَشْبَهَ‮ ‬ذَلِكَ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬بِسُؤْرِهَا ؟ قَالَ‮ ‬نَعَمْ

He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “Maalik said, its صَيْد (hunted game) is eaten, then how is its saliva disliked.”  I (Ṣahnuun) said, “The wild chicken which eats the filth in the house of the birds which feast on dead carcasses then drinks from the water container and a man performs Wuḍuu’ with it, he should renew (his Wuḍuu’) as long as it is in the time.  If the time has passed, he should not renew it, but if the chicken is confined, and  in the house is other birds like pigeons and what is similar, the performance of Wuḍuu’ with water that has its (the chickens) remnants in it is not objectionable?’ ”  He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “Yes.”

قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬وَقَدْ‮ ‬سَأَلْنَا مَالِكًا عَنْ‮ ‬الخُبْزِ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬سُؤْرِ‮ ‬الْفَأْرَةِ‮ ‬،‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬فَقُلْنَا لَهُ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬هَلْ‮ ‬يُغْسَلُ‮ ‬بَوْلُ‮ ‬الْفَأْرَةِ‮ ‬يُصِيبُ‮ ‬الثَّوْبَ‮ ‬؟ قَالَ‮ ‬نَعَمْ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬وَسَأَلْتُ‮ ‬مَالِكًا عَنْ‮ ‬الدَّجَاجِ‮ ‬وَالإِِوَزِّ‮ ‬تَشْرَبُ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الإِنَاءِ‮ ‬أَيُتَوَضَّأُ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬لاَإلَّا أَنْ‮ ‬تَكُونَ‮ ‬مَقْصُورَةً‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬تَصِلُ‮ ‬إلَى النَّتَْـنِ‮ ‬وَكَذَلِكَ‮ ‬الطَّيْرُ‮ ‬الَّتِي‮ ‬تَأْكُلُ‮ ‬الْـجِيَفَ

Ibn al-Qaasim said, “We asked Maalik about the bread from the remnants of the rat.  He said, “It is not objectionable.”  We asked does he wash off the urine of the rat if it gets on the garment.”  He said, “Yes.”  He said “I asked Maalik about chicken and geese drinking from the water container, does he perform Wuḍuu’ with it?”  He said, “No, unless they are confined away from contact with  النَّتْـنَ (what is rotting); and likewise birds that feast on dead carcasses.”

قَالَ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬الْقَاسِمِ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬أَرَى‮ ‬يَتَوَضَّأُ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬وَإِنْ‮ ‬لَمْ‮ ‬يَجِدْ‮ ‬غَيْرَهُ‮ ‬وَلْيَتَيَمَّمْ‮ ‬إذَا عَلِمَ‮ ‬أَنَّهَا تَأْكُلُ‮ ‬النَّتـْنَ‮ ‬

Ibn al-Qaasim said, “It is not my opinion that he should perform Wuḍuu’ with it and if he is does not find other (water) than it, let him perform tayammum if he knows (for sure) that it (the chicken) ate النَّتْـن (what was rotten).”

وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬وَإِنْ‮ ‬كَانَتْ‮ ‬مَقْصُورَةً‮ ‬فَلاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬بِسُؤْرِهَا

Maalik said, “If it (the chicken) was confined, there is no objection to its remnants.

قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬وَسَأَلْتُ‮ ‬ابْنَ‮ ‬الْقَاسِمِ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬خُرْءِ‮ ‬الطَّيْرِ‮ ‬وَالدَّجَاجِ‮ ‬الَّتِي‮ ‬لَيْسَتْ‮ ‬بِـمُخَلَّاةٍ‮ ‬تَقَعُ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الإِنَاءِ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬الْـمَاءُ‮ ‬مَا قَوْلُ‮ ‬مَالِكٍ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬؟ قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬كُلُّ‮ ‬مَا لاَ‮ ‬يُفْسِدُ‮ ‬الثَّوْبَ‮ ‬فَلاَ‮ ‬يُفْسِدُ‮ ‬الْـمَاءَ‮ ‬،‮ ‬وَأَنَّ‮ ‬ابْنَ‮ ‬مَسْعُودٍ‮ ‬ذَرَقَ‮ ‬عَلَيْهِ‮ ‬طَائِرٌ‮ ‬فَنَفَضَهُ‮ ‬بِإِصْبَعِهِ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬حَدِيثِ‮ ‬وَكِيعٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬سُفْيَانَ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬عُيَيْنَةَ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬عَاصِمٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬أَبِي‮ ‬عُثْمَانَ‮ ‬النَّهْدِيِّ

He (Ṣahnuun) said, “I asked Ibn al-Qaasim about Maalik’s view on خُرْء (feces) of birds and chickens which are not  مُخْلاَة (free to roam) falling into the water container in which there is water.”  He said, “Whatever doesn’t spoil (the purity) on the garment doesn’t spoil (the purity of the water).  A bird ذَرَقَ (dropped excrement) on Ibn Masʿuud and so he knocked it off with his finger, according to a strong hadiith related by Sufyaan bin ʿUyaaynah from ʿAasim from Abū ʿUthmaan an-Nahdii.

ابْنُ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬عَمْرِو بْنِ‮ ‬الْـحَارِثِ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬يَحْيَى بْنِ‮ ‬سَعِيدٍ‮ ‬أَنَّهُ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬كَانَ‮ ‬يَكْرَهُ‮ ‬فَضْلَ‮ ‬الدَّجَاجِ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ‮ ‬عَنِ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬لَهِيعَةَ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬يَزِيدَ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬أَبِي‮ ‬حَبِيبٍ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الإِوَزِّ‮ ‬وَالدَّجَاجِ‮ ‬مِثْلَهُ‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬اللَّيْثُ‮ ‬بْنُ‮ ‬سَعْدٍ‮ ‬مِثْلَهُ‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬إذَا كَانَتْ‮ ‬بِـمَكَانٍ‮ ‬تُصِيبُ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬الأَذَى فَلاَ‮ ‬خَيْرَ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬وَإِذَا كَانَتْ‮ ‬بِـمَكَانٍ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬تُصِيبُ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬الأَذَى فَلاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬حَنْظَلَةَ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬أَبِي‮ ‬سُفْيَانَ‮ ‬الْـجُمَحِيِّ‮ ‬رَأَيْتُ‮ ‬طَائِرًا ذَرَقَ‮ ‬عَلَى سَالِمِ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬عَبْدِ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬فَمَسَحَهُ‮ ‬عَنْهُ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬حَدِيثِ‮ ‬ابْنِ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ

Ibn Wahb related from ʿAmr bin al-Haarith from Yahyaa bin Saʿiid that he said the remnants of the chicken is disliked.  Ibn Wahb related the same thing from Ibn Lahiiʿah from Yaziid bin Abii Habiib concerning the chicken and the duck, and al-Layth bin Saʿd said the same thing also.  Maalik said, “If it (the chicken) is in a place in which it eats offensive substance, there is no good in it (its excrement), while if it is in a place in which it doesn’t eat offensive substances, there is no objection to it (its excrement).” And he said, “Hindhalah bin Abii Sufyaan al-Jamhii said, “I saw a bird drop excrement on Saalim Ibn ʿAbdullaah and he wiped it off himself”, according to a hadith from Ibn Wahb.

Chapter 1 Mudawwanah – The Established Number of Times Each Act of Wuḍuu’ Must Be Performed‬

Chapter 2 Mudawwanah – Wuḍuu with Water of Bread and Leather Skin and النَّبِيذ (Date Wine) and The Water into Which Insects and Other Things Have Fallen

Chapter 4 Mudawwanah – Facing the Qiblah While Urinating and Defecating

Chapter 5 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About الاسْتِنْجَاءُ (al-Istinjaa’) Because of الرّيح (Gas)

Chapter 6 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About Performing Wuḍuu’ Because of Touching the Penis

Chapter 7 Mudawwanah – Wuḍuu’ Because of Sleep

Chapter 8 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning سَلَس الْبَوْلِ (Incontinence of Urine), and الْـمَذْيُ (Prostatic Fluid), الدُّود (Worms), الدَّمّ (Blood) Coming from الدَّبْر (the Rectum)

Chapter 9 Mudawwanah -The Chapter Concerning the Wuḍuu’ of الْـمَجْنُونُ (The Person Overcome by Insanity), السّضكْرَانُ (The Drunken Person) and الْـمَغْمِي (The Person Who is Unconscious) When They Regain Consciousness

Chapter 10 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning الْـمَلاَمَسَة (Touching) and الْقُبْلَة (Kissing)

Chapter 11 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning the One Who Has Doubt About Wuḍuu’ and الْـحَدَثِ (Impurity/ Impure Substance)

Chapter 12 Mudawwanah – Wuḍuu with Water That Is Used by الْـحَائِض (The Menstruating Woman), الْـجُنُب (The Person Who is in a State of Major Sexual Impurity), and وَالنَّصْرَانِيّ (The Christian)

Chapter 13 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning What Has Been Said About Doing the Parts of Wuḍuu in Reverse

Chapter 14 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning the Person Who Forgets to Do الـْمَضْمَضَة (Rinsing the Mouth with Water While Swishing It Around and Spitting It Out), الاِسْتِنْشَاق (Inhaling Water Up into the Nostrils) and مَسْحَ الأُذُنَيْـنِ (Wiping Over Both Ears); and About the Person Who Separates Some Parts of His Wuḍuu’ or Ghusl Either Intentionally or out of Forgetfulness

Chapter 15 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About Wiping Over the Head

Chapter 16 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning the Person Whose Wuḍuu’ is Deficient or He Forgets of His Wuḍuu’ or Ghusl

Chapter 17 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About Wiping the Water from Wuḍuu’ With a Handkerchief

Chapter 18 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About General Aspects of Wuḍuu’ and the Movement of the Beard

Chapter 2 Mudawwanah – Wuḍuu with Water of Bread and Leather Skin and النَّبِيذ (Date Wine) and The Water into Which Insects and Other Things Have Fallen

الْوُضُوء بِـمَاء الْـخُبْزِ  والاَدَامِ  وَالـنَّبِيذِ  وَالـمَاء الـذِي  يَقَعْ  فِيهِ  الـخُشَاشُ  وَ  غَيْرِ  ذَلِكَ

Wuḍuu with Water of Bread and Leather Skin and النَّبِيذ (Date Wine) and The Water into Which Insects and Other Things Have Fallen

قَالَ  :  وَقَالَ   مَالِكٌ   :  لاَ  يَتَوَضَّأُ  مِنْ  قَالَ  :  إنَّمَا سَأَلْنَاهُ  عَنْ  الخُبْزِ  قُلْتُ  :  فَمَا قَوْلُهُ  فِي  الْفُولِ  وَالْعَدَسِ  وَالْحِنْطَةِ  وَمَا أَشْبَهَ  ذَلِكَ  ؟ قَالَ  :  إنَّمَا سَأَلْنَاهُ  عَنْ  الخُبْزِ  وَهَذَا مِثْلُ  اخْبَر وَأَخْبَرَنَا  بَعْضُ  أَصْحَابِنَا أَنَّ  إِسَانَا سَأَلَ   مَالِكًا الْـجِلْدِ   يَقَعُ  فِي   الْـمَاءِ   فَيَخْرُجُ  مَكَانَهُ  أَوْ   الثَّوْبِ   هَلْ  تَرَى بَأْسًا أَنْ  يُتَوَضَّأَ  بِذَلِكَ  الْـمَاءِ  قَالَ  :  فَقَالَ  ؟   مَالِكٌ   :  لاَ  أَرَى بِهِ  بَأْسًا قَالَ  فَقَالَ  لَهُ  :  فَمَا بَالُ  الْـخُبْزِ  ؟

(Ibn al-Qaasim said), that Maalik said he did not perform Wuḍuu’ with water in which bread had fallen.  (I [Ṣahnuun] said), What is his view about الْـفُول (beans) and الْعَدَس (lentils), الْـحُـمُّص (chick peas), الْـحِنْطَة (wheat) and other things similar to this.  (He [Ibn al-Qaasim] said) I asked him about bread and this is the example he gave.  (Ibn al-Qaasim said), some of the companions told me that a person asked Maalik about leather or clothing falling into the water and it is removed?  Do you think that it is OK to perform Wuḍuu’ with that water?  (He said) Maalik said, I am not of the opinion that it is alright to do so.  He then asked him, What is the condition of the bread.?

فَقَالَ  لَهُ   مَالِكٌ   :  أَرَأَيْتَ  إذَا   أَخَذَ   رَجُلٌ   جِلْدًا   فَأَنْقَعَهُ   أَيَّامًا   فِي   مَاءٍ   أَيَتَوَضَّأُ  بِذَلِكَ   الْـمَاءِ   وَقَدْ  ابْتَلَّ   الْـجِلْدُ   فِي  ذَلِكَ  الْـمَاءِ   ؟ فَقَالَ  :  لاَ،  فَقَالَ   مَالِكٌ   :  هَذَا مِثْلُ  الْـخُبْزِ  وَلِكُلِّ  شَيْءٍ  وَجْهٌ  وَقَالَ   مَالِكٌ   لاَ  يَتَوَضَّأُ  بِشَيْءٍ  مِنْ  الأَنْبِذَةِ  وَ  لاَ  الْعَسَلِ  الْـمَمْزُوجِ  بِالْـمَاءِ  قَالَ  :  وَالتَّيَمُّمُ  أَحَبُّ  إلَيَّ مِنْ  ذَلِكَ  مَالِكٌ   :  لاَ  يَتَوَضَّأُ  مِنْ  شَيْءٍ  مِنْ  الطَّعَامِ  إلَيَّ  أَنْ  وَالشَّرَابِ  وَلاَ  يَتَوَضَّأُ  بِشَيْءٍ  مِنْ  أَبْوَالِ  الإِبِلِ  وَلاَ  مِنْ  أَلْبَانِهَا  ،  قَالَ  :  وَلَكِنْ  أَحَبُّ   يَتَمَضْمَضَ   مِنْ   اللَّبَـنِ  وَاللَّحْمِ  وَيَغْسِلَ  الْغُمَرَ  إذَا أَرَادَ  الصَّلاةََ  قَالَ  :  وَقَالَ  .  مَالِكٌ  لاَ  يَتَوَضَّأُ  بِـمَاءٍ   قَدْ  تَوَضَّأَ  بِهِ  مَرَّةً  وَلاَ  خَيْرَ  فِيهِ

Maalik said to him, Are you of the opinion that a man took leather and soaked it for days in water which he used to perform Wuḍuu’ and and the leather saturated with water? He said, Maalik said, ‘No this is the same for the bread.  Each thing has its correlation.’  (He said) that Maalik said, “Do not perform Wuḍuu’ with الأنبِذ (that which is fermented) nor honey that is mixed in with the water.  He said,”tayammum is better to me than this.”  (He said) that he said, “Do not perform Wuḍuu’ with anything that is derived from food or drink nor perform Wuḍuu’ with camel urine nor its milk.”  He said, “but, it is better to me that you rinse your mouth of milk and meat and wash with an Abundant amount of water if you wish to perform salaah (prayer).”  (He said), Maalik said, “Don’t perform Wuḍuu’ with water with which you have already performed Wuḍuu’.  He said, “There is no good in it.”

قُلْتُ  :  فَإِنْ  أَصَابَ  مَاءٌ  قَدْ  تَوَضَّأَ  بِهِ  مَرَّةً  ثَوْبَ  رَجُلٍ  ؟ قَلَ  إِنْ  كَانَ  الَّذِي  تَوَضَّأَ  بِهِ  طَاهِرًا فَإِنَّهُ  لاَ  يُفْسِدُ  عَلَيْهِ  ثَوْبَهُ  قُلْتُ  :  فَلَوْ  قَالَ  :  قُلْتُ  لَمْ  يَجِدْ  رَجُلٌ   مَاءً   إلاَّ  مَا قَدْ  تَوَضَّئُ  بِهِ  مَرَّةً   أَيَتَيَمَّمُ   أَمْ  يَتَوَضَّأُ  بِـمَا قَدْ  تَوَضَّئُ  بِهِ  مَرَّةً   قَالَ  يَتَوَضَّأُ  بِذَلِكَ  الْـمَاءِ  الَّذِي  قَدْ  تَوَضَّئ  ُ  بِهِ  مَرَّةً   أَحَبُّ  إلَيَّ إذَا كَانَ  الَّذِي  تَوَضَّأَ  بِهِ  طَاهِرًا قَالَ   مَالِكٌ   فِي  النُّخَاعَةِ   وَالْبُصَاقِ   وَالْـمُخَاطِ   يَقَعُ  فِي   الْـمَاءِ   قَالَ  لاَ  بَأْسَ  بِالْوُضُوءِ  مِنْهُ

(I said), “What is the situation if the garment of a man touches the water which he has already used to perform Wuḍuu’ once?  He said that if the water he perform Wuḍuu’ with was pure, the garment doesn’t become spoiled by it.”  (I said), “Suppose, a man can’t find water except the water he has already used to perform Wuḍuu’?  Should he perform tayammum or should he perform Wuḍuu’ with the water he has already used?”  He said, “He should perform Wuḍuu’ with the water he has already used to perform Wuḍuu’ once.  This to me is better, providing that the water that he has already used to perform Wuḍuu’ is pure.”  (He said) Maalik said, “If saliva, phlegm and nasal mucous fall into the water, it is OK to perform Wuḍuu’ with it.

قَالَ :   قَالَ  مَالِكٌ  كُلُّ  مَا وَقَعَ  مِنْ  خُشَاشِ  الأََرْضِ  فِي  إنَاءٍ  فِيهِ  مَاءٌ  أَوْ  فِي  قِدْرٍ  فِيهِ  ( طَعَامٌ ) فَإِنَّهُ  يَتَوَضَّأُ  بِذَلِكَ  الْـمَاءِ  وَيُؤْكَلُ  مَا فِي  الْقُدُرِ  ،  وَخُشَاشُ  الأََرْضِ  الزُّنْبُورُ  وَالْعَقْرَبُ  وَالصِّرَارُ  وَالخُنْفُسَاءُ  وَبَنَاتُ  وَرْدَانَ  وَمَا أَشْبَهَ  هَذَا مِنْ  الأََشْيَاءِ  قَالَ :  وَقَالَ   مَالِكٌ  فِي   بَنَاتِ  وَرْدَانَ   وَالْعَقْرَبِ   وَالْـخُنْفُسَاءِ  وَخُشَاشِ   الأََرْضِ  وَدَوَابِّ   الْـمَاءِ  مِثْلِ   السَّرَطَانِ  وَالضِّفْدَعِ   مَا مَاتَ  مِنْ  هَذَا فِي  طَعَامٍ   أَوْ  شَرَابٍ  فَإِنَّهُ  لاَ  يُفْسِدُ  الطَّعَامَ  وَلاَ  الشَّرَابَ

(He said) Maalik said, the worshiper can perform Wuḍuu’ with from a container and eat food from a pot in which خُـشَاشِ  الأََرْضِ  insects that crawl on the ground have fallen.”  The insects that crawl on the ground are: الزُّنْـبُر (the hornet),  الْـعَقْرَب (the scorpion), الصَّرَّار (the cricket), الْـخُنْفُسَاء (the dung beetle), and  بَنَاتُ‏  الْوَرْدَان (the cockroach).  (He  said),  Maalik said, “In regards to the cockroach and the scorpion and the dung beetle and the (other) insects that crawl on the ground and those which crawl in the water like سَرَاطَـان (crayfish) and الضَّفْدَع (the frog), whichever one of these die in the food or drink, do not spoil the food or drink.

قَالَ  وَ  كَانَ  مَالِكٌ   لاَ  أَرَى بَأْسًا  :  بِأَبْوَالِ   مَا   يُؤْكَلُ   كُلُّ   لحْمِهِ   مِمَّا لاَ  يَأْكُلُ   الجِيَفَ   وَأَرْوَاثَهَا إذَا أَصَابَ   الثَّوْبَ

(He said) Maalik was not of the opinion that the urine of a meat eating animal and its dung as distinguished from that of the animal which did not eat الجَيْف (the dead) and were harmful if they come in contact with the clothing.

قَالَ‮  ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬الْقَاسِمِ‮  ‬‭:‬‮ ‬وَأَرَى أَنَّهُ‮ ‬إنْ‮ ‬وَقَعَ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ‮ ‬فَإِنَّهُ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬يُنَجِّسُهُ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬وَسُئِلَ‮  ‬مَالِكٌ‮  ‬عَنْ‮  ‬حِيتَانٍ‮ ‬مُلِّحَتْ‮ ‬فَأُصِيبَ‮ ‬فِيهَا‮  ‬ضَفَادِعُ‮  ‬قَدْ‮  ‬مَاتَتْ‮  ‬،‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬أَرَى بِأَكْلِهَا بَأْسًا لأنَّ‮ ‬هَذَا مِنْ‮ ‬صَيْدِ‮ ‬الْبَحْرِ‮ ‬

Ibn al-Qaasim said he had the opinion, that if it fell in the water, it does not render it (the water) impure.  (He said) Maalik was asked about حِيتَان (fish) that were salty when الضفدع (the frog) comes in contact with it and died.  He said, he had no opinion about eating them because they were among the things which were caught from the sea.

Chapter 1 Mudawwanah – The Established Number of Times Each Act of Wuḍuu’ Must Be Performed‬

Chapter 3 Mudawwanah – Wuḍuu’ With (Water That Has) السُّؤْر (the Remnants) of Animals, Chickens, and Dogs (That Have Drank from It)

Chapter 4 Mudawwanah – Facing the Qiblah While Urinating and Defecating

Chapter 5 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About الاسْتِنْجَاءُ (al-Istinjaa’) Because of الرّيح (Gas)

Chapter 6 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About Performing Wuḍuu’ Because of Touching the Penis

Chapter 7 Mudawwanah – Wuḍuu’ Because of Sleep

Chapter 8 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning سَلَس الْبَوْلِ (Incontinence of Urine), and الْـمَذْيُ (Prostatic Fluid), الدُّود (Worms), الدَّمّ (Blood) Coming from الدَّبْر (the Rectum)

Chapter 9 Mudawwanah -The Chapter Concerning the Wuḍuu’ of الْـمَجْنُونُ (The Person Overcome by Insanity), السّضكْرَانُ (The Drunken Person) and الْـمَغْمِي (The Person Who is Unconscious) When They Regain Consciousness

Chapter 10 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning الْـمَلاَمَسَة (Touching) and الْقُبْلَة (Kissing)

Chapter 11 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning the One Who Has Doubt About Wuḍuu’ and الْـحَدَثِ (Impurity/ Impure Substance)

Chapter 12 Mudawwanah – Wuḍuu with Water That Is Used by الْـحَائِض (The Menstruating Woman), الْـجُنُب (The Person Who is in a State of Major Sexual Impurity), and وَالنَّصْرَانِيّ (The Christian)

Chapter 13 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning What Has Been Said About Doing the Parts of Wuḍuu in Reverse

Chapter 14 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning the Person Who Forgets to Do الـْمَضْمَضَة (Rinsing the Mouth with Water While Swishing It Around and Spitting It Out), الاِسْتِنْشَاق (Inhaling Water Up into the Nostrils) and مَسْحَ الأُذُنَيْـنِ (Wiping Over Both Ears); and About the Person Who Separates Some Parts of His Wuḍuu’ or Ghusl Either Intentionally or out of Forgetfulness

Chapter 15 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About Wiping Over the Head

Chapter 16 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning the Person Whose Wuḍuu’ is Deficient or He Forgets of His Wuḍuu’ or Ghusl

Chapter 17 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About Wiping the Water from Wuḍuu’ With a Handkerchief

Chapter 18 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About General Aspects of Wuḍuu’ and the Movement of the Beard

The Set Number of Times Each Act of Wuḍuu’ is Performed


The Set Number of Times Each Act of Wuḍuu’ is Performed

Taken from Muqaddimah of Ibn Rushd  al Jadd

Al-Qaadii Ibn Rushd Al-Jadd (the grandfather) said, “ توقيت في‏‮ ‬‬الوضوء‮ ‬ (the set number of times each act of wuḍuu’ is performed) consists of seven matters: The first matter is that a set number of times [for the performance of each action is not واجب (required)], however, what is required is اسباغ‏‮ ‬‬الوضوء – the proper performance of wuḍuu’ʾ whether it is perform one or more times.  The second matter is that the repetition of the washing in wuḍuu’ for three times is مُسْـتَحَبٌّ (preferred) even if the wuḍuu’ʾ can be properly perform without it.  The third matter is that what is above three washings is dislike, especially if wuḍuu’ʾ can be perform properly without going above three.  The fourth matter is that three washings is better than two when it is a choice between two and three.  The fifth matter is that limiting (wuḍuu’ʾ) to one washing is disliked and that there are reasons for why it is disliked.  It has been said that it is disliked because it is the leaving-off of what is more excellent entirely and it has been said that it is disliked because it is feared that it will not be thorough and its proof is what has been transmitted from Maalik that he said, “one washing is disliked except for the one who is cognizant of wuḍuu’ʾ.”  The sixth matter is the preference of repetition for what is washed not what is wiped.  The seventh matter is that the repetition is with a renewal of the water and for that reason it is not said in the returning of the hands over the head in the wiping of it that the repetition (renewal of the water) is for the wiping of it (the head).  And the viewing of it ( the matter) is the hadiths differ about the number of times each act of wuḍuu’ʾ is performed.  It has been narrated that  the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلّم use to perform (the acts of) wuḍuu’ʾ once, twice and three times on some of the limbs and three times on others.  The difference here is not a contradictory difference.  It is an informational difference and informs through expansion.

Click link below:

Muqaddimah of Ibn Rushd by Qaadii Abū Walid Muhammad bin Ahmad Ibn Rushd  p. 84 ‘The Section on  توقيت الوضوء – Dar al-Gharb  Alr Islami (Arabic) edition – Beirut, Lebanon)

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